Teaching to Change the World

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2012-06-30
  • Publisher: Paradigm Publishing

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This is an up-to-the-moment, engaging, multicultural introduction to education and teaching and the challenges and opportunities they present. Together, the four authors bring a rich blend of theory and practical application to this groundbreaking text. Jeannie Oakes is a leading education researcher and former director of the UCLA teacher education program. Martin Lipton is an education writer and consultant and has taught in public schools for 31 years. Lauren Anderson and Jamy Stillman are former public school teachers, now working as teacher educators. This unique, comprehensive foundational text considers the values and politics that pervade the U.S. education system, explains the roots of conventional thinking about schooling and teaching, asks critical questions about how issues of power and privilege have shaped and continue to shape educational opportunity, and presents powerful examples of real teachers working for equity and justice. Taking the position that a hopeful, democratic future depends on ensuring that all students learn, the text pays particular attention to inequalities associated with race, social class, language, gender, and other social categories and explores teachers' role in addressing them. The text provides a research-based and practical treatment of essential topics, and it situates those topics in relation to democratic values; issues of diversity; and cognitive, sociocultural, and constructivist perspectives on learning. The text shows how knowledge of education foundations and history can help teachers understand the organization of today's schools, the content of contemporary curriculum, and the methods of modern teaching. It likewise shows how teachers can use such knowledge when thinking about and responding to headline issues like charter schools, vouchers, standards, testing, and bilingual education, to name just a few. Central to this text is a belief that schools can and must be places of extraordinary educational quality and institutions in the service of social justice. Thus, the authors address head-on tensions between principles of democratic schooling and competition for always-scarce high-quality opportunities. Woven through the text are the voices of a diverse group of teachers, who share their analyses and personal anecdotes concerning what teaching to change the world means and involves. Pedagogical Features: Digging Deeper sections-referenced at the end of each chapter and featured online-include supplementary readings and resources from scholars and practitioners who are addressing issues raised in the text. Instructor's Manual offers insights about how to teach course content in ways that are consistent with cognitive and sociocultural learning theories, culturally diverse pedagogy, and authentic assessment. New to this Edition:

Author Biography

Jeannie Oakes is Director of Educational Opportunity and Scholarship at the Ford Foundation in New York, following a 20-year career at UCLA where she was Presidential Professor in Educational Equity. Martin Lipton is Communications Analyst at UCLA's Institute for Democracy, Education, and Access. Lauren Anderson is Assistant Professor at the University of Southern California's Rossier School of Education. Jamy Stillman is Assistant Professor at the University of Southern California's Rossier School of Education.

Table of Contents

List of Figures, Concept Tables, and Focal Pointsp. xiii
Introductionp. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Democracy, Diversity, and Inequality
The U.S. Schooling Dilemma: Diversity, Inequality, and Democratic Valuesp. 3
Chapter Overviewp. 4
Who Are American Students?p. 5
Where Do U.S. Students Live and Go to School?p. 5
How Diverse Are Students in the United States?p. 5
Recognizing the Complexity of Identityp. 11
Inequalities Outside of Schoolp. 12
Economic Inequalityp. 12
Inequality in the Basics of Lifep. 14
Geographic and Economic Isolationp. 16
Schooling Inequalitiesp. 17
Segregated Schoolsp. 17
Unequal Spendingp. 18
Unequal Opportunities to Learnp. 19
Unequal Community and Peer Resources at Schoolp. 22
Gaps in Achievement, School Completion, and College Attendancep. 23
The Struggle for Socially Just Teachingp. 25
Mauro Bautistap. 26
Kimberly Minp. 26
Mark Hillp. 27
Judy Smithp. 27
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 28
History and Culture: How Expanding Expectations and Powerful Ideologies Shape Schooling in the United Statesp. 29
Chapter Overviewp. 30
A History of Increasing Expectationsp. 30
Public Schools Should Secure Democracyp. 31
Public Schools Should Preserve American Culturep. 32
Public Schools Should Support the Nations Workforce and Economyp. 40
Public Schools Should Ensure National Security and International Competitivenessp. 42
Public Schools Should Solve Social Problemsp. 44
A Culture of Powerful Ideologiesp. 46
The Myth of Meritp. 46
Deficit Thinking, Racial Superiority, and White Privilegep. 50
Teaching for Democracyp. 57
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 59
Politics and Philosophy: The Struggle over the School Curriculump. 60
Chapter Overviewp. 61
Basic Philosophies of Educationp. 61
The Roots of Western Educational Philosophyp. 62
Philosophy in the History of U.S. Schoolingp. 62
Six Philosophies of Educationp. 63
Philosophy and Politics in the Struggle for the School Curriculump. 64
Essentialist Mass Education in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuriesp. 64
The Emergence of the Common Schoolp. 67
The Progressive Education Movementp. 69
Child- and Community-Centered Progressivismp. 70
Social Reconstructionismp. 74
Post-World War II Progressivismp. 74
Back to Basicsp. 76
Multicultural Educationp. 77
Standards and Accountabilityp. 84
A Call to Critique and Action for Those Who Are Teaching to Change the Worldp. 91
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 91
Policy and Law: Rules That Schools Live Byp. 92
Chapter Overviewp. 93
The Complex Education Policy Systemp. 94
Three Levels of Educational Governancep. 94
How Do Policies Work?p. 97
Metaphors That Shape Education Policyp. 97
Schools as Economic Enterprisesp. 99
Effects of Contemporary Policy and Law on Students, Schools, and Teachersp. 106
Accountability for Results: Large-Scale Tests and High Stakesp. 106
The Courts and Education Equityp. 120
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 121
The Practice of Teaching to Change the Worldp. 123
The Subject Matters: Constructing Knowledge Across the Content Areasp. 125
Chapter Overviewp. 126
Mathematicsp. 127
The Math Crisisp. 127
Traditional Mathematics:
Skills-Based and Sequentialp. 128
Progressive Mathematics: Meaningful Knowledge in Contextp. 129
The Math Standards: The Politics of Mathematics Continuesp. 131
What Teachers Do with Math Standardsp. 133
English Language Artsp. 134
Traditional Language Arts: Mastering Skills, Rules, and Formsp. 134
Progressive Approaches to Language Arts: Developing Literaciesp. 136
National Standards in the Language Artsp. 139
Social Studiesp. 143
Traditional Social Studies: Facts and Figures Framed by the Dominant Culturep. 145
Progressive Social Studies: Critical and Multicultural Approachesp. 146
The National History Standards: Seeking a Middle Groundp. 149
Sciencep. 151
Traditional Science: Topics, Subtopics, and Facts in Sequencep. 153
Progressive Science: Inquiry and Investigationp. 154
National Standards: Integrated, Socially Relevant Science for Allp. 154
Access to High-Quality Science Instructionp. 158
The Struggle for the Subject Matterp. 159
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 159
Instruction: Teaching and Learning Across the Content Areasp. 160
Chapter Overviewp. 161
How Teachers Taughtp. 161
Theories of Learning and Their Implications for Teachingp. 163
Learning Is Developmental, Social, and Culturalp. 163
Intelligence Is Acquired and Multidimensionalp. 165
Knowledge Is Constructed and Becomes Meaningful in Contextp. 165
Contemporary Theories in the Classroomp. 167
Seeing Diversity as an Asset and Every Child as a Capable Learnerp. 167
Providing Opportunities for Active, Multidimensional, and Social Learningp. 174
Building on Students' Cultures and Languagesp. 187
No Easy Recipesp. 193
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 193
Assessment: Measuring What Mattersp. 194
Chapter Overviewp. 195
A Few Definitionsp. 195
The History of Educational Testingp. 197
Testing in Early Chinap. 197
Testing in Nineteenth-Century U.S. Schoolsp. 198
The Development of Scientific Testingp. 200
Contemporary Large-Scale Assessmentp. 205
Standardized Testsp. 206
Professional Guidelines for Using Large-Scale Standardized Testsp. 210
Alternatives to Traditional Large-Scale Testsp. 212
The Quest for "Next Generation" Large-Scale Assessmentsp. 212
Contemporary Classroom-Based Assessmentp. 213
Moving Beyond Traditional Classroom Assessmentsp. 213
Principles to Guide Authentic Assessmentp. 214
A Culture of Authenticityp. 223
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 223
Classrooms as Communities: Developing Caring and Democratic Relationshipsp. 224
Chapter Overviewp. 225
Caring and Democratic Classroomsp. 225
Management, Socialization, Discipline, and Control: Lasting Legaciesp. 227
Classrooms as Well-Managed Factoriesp. 227
Classrooms as Places to Socialize Youthp. 228
Using Behavioral Psychology to Discipline and Control Studentsp. 230
Prevent Disruption with Consistency and Attentivenessp. 233
Child-Centeredness, Caring, and Democracy: A Second Set of Legaciesp. 236
Child-Centered Schoolingp. 236
An Ethic of Carep. 238
Socially Just Classrooms: Doing Democracyp. 245
Creating School and Classroom Communities Is an Ongoing, Emancipatory Strugglep. 254
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 256
The Context of Teaching to Change the Worldp. 257
The School Culture: Where Good Teaching Makes Sensep. 259
Chapter Overviewp. 260
Schools as Culturesp. 260
School Cultures Shape Sense-Makingp. 261
School Cultures Where It Makes Sense to Teach All Students Wellp. 262
A Press for Learning and Social Justicep. 262
School Cultures Where Learning Is the Top Priorityp. 263
School Cultures Where Everyone Succeeding Is the Normp. 265
School Cultures That Foster Multicultural, College-Going Identitiesp. 267
Access to Learning Opportunities and Resourcesp. 268
Access to Adequate Resourcesp. 268
Access to High-Quality Teachingp. 269
Access to a Rich, Balanced Curriculump. 269
Access to Extra Help When It's Neededp. 270
Access to Equitable Learning Timep. 271
Access to Caring Relationships and Practicesp. 271
Schools as Places Where Every Student Is Knownp. 273
Schools as Safe Zones: It's OK to Be Differentp. 275
Schools in the Post-Columbine Era: Care in a Violent Culturep. 279
Schools in a Post-9/11 World: Care in a Fearful Culturep. 280
Schools in the Post-Katrina Context: Care in the Face of a Broken Social Contractp. 282
Professionalism, Collaboration, Inquiry, and Activismp. 283
Teachers as Participants and Professionalsp. 283
Teachers as Partners in Teaching and Learningp. 286
Faculties as Inquiring Communitiesp. 287
Creating a Culture of Critical Inquiryp. 289
Creating Cultures Where Good Teaching Makes Sensep. 292
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 292
School Structure: Sorting Students and Opportunities to Learnp. 293
Chapter Overviewp. 294
Labeling, Sorting, and Grouping in Today's Schoolsp. 294
Sorting by Academic Ability and Achievementp. 295
Sorting by Postsecondary Prospectsp. 296
Sorting by "Giftedness"p. 297
Sorting by Disabilitiesp. 297
Sorting by English Language Proficiencyp. 299
Why Do Schools Label and Sort Students?p. 299
The Social Construction of Differencep. 300
The History of Biased Sortingp. 301
Grouping Dilemmasp. 303
The Arbitrariness of Labels and Sortingp. 303
The Illusion of Homogeneityp. 304
Race and Social Class Biasp. 306
Ties to Behavioral Learning Theory and Transmission Teachingp. 308
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Processesp. 308
Disappointing and Enduring Outcomesp. 311
Controversy Surrounds Homogeneous Groupingp. 312
To Change or to Fixp. 312
Accommodating Diversity Without Sortingp. 313
Implementing Heterogeneous Groupingp. 314
Technical Skills, Norms and Beliefs, Politics and Powerp. 319
The Struggle for Heterogeneous Groupingp. 322
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 322
The Community: Engaging with Families and Neighborhoodsp. 323
Chapter Overviewp. 324
Removing Barriers to Constructive Parent Engagementp. 324
Common Complaints About Parent Involvementp. 325
Relationships Between Families and Schools: Four Traditionsp. 328
Parents Supporting the School's Agendap. 328
Schools Meeting Families' Needsp. 331
A Legacy of Services in Low-Income Communitiesp. 331
Comprehensive Services in Today's Schoolsp. 332
Service, Power, and Deficitsp. 334
Bridging the Cultures of Schools and Familiesp. 335
Learning with and from Communitiesp. 336
Bridging Students' Multiple Worldsp. 337
Bridging Through Community Liaisonsp. 341
Partnering with Families and Communities in Educational Activismp. 341
A Tradition of Parent Activismp. 341
Contemporary Organizing for School Reformp. 343
Whose Agenda Is It?p. 350
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 350
Teaching to Change the World: A Profession and a Hopeful Strugglep. 351
Chapter Overviewp. 353
Teaching: A Powerful and Vulnerable Professionp. 353
The Challenge of Learning to Teachp. 353
Professionalism in the Face of Limited Professional Supportp. 354
Teaching in a Changing Americap. 355
Teacher Shortages and Budget Shortfallsp. 355
Teacher Retention and Attritionp. 356
Teachers' Salaries and Working Conditionsp. 356
What Is a Good Teacher? A Professional and Political Questionp. 358
Teachers' Unionsp. 359
Strategies for a Career to Change the Worldp. 363
Becoming Part of a Learning Communityp. 365
Becoming a Social Justice Activistp. 371
Expanding Your Professional Influencep. 377
Committing to Critique and Hopep. 379
Finding Satisfaction in the Everydayp. 382
Welcome to the Hopeful Strugglep. 384
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critiquep. 386
Notesp. 387
Bibliographyp. 415
Photo Creditsp. 439
Indexp. 441
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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