Teaching Music to Students with Special Needs A Label-Free Approach

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-02-09
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Teaching Music to Students with Special Needs is a practical guide to and reference manual on teaching music to children with special learning needs. Thoroughly grounded in the latest research in music education, this book addresses special needs as a concept in the broadest possible sense, including physical disability, mental disability, and multiple disability, to equip teachers with practical, proven, research-based curricular strategies that are also grounded in both best practice and current special education law. A common thread throughout the book is the necessity of and advantage to a team-based approach, and the authors offer concrete, readily implementable tips for music teachers on approaching and learning to collaborate with special educators, teacher educators, and mainstream classroom teachers in all educational settings. Importantly, this book also includes extensive curriculum development ideas, lesson plans, and observation and fieldwork ideas. Throughout, the book argues that teaching children with special learning needs actually has much in common with teaching any other diverse group of students; best practice is to move away from a labels-focused approach with micro-tailored lesson plans to a more broadly conceived strategy that concentrates instead on larger pedagogical aims. Chapters address the full range of topics and issues which music educators face when teaching music to children with special needs, including parental involvement, student anxiety, field trips and performances, and assessment strategies. The book concludes with an up-to-date section of resources and technology information for music teachers. Teaching Music to Students with Special Needs is a critical resource for all in-service music teachers, music teacher educators, and students in music education.

Author Biography

Alice M. Hammel teaches at James Madison and Christopher Newport Universities, and has years of experience teaching instrumental and choral music. Ryan M. Hourigan is Assistant Professor of Music Education at Ball State University and a recipient of the Outstanding University Music Educator Award from the Indiana Music Educators Association.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xi
Prefacep. xxiii
The Current Landscape of the Special Education System in the United Statesp. 1
Public School Education within a Democracy: An Equal Opportunity for All Studentsp. 3
Unequal Opportunityp. 4
Funding of Special Education: A Demographic Snapshot of Supportp. 9
Family Challenges and Children with Disabilitiesp. 10
Teaching Music in the 21st Century: A Label-free Approach to Teaching Music to Students with Special Needsp. 12
Cognitionp. 13
Communicationp. 15
Receptive and Expressive Languagep. 15
Language and Culturep. 15
Behavioral or Emotional Challengesp. 17
Sensory Challengesp. 18
Physical and Medical Conditionsp. 18
Conclusionp. 21
Discussion Questionsp. 21
The Current Structure of Special Education in Our Schools: A Brief History of Legislation and Litigation in the United Statesp. 23
Keystone Legislation and Educating Students with Special Needsp. 24
Public Law 94-142p. 26
Legislative History on Behalf of Students Who Are Intellectually Giftedp. 26
The Jacob K. Javits Gifted and Talented Students Education Actp. 27
More Recent Legislation and Litigation Regarding Students with Special Needsp. 27
The Americans with Disabilities Actp. 30
The Six Principles of IDEA: Implications for Music Educatorsp. 32
Zero Rejectp. 32
Nondiscriminatory Evaluationp. 33
Free and Appropriate Education (FAPE)p. 33
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)p. 34
Procedural Due Process and Parent Involvementp. 35
The Effect of No Child Left Behind on Special Educationp. 35
Race to the Top (RTTT)p. 36
Responsiveness to Interventionp. 36
Applications and Considerations for Music Educatorsp. 38
Discussion Questionsp. 39
Preparing to Teach Music to Students with Special Needsp. 43
Preparing to Teach: Fieldwork and Engagement Opportunities in Special Education for Pre-service and In-service Music Teachersp. 45
Becoming Acquainted through Observation, Assisting, Discussion, and Planningp. 46
Types of Fieldwork Opportunities in Special Education for Pre-service and In-service Music Educatorsp. 48
Conclusionp. 56
Discussion Questionsp. 57
A Resourceful and Pedagogical Approach to Teaching Students with Special Needsp. 59
Participation in the Process and Gathering Supportp. 60
Speaking with Special Education Professionals and Staffp. 61
Parent Partnershipsp. 62
Individualized Education Programs (IEP) and 504 Plansp. 63
504 Plansp. 66
Attending the IEP or 504 Meetingsp. 76
Understanding Adaptations, Accommodations, and Modificationsp. 78
Incorporating the Five Domains into Classroom Accommodationsp. 79
Teaching Music to Students with Cognitive Challengesp. 80
Teaching Music to Students with Communication Challengesp. 81
Teaching Music to Students with Behavioral or Emotional Challengesp. 84
Strategies for Music Teachers when Teaching Students with Sensory Challengesp. 86
Teaching Music to Students with Physical and Medical Conditionsp. 88
Putting It All Togetherp. 88
Discussion Questionsp. 91
Practical Classroom Adaptations, Modifications, and Assessment Techniques for Teaching Students with Special Needs in the Music Classroomp. 95
Developing a Student-centered and Inclusive Classroomp. 97
Classroom Management and Students with Special Needs: Four Important Considerationsp. 97
Initial Preparation and Planningp. 100
Continued Communicationp. 100
Physical Arrangementp. 101
Parents and Classroom Behaviorp. 101
Anxietyp. 102
Moderate Intervention Plansp. 103
School-wide Positive Behavior Supports Systemsp. 104
The Socialization of Students with Special Needsp. 104
Theoretical Framework for Socialization and Inclusionp. 105
Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education (Nel Noddings, 1984)p. 105
Social Identity Processes in Organization Contextsp. 106
Risks (Lessons Learned from Vygotsky)p. 107
Practical Strategies for Music Educatorsp. 109
Be Aware of the Social Environment in Your Schoolp. 109
Synergyp. 111
A Moral/Ethical Codep. 111
Being Proactive in Your Approach to Socializationp. 112
Conclusion: Critical Issues for Students with Special Needsp. 117
Discussion Questionsp. 117
Curriculum and Assessment for Students with Special Needsp. 121
Fundamentals of Curriculum Design and Students with Special Needs (A Quick Review)p. 122
Constructivism as a Model to Assist with Inclusionp. 123
Four Primary Teaching Practices to Consider When Teaching Students with Disabilities in a Modified or Adapted Curriculump. 126
Curricular Modifications in Music Education for Students with Disabilitiesp. 131
Incorporating Important Elements of Music Therapy into the Music Education Curriculump. 131
Assessment and Students with Special Needsp. 141
Measurement, Assessment, and Evaluation for Students with Disabilitiesp. 141
Formative Assessments for Students with Special Needsp. 142
Establishing a Baseline of Understandingp. 142
Writing Clear Obtainable Objectives for Students with Special Needsp. 144
Assessing Nonmusical Goalsp. 145
Alternative Assessments for Students with Special Needsp. 148
Summative Assessments and Students with Special Needsp. 148
Conclusionp. 149
Discussion Questionsp. 149
Teaching Strategies for Performers with Special Needsp. 151
The Hidden Curriculum in Traditional Performing Ensembles (Equal Access)p. 153
Participating in the Special Education Processp. 154
Understanding the Disability (Seeking Resources)p. 155
Adaptation of Instruction for Performers with Special Needsp. 156
The Use of Technologyp. 157
Large Group Performing Ensembles: Are They the Appropriate Placement for Students with Special Needs?p. 158
Meaningful Participationp. 159
Conclusionp. 163
Discussion Questionsp. 163
Teaching Music to Students Who Are Intellectually Giftedp. 164
Intellectual Giftedness in the Music Classroomp. 165
Understanding the Spectrum of Special Needs (Gifted and Talented)p. 165
A Brief Background of How Students Are Identified as ˘Gifted÷p. 166
The Current Identification Processp. 167
Individual IQ Testing and Other Identification Practicesp. 167
Categories of Giftednessp. 167
A Discussion of Variant Needs and Services Provided to Students with Special Needsp. 168
Elitism vs. Egalitarianismp. 169
Characteristics of Students Who Are Giftedp. 170
Instructional Delivery/Pacing/Process/Modificationsp. 174
Teacher Characteristics That Are Successful When Teaching Students Who Are Giftedp. 175
Twice Exceptionalp. 176
Putting It All Togetherp. 178
Conclusionp. 179
Discussion Questionsp. 179
Resources for Music Educatorsp. 181
Resources for Music Teachers and Music Teacher Educators Regarding Teaching Students with Special Needsp. 183
Internet Resourcesp. 183
Internet Resources Pertaining to Persons with Autismp. 183
Internet Resources Pertaining to Students with Sensory Challengesp. 185
Specific Visual Impairment Internet Resourcesp. 187
Specific Hearing Impairment Internet Resourcesp. 188
Internet Resources Pertaining to Persons with Developmental Delaysp. 190
Internet Resources Pertaining to Persons with Emotional Disturbancesp. 191
Internet Resources Pertaining to Persons with Cognitive Disabilitiesp. 192
Multiple Impairment Internet Resourcesp. 193
Internet Resources for Children with Physical Disabilitiesp. 194
Internet Resources for Persons or Students with Chronic Medical Conditionsp. 195
Internet Resources for Students with Specific Learning Disabilitiesp. 197
Speech and Language Impairment Internet Resourcesp. 198
Internet Resources Pertaining to Persons with Traumatic Brain Injuryp. 199
Print Resources for Music Teachers and Music Teacher Educatorsp. 200
Research within Music Education Pertaining to Students with Special Needsp. 201
Dissertations within Music Educationp. 205
Selected Research within General Educationp. 207
Books within Music Therapy and Music Educationp. 210
Books within General Educationp. 211
Practitioner Articles within Music Educationp. 214
About the Authorsp. 219
Indexp. 223
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