Teaching Content Reading and Writing, 5th Edition

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-03-01
  • Publisher: WILEY

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With the passage of the "No Child Left Behind" act, and increasing pressures on teachers to produce results, true literacy is no longer optional. This book provides educators with the classroom tested theories and practices needed to rise to the demand of today\'s schools. They\'ll find discussions on issues that they face today in the classroom with respect to assessment and instruction. The sample lesson plans in each chapter will then help them to develop plans using specific instructional strategies.

Author Biography

Martha Rapp Ruddell is Professor and Dean Emerita of the School of Education at Sonoma State University in Rohnert Park, California. In addition to this book, Dr. Ruddell is the author of numerous articles and book chapters and continues actively as a researcher, author, and presenter at professional conferences. A past president of the National Reading Conference, which honored her in 2003 with the Al Kingston Service Award, Dr. Ruddell is a member of the California Reading Association's Hall of Fame and was recently named Distinguished Alumna by the University of Missouri, Kansas City, where she had received the Ph.D. degree.

Table of Contents

Literacy in Middle and Secondary Schoolsp. 2
Adolescent Literacyp. 6
Discoursesp. 6
Tracking and Detrackingp. 7
The Kids Can Readp. 7
Adolescents and Literacies in New Timesp. 8
The Millennialsp. 9
Linguistic Diversityp. 10
Responding to Students' Learning and Literacy Needsp. 11
Middle and Secondary Literacy Instruction in Perspectivep. 12
The 1930sp. 13
The 1940sp. 13
The 1950sp. 13
The 1960sp. 13
The 1970sp. 14
The 1980sp. 14
The 1990sp. 15
2000 and Beyondp. 16
The Role of Middle/Secondary Schools and Teachers in Adolescent Literacyp. 16
Plan of This Bookp. 18
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 19
Literacy and Language Processes: Thinking, Reading, and Writing in First and Second Languagesp. 24
Theory and Practicep. 26
Cognitive Theoryp. 27
Cognitionp. 27
Cognitive Processing, Concept Formation, and Learningp. 29
Intertextualityp. 30
The Relationship Between Thinking and Readingp. 30
The Reading Processp. 31
Information Available in Textp. 34
Monitoring the Reading Processp. 37
The Relationships Among Thinking, Reading, and Writingp. 37
The Writing Processp. 37
Monitoring the Writing Processp. 40
Second-Language Acquisition and Literacyp. 41
Krashen's Second-Language Acquisition Theoryp. 41
Cummins's Cognitive and Language Context Theoryp. 43
Implications for Learning and Teachingp. 45
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 47
Evaluating Instructional Materialsp. 52
Text and Textbook Issuesp. 55
Comparing Trade Text and Textbook Textp. 56
Resolving the Issuesp. 57
Traditional Instruments for Evaluation of Classroom Textsp. 57
Readability of Textp. 58
Two Readability Formulasp. 60
Reader-Text Interactionsp. 64
Alternative Approaches for Evaluating Classroom Textsp. 69
The Readability Checklistp. 69
The Friendly Text Evaluation Scalep. 72
The Carter G. Woodson Book Award Checklistp. 72
Summary of Alternative Approaches for Evaluating Textp. 75
Making the Text Evaluation and Selection Process Successfulp. 77
Evaluation of Electronic and Software Textsp. 79
Evaluating Internet Textsp. 80
Evaluating Softwarep. 81
Some Final Words About Evaluation of Instructional Textsp. 83
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 83
Comprehension Instruction in Content Areasp. 88
The Comprehension Process and Comprehension Instructionp. 90
Centerpiece Lesson Planp. 91
The Comprehension Processp. 94
Guided Comprehensionp. 96
The Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DR-TA)p. 96
Critical Literacy and Guided Comprehensionp. 113
The Group Mapping Activity (GMA)p. 115
Comprehension Levels, Teacher Questions, and Comprehension Instructionp. 122
Levels of Comprehensionp. 122
Teacher Questionsp. 123
Teacher Questions and Guided Comprehensionp. 124
The Directed Reading Activity (DRA)p. 124
ReQuestp. 134
Some Concluding Thoughts on Comprehensionp. 141
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 142
Vocabulary Learning in Content Areasp. 146
Centerpiece Lesson Planp. 149
Effective Content Vocabulary Instructionp. 153
Purposes for Content Vocabulary Instructionp. 154
Confounding the Purposes for Content Vocabulary Instructionp. 155
Content Vocabulary Instruction: Removing Barriers to Comprehensionp. 155
Prereading Instruction: Direct Vocabulary Teachingp. 156
Prereading Instructions: Developing a Functional System for Learning New Words (CSSR-Context, Structure, Sound, Reference)p. 160
Content Vocabulary Instruction: Long-Term Acquistion and Developmentp. 171
Postreading Instruction: The Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)p. 171
Postreading Instruction: Follow-Up Activities That Extend VSSp. 176
Benefits of Using VSSp. 182
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 185
Teaching Bilingual/Bicultural Students in Multilingual/ Multicultural Settingsp. 192
Bilingual/Bicultural and Non-English-Speaking Studentsp. 195
Bilingual Students and Programsp. 197
Appropriate Placement in Programs for Bilingual Studentsp. 199
Academic Success and Bilingual/Bicultural Studentsp. 201
Centerpiece Lesson Planp. 202
Implications for Instructionp. 206
Instruction for Bilingual/Bicultural Studentsp. 206
Making the Curriculum Accessible for Bilingual Learnersp. 208
Sheltered Instruction (SI)p. 209
Assessmentp. 221
Other Issuesp. 225
Some Final Words about Teaching Bilingual/Bicultural Learners in Multilingual/Multicultural Classroomsp. 226
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 227
Reading Across the Curriculump. 232
Centerpiece Lesson Planp. 236
Content Reading Needs of Middle School and Secondary Studentsp. 239
Engaging Student Interestp. 239
Learning From Textp. 241
Guiding Students Before, During, and After Reading (Into, Through, and Beyond)p. 243
Think, Predict, Read, Connect (TPRC), GMA, and VSSp. 243
WebQuestsp. 253
K-W-L Plusp. 255
Predict-Locate-Add-Note (PLAN)p. 258
Three-Level Reading Guidesp. 260
Anticipation Guidesp. 261
Guiding Students Before and During Reading (Into and Through)p. 268
The Prereading Plan (PREP)p. 268
Questioning the Author (QTA)p. 268
Guiding Students During and After Reading (Through and Beyond)p. 270
Reading Response Groupsp. 270
Read, Encode, Annotate, Ponder (REAP) and iREAPp. 273
Issues Related to Technology Use in Classroomsp. 275
Study Skills and Content Area Readingp. 276
Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review (SQ3R)p. 277
Survey, Question, Predict, Read, Respond, Summarize (SQP2RS)p. 278
Underlining and Notetakingp. 278
Concluding Thoughts About Reading Across the Curriculump. 279
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 280
Writing Across the Curriculump. 286
Centerpiece Lesson Planp. 289
Writing in Subject Area Classroomsp. 292
Traditional Writing Instructionp. 292
New Viewpoints About Writingp. 293
Writing Processp. 295
Instruction That Guides Students Before, During, and After Writingp. 297
Writing Workshopp. 291
Writing Workshop Applied in Content Classroomsp. 298
Instruction That Guides Students Before and During Writingp. 301
Role/Audience/Format/Topic (RAFT)p. 301
Learning Logs and Double Entry Journalsp. 304
Instruction That Guides Students Before Writingp. 307
Beginning Researchersp. 307
Web Sites and E-mailp. 310
Writing from Mapsp. 311
Journalsp. 313
Quick Writesp. 316
A Few Final Words About Writing Across the Curriculump. 317
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 317
Assessment of Student Progress in Subject Area Reading and Writingp. 322
Overview of Evaluation and Assessmentp. 326
Assessment Concepts and Termsp. 326
Assessment Today and in the Futurep. 330
Standards and Assessmentp. 331
Literacy Assessment in Content Areasp. 333
Principles of Assessmentp. 334
Formal Assessmentp. 337
Testing Instrumentsp. 341
Test Scoresp. 342
Interpretation of Testsp. 344
Informal and Authentic Assessment of Subject Area Reading and Writingp. 345
Traditional Informal Assessmentp. 345
Performance Assessmentp. 345
Observation as an Assessment Toolp. 347
The Developmental Inventoryp. 348
Interviews and Student Self-Reportsp. 356
Portfolio Assessmentp. 357
A Final Word About Assessmentp. 363
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 363
Diversity in the Classroom: Meeting the Needs of All Studentsp. 368
Centerpiece Lesson Planp. 371
The Difference Model as a Means for Viewing Diversityp. 374
The Defect and Disruption Modelsp. 375
The Deficit Modelp. 376
The Difference Modelp. 377
At-Risk Students, The Difference Model, and Diversityp. 378
Marginalized Learnersp. 379
Instruction for Marginalized Studentsp. 381
Classrooms for High and Low Achieversp. 382
Instruction in Subject Area Classes for Marginalized Readers and Writersp. 383
ReQuestp. 384
Question-Answer Relationships (QAR)p. 385
ReQARp. 388
The Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)p. 390
Gradual Release Writing Instructionp. 390
The Cone of Experiencep. 393
Final Words About Marginalized Learnersp. 397
Students with Special Needsp. 397
Giftedness, Gender, and Other Differencesp. 398
Gifted Studentsp. 399
Gender Differencesp. 400
Other Differencesp. 402
Creating Learning Classrooms for Preadolescent and Adolescent Studentsp. 402
Expectationsp. 403
Consistencyp. 403
Short Memoryp. 404
The Difference Model Revisitedp. 405
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 405
Content Learning, Collaboration, and Literacyp. 410
Current Approaches to Content Learningp. 413
Centerpeice Lesson Planp. 414
Cooperative Learning and Collaborative Learningp. 417
Characteristics of Cooperative/Collaborative Learningp. 417
Collaborative Learning, Language, and Literacyp. 419
Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI)p. 420
Collaborative Learning Activities to Promote Literacy and Content Learningp. 422
Project-Based Learningp. 422
Internet Inquiryp. 426
The Group Reading Activity (GRA)p. 430
Group Investigationp. 432
Other Cooperative/Collaborative Learning Activitiesp. 432
Jigsaw Groupingp. 432
Creative Thinking-Reading Activities (CT-RAs)p. 437
Ask Somethingp. 439
Ambiguity, Risk, and Collaborative Learningp. 440
Procedures for Implementing, Guiding, and Evaluating Collaborative Group Workp. 442
Prerequisites to Grouping for Collaborative Learningp. 442
Introducing Collaborative Learning Groupsp. 443
Establishing Roles for Individuals in Collaborative Learning Groupsp. 444
Guiding Collaborative Learning Groupsp. 446
Project Managementsp. 447
Evaluating and Grading Cooperative/Collaborative Group Workp. 448
Some Final Words on Content Learning, Collaboration, and Literacyp. 451
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 452
Developing Lifelong Readers and Writersp. 458
Opening Doorsp. 461
Teachers Who Open Doorsp. 462
Opening Doors to Lifelong Literacyp. 462
Finding Out About Readers and Writersp. 464
Questionnairesp. 465
Talking to and Observing Studentsp. 466
Becoming Familiar with Good Books for Preadolescent and Adolescent Readersp. 468
Classroom Climates for Literacyp. 469
Reading with Students Sustained Silent Reading (SSR)p. 469
Reading to Studentsp. 471
Writing with Studentsp. 472
Writing to Studentsp. 472
Using Literature in Content Classesp. 473
Resources for Developing Lifelong Readers and Writersp. 474
Resources for Independent Reading-Finding Good Booksp. 474
Resources for Independent Writing-Getting Good Ideasp. 476
Some Concluding Thoughts About Developing Lifelong Readers and Writersp. 478
What This Chapter Means to Youp. 478
Indexp. 481
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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