9780131144255

Teaching Science for Understanding A Practical Guide for Middle and High School Teachers

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780131144255

  • ISBN10:

    0131144251

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-03-31
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Summary

Teaching Science for Understanding, 1/e Written by the leading science educator in the country, Teaching Science for Understanding challenges you to transform your ideas about teaching from passive, direct learning to active, inquiry learning. To do so, the author demonstrates science teaching through three different levels of learning activities: bull; bull; building studentsrs" base of information bull; developing understanding bull; applying knowledge Each chapter guides you through the type of planning and instruction you will need to create a constructivist environment in your classroom, providing you with specific activities and examples to illustrate how you can teach science for understanding. Unique Features: Science ReformIdentifies the four major elements of a new vision for science education; science for all, teaching and learning for understanding, a broader vision of science, and a reduction of the amount of science content offered in middle and secondary school teaching. Supporting these elements are Project 2061, Science for All Americans, National Science Standards and No Child Left Behind. Active Learningpromotes students engaged in constructing their own learning and assists teachers in knowing their role in deciding when to withhold help, when to give help, and what help to give. Instructional Model for Teaching Science for Understandingshares a design for planning objectives, ongoing assessment and learning activities through a sample lesson on photosynthesis. Excerpts from best-selling Middle School and Secondary Textbooks and Teacher GuidesAppearing in Chapters 10-14, explicit examples of textbook pages and teacher guides illustrate how teachers can use textbooks as enrichment, background knowledge and resources as a part of teaching science for understanding.

Author Biography

James Gallagher is Professor of Science Education at Michigan State University.  During his tenure at Michigan State University, Dr. Gallagher has been engaged in teacher education and staff development on campus, nationally, and internationally.  He has worked with MSU’s Professional Development School program and both undergraduate and graduate courses for prospective science teachers.  He also has conducted a widely recognized program for staff development of teachers in Michigan and Ohio.  He directed a research and development program on classroom-based assessment that has influenced the quality and effectiveness of teaching and learning in middle school science. He recently co-directed a project studying leadership development in science and mathematics education, and a professional development project for teachers in rural schools in Michigan. 

 

Dr. Gallagher has been a leader in the current reform efforts in the United States.  He was a member of the writing team on the National Research Council’s National Science Education Standards, and he coordinated development of AAAS Project 2061’s Blueprint for Teacher Education.  He serves as an advisor for 2009 revision of the National Assessment of Educational Progress and as a member of the international Steering Committee for the Third International Mathematics and Science Study — Multinational Video Study.  He has published widely with nearly 100 reports, journal articles, and chapters in books.  He was the 1998 winner of the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Science Education through Research, which is the highest award given by the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. 

Table of Contents

Why Should We Teach Science for Understanding?
1(11)
A New Paradigm for Science Teaching and Learning
2(1)
Why Is a New Paradigm Essential?
3(1)
Formulating a New Paradigm for Science Education
3(1)
Emergence of New Standards for Science in Schools
4(1)
Impact of Project 2061 and the National Science Education Standards
5(1)
A New, Long-Term Approach to Change in Science Curriculum, Teaching, and Assessment
5(1)
How Have New Ideas about Learning Science Changed Our Thinking?
6(1)
How Should Science Teaching Change?
7(1)
What Does Teaching for Science Understanding Look Like?
8(1)
Teaching Science for Understanding IS Rocket Science!
9(1)
Classroom Management
9(1)
Why Do You Need a Book on Teaching Science for Understanding?
10(2)
Journal Questions
11(1)
What Does It Mean to Understand Science?
12(15)
Ideas Underlying the New Paradigm
13(3)
Science as Public Knowledge
13(1)
Understanding the Multiple Dimensions of Science
14(1)
Teaching and Learning with Understanding
14(2)
Understanding Is Demonstrated Through Actions
16(1)
Elements of Understanding
16(4)
Understanding Concepts
16(3)
Understanding Whole Disciplines
19(1)
Understanding Single Elements and Extensive Communications
19(1)
Model-based Reasoning
20(1)
Six Facets of Understanding
20(5)
Facet 1: Explanation
20(1)
Facet 2: Interpretation
21(1)
Facet 3: Application
21(1)
Facet 4: Perspective
22(1)
Facet 5: Empathy
23(1)
Facet 6: Self-knowledge
24(1)
Enriching Your Own Lives and Your Students' Lives
25(2)
Journal Questions
25(2)
An Initial Planning Model for Teaching Science for Understanding: First Steps in Transforming Your Teaching and Students' Learning
27(13)
A Useful Example of Planning Instruction
28(1)
Teaching and Learning about Photosynthesis in Ways That Nurture Understanding
29(1)
Generating a Conversation with Students to Learn about Their Ideas
30(1)
Examining Sample Objectives of the Photosynthesis Lesson
30(2)
Objective 5---Transformation of Sugar by Plants
30(1)
Objectives 3 and 6---Inquiry and the Nature of Science
31(1)
A Model to Guide Design and Planning
32(2)
Establishing Objectives and Assessment
32(1)
Designing Learning Activities
33(1)
Using the Planning Model to Interpret Activities in Teaching Photosynthesis
34(2)
Reflecting on the Photosynthesis Activities
36(1)
Research-based Knowledge on Teaching for Understanding
37(2)
A Final Note
39(1)
Journal Questions
39(1)
Models of Teaching Science for Understanding through Inquiry
40(14)
Inquiry as an Essential Part of Science Teaching
30(12)
How Does Learning Occur through Inquiry?
42(2)
The Learning Cycle: Five Es/Seven Es
44(1)
The Apprenticeship Model: Modeling, Coaching, Fading
45(2)
Conceptual Change Model
47(1)
Students' Ideas and Reasoning
47(1)
Piaget's Equilibration Model
48(2)
Conceptual Change Approach and Teaching for Understanding
50(1)
Applying the Models to Planning, Teaching, and Assessing Students
51(3)
Journal Questions
53(1)
Teaching Strategies That Foster Understanding
54(15)
Creating an Environment for Active Learning
54(3)
Establishing and Sustaining Effective Group Work
57(4)
Fostering Development of Skills for Effective Group Work in Science Classes
57(2)
Supporting Responsibility of Group Members
59(1)
Organizing Students in Groups
60(1)
Employing Writing as a Learning Tool in Science
61(4)
How Does Writing Help Students Learn Science?
61(1)
Helping Students Get Started in Writing in Science Classes
62(1)
Concept Maps
63(1)
Inquiry and Writing
64(1)
Writing and Assessment
65(1)
Supporting Effective Classroom Discourse That Enriches and Supports Understanding and Application of Science
65(4)
Strategies for Improving the Quality and Effectiveness of Classroom Discourse
66(2)
Journal Questions
68(1)
Examining Food For Plants
69(22)
Food for Plants
70(5)
The Objectives of the Unit
70(2)
Understanding the Teaching Model Employed in the Unit
72(1)
The Teacher's Role
72(2)
Where Is Assessment in This Model?
74(1)
Getting into Activities in Food for Plants
75(1)
A Closer Look at Food for Plants
75(12)
Part 1. Activities That Engage Students in the Problem and Elicit Students' Ideas
77(1)
Part 2. Activities to Explore Phenomena and Challenge Students' Naive Ideas
78(3)
Part 3. Activities That Present New Ideas Using a Variety of Representations That Can Help Make Clear the Contrast with Students' Initial Ideas
81(4)
Part 4. Activities to Practice Using, and Coming To, New Concepts in Relationship to Students' Preconceptions
85(2)
Additional Valuable Resources
87(2)
Where Is Inquiry in This Model?
89(2)
Journal Questions
90(1)
Why Is Formative Assessment Essential?
91(16)
What Is Formative Assessment?
92(1)
A Conceptual Model for Formative Assessment
93(7)
Our Research and Development Project
95(3)
An Example from a Middle School Classroom
98(2)
How Experienced Teachers Use Formative Assessment
100(1)
Support Needed by Teachers
101(2)
Positive Effects of Formative Assessment
103(1)
Effects on the Classroom and School Environment
103(1)
Effects on Students' Learning and Motivation
103(1)
Scoring and Grading
103(1)
Relation of Formative Assessments and External Examinations
104(3)
Journal Questions
105(2)
Criteria to Guide Planning and Teaching Science for Understanding: An Advanced Model for Planning
107(13)
Project 2061 Criteria for Evaluating Instructional Materials
108(1)
How Can These Criteria Help You Teach More Effectively?
108(1)
Mathematics and Science Instructional Categories and Criteria
109(1)
Category I: Formulating Goals and a Sense of Purpose with Students
109(2)
Category II: Taking Account of Students' Ideas and Reasoning
111(2)
Category III: Engaging Students with Relevant Phenomena
113(2)
Category IV: Developing and Using Scientific Ideas
115(1)
Category V: Promoting Student Thinking about Phenomena, Experiences and Knowledge
115(3)
Category VI: Assessing Student Progress
118(1)
Category VII: Enhancing the Science Learning Environment
118(1)
Application of Criteria by Teachers
119(1)
Journal Questions
120(1)
A Plan for Planning: Using Criteria to Select Resources and Plan Instruction
120(10)
Using Modified Criteria to Select Instructional Materials
120(1)
Using Criteria to Plan Lesson Sequences: Building Synergy among Teachers, Students, and Instructional Resources
121(1)
Planning Effective Lesson Sequences that Result in Students' Learning with Understanding
122(2)
Importance of Having Clear Purposes and Objectives
124(1)
Using Criteria: Getting Started in Selecting Materials and Planning Instruction
125(5)
Journal Questions
128(2)
Planning a Middle School Lesson Sequence on Newton's Second Law
130(28)
A Plan for Planning
130(3)
Selected Pages from Focus on Physical Science
133(1)
Identifying and Clarifying Goals and Purposes for the Lesson Sequence
133(4)
Creating a Supportive, Motivating Environment for Students
137(1)
Students' Ideas and Assessment
138(4)
Planning Assessment of Students' Learning
142(2)
A Sample Summative Assessment
142(1)
A Sample Preassessment
142(2)
Analyzing Preassessment Data
144(1)
Organizing Activities
144(12)
Part 1. Introducing Acceleration
145(4)
Part 2. Formalizing Ideas about Acceleration
149(4)
Part 3. Exploring Newton's Second Law
153(3)
Developing a Schedule of Activities
156(2)
Journal Questions
157(1)
Planning a High School Lesson Sequence on Cells
158(23)
Description of Prentice Hall Biology
161(1)
Selected Pages from Prentice Hall Biology
182
Planning the Lesson Sequence
162(19)
Categories I and VII: Goals, Purposes, and Learning Environment
162(10)
Categories II and VI: Students' Ideas and Assessment
172(3)
Categories III through V: Learning Activities
175(4)
Journal Questions
179(2)
Planning a High School Lesson Sequence on Stoichiometry
181(25)
Description of Prentice Hall Chemistry
181(19)
Selected Pages from Prentice Hall Chemistry
182(18)
Planning the Lesson Sequence
200(6)
Categories I and VII: Goals, Purposes, and Learning Environment
200(1)
Categories II and VI: Students' Ideas and Assessment
201(1)
Categories III through V: Learning Activities
202(3)
Journal Questions
205(1)
Planning a High School Lesson Sequence on Refraction
206(27)
Description of Conceptual Physics
207(1)
Planning the Lesson Sequence
207(26)
Categories I and VII: Goals, Purposes, and Learning Environment
207(1)
Selected Pages from Conceptual Physics
208(16)
Categories II and VI: Students' Ideas and Assessment
224(3)
Categories III through V: Learning Activities
227(5)
Sequencing Activities
232(1)
Journal Questions
232(1)
Planning a Middle School Lesson Sequence on Weather
233(35)
Description of Weather and Water
233(25)
Selected Pages from Weather and Water
234(24)
Planning the Lesson Sequence: Goals, Purposes, and Learning Environment
258(2)
Planning the Lesson Sequence: Students' Ideas and Assessment
260(2)
Students' Ideas
260(1)
Preassessment
261(1)
Summative Assessment
261(1)
Planning the Lesson Sequence: Activities That Promote Learning with Understanding
262(6)
Sequencing Activities
266(1)
Journal Questions
267(1)
Continuing Your Professional Development
268(10)
The Importance of Teamwork
268(5)
Initiating Work with Colleagues
270(3)
Impediments to Teaching and Learning Science for Understanding
273(3)
How Exemplary Teachers Overcome Impediments
274(2)
Becoming a Leader in Your Field
276(2)
Journal Questions
277(1)
References 278(5)
Name Index 283(2)
Subject Index 285

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