Terrorism and Counterterrorism

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-02-10
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Focusing on the phenomenon of terrorism in the post-9/11 era, Terrorism and Counterterrorisminvestigates this form of political violence in an international and American context and in light of new and historical trends.#xA0; In this comprehensive and highly readable#xA0;book, Brigitte Nacos, a renowned expert in the field, clearly defines terrorism#x19;s diverse causes, actors, and strategies, outlines anti- and counter-terrorist responses, and highlights terrorism#x19;s relationship with the media and the public.

Author Biography

Brigitte Nacos teaches political science at Columbia University and is a long-time U.S. correspondent for newspapers in Germany.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
About the Authorp. xiv
Introduction: The Terrorist Threatp. 1
Terrorism Trends Over the Last Three Decadesp. 5
Terrorismp. 15
The Perennial Debate: What Is Terrorism?p. 17
The Meaning of Terrorism Over Timep. 19
The Definitional Potpourrip. 20
Obama Administration: Downplaying the ˘T÷ Wordp. 28
Is Terrorism Ever Justified?p. 28
State Terror(ism) and State-Sponsored Terrorismp. 30
State Sponsors of Terrorismp. 31
The Meaning of Terrorism in This Volumep. 32
Terrorism in the Global Contextp. 35
Different Types of Groupsp. 36
The Roots of Modern Terrorismp. 37
The Post-World War II Wavep. 39
1968: The Advent of Modem-Day Terrorismp. 41
IRA and ETA: Groups That Transcend the Average Life Span of Terrorist Groupsp. 42
The Decline of Left-Wing Terrorismp. 44
The Rise of Catastrophic Terrorismp. 45
Unrestrained Terrorism and Counterterrorism after the Cold Warp. 46
The Old and New Terrorism in the Post-Cold War Erap. 47
Modernization, Globalization, and the Proliferation of Religious Violencep. 48
Technological Advances and Global Communicationp. 52
Terrorism in the American Contextp. 55
Right-Wing Terrorismp. 55
The Ku Klux Klanp. 56
Christian Identity and Neo-Nazi Groupsp. 59
The Patriot and Militia Movementp. 62
The Surge of the Black Supremacist Movementp. 65
Left-Wing Terrorismp. 65
The First Anarchists in the United Statesp. 65
The Weather Undergroundp. 67
The Black Panther Partyp. 68
The Symbionese Liberation Armyp. 69
Single-Issue Terrorismp. 70
Antiabortion Violencep. 70
The Animal and Earth Liberation Frontsp. 71
The Jewish Defense Leaguep. 73
Puerto Rican Nationalist Groupsp. 73
Ideological Wavesp. 74
Religious Terrorism: Political Violence in the Name of Godp. 79
Defending the Faith in ˘Cosmic Wars÷p. 83
The Proliferation of Religious Violencep. 85
Alienation, Humiliation, and Fearp. 86
The Jihadi Movement and Political Violencep. 88
Muslimsp. 89
Islamistsp. 89
Salafis and Wahhabisp. 90
Jihadisp. 90
Jihadi Ideologyp. 92
Homegrown Jihadis in the West-Including the United Statesp. 95
The Making of Terrorists: Causes, Conditions, Influencesp. 102
Terrorism as a Result of Rational Choicep. 105
Terrorism as a Result of Personal Traitsp. 107
Terrorism as a Result of Social Interactionp. 108
Gender and Terrorismp. 109
For the Sake of Lovep. 111
Demonstration of Gender Equalityp. 111
Can Real Women Become Terrorists?p. 113
Tactical Advantages of Female Terroristsp. 113
Children as Terroristsp. 115
The Lack of a Universal Terrorist Profilep. 116
The Stages Leading to Terrorismp. 116
The Roots of Terrorism: No Simple Answersp. 119
From State Sponsors to Involuntary Hostsp. 123
Former and Current State Sponsorsp. 128
Iraqp. 128
Libyap. 129
Sudanp. 129
Syriap. 130
The Case of Saudi Arabiap. 131
When Governments Reconsider Their Support for Terrorismp. 132
Failed and Failing States and ˘Brown Areas÷p. 133
Involuntary Host Countriesp. 134
Common Thread: Goals, Targets, Tacticsp. 136
Do Terrorists Achieve Their Goals?p. 137
The Selection of Targetsp. 138
Terrorist Methods: From Primitive Bombs to WMDp. 140
Most Common Methods of Terrorist Attacksp. 141
Most Likely CBRN Weapons in the Hands of Terroristsp. 154
Organizational Structures and the Financing of Terrorp. 160
When Terrorist Groups Decline or Endp. 167
Financing Terrorismp. 168
Narco-Terrorism or Narco-Funded Terrorism?p. 170
Counterterrorismp. 173
Terrorism and America's Post-9/11 National Security Strategyp. 175
President Bush's National Security Strategyp. 179
Making the World Safer and Betterp. 180
Preemption Before Threats Become Imminentp. 180
Unilateral Use of Forcep. 181
President Obama's National Security Strategyp. 182
The Utility of Hard and Soft Power in Counterterrorismp. 188
Military Hard Powerp. 191
Military Retaliation/Reprisalp. 191
Military Preemptionp. 193
Commando Raidsp. 195
Assassinationsp. 196
Hostage Rescue Missionsp. 197
Nonmilitary Hard Power: Economic Sanctionsp. 199
Drying Up Financial Resourcesp. 200
Soft Power and Counterterrorismp. 200
Deterrencep. 200
Diplomacyp. 201
Talking to Terrorist Groupsp. 203
Public Diplomacyp. 205
Conciliation and Peacep. 207
Balancing Security, Liberty, and Human Rightsp. 211
The Rights of ˘Enemy Combatants÷p. 219
Torture: Leaders and Followersp. 222
Obama on Torture and Renditionp. 229
Torture: The Public Debatep. 230
Homeland Security: Preparedness and Preventionp. 235
Post-9/11 Reorganization of Homeland Securityp. 238
General and Specific Homeland Security Strategiesp. 243
It's the Intelligence, Stupidp. 244
Reorganization of the Intelligence Communityp. 248
International Cooperationp. 251
Congress Resists Changep. 253
The News Media and the Internetp. 257
Terrorist Propaganda and the Mediap. 259
Publicity: The Universal Terrorist Goalp. 262
An Alternative View: Contemporary Terrorists Do Not Need Publicityp. 263
Terrorism and the Triangle of Communicationp. 264
Media-Related Goalsp. 265
The Attention-Getting Goalp. 265
The Recognition Goalp. 266
The Respectability/Legitimacy Goalp. 269
Bedfellows in a Marriage of Conveniencep. 270
Media and Terrorist Contagionp. 271
Defending the Mediap. 272
Treason or Public Service?p. 273
Terror and Hate in Cyberspacep. 276
Terrorists and the Newest Communication Technologiesp. 279
Propaganda and Hero Worshipp. 281
The Internet as a Tool to Plan and Carry Out Terrorist Operationsp. 286
The Web and the Retrieval of Valuable Informationp. 289
Online Recruitmentp. 289
Fund-Raising via the Netp. 290
Anti- and Counterterrorism in the Newsp. 293
The Media and Military Responses to Terrorismp. 296
The Bombing of Libya (1986)p. 296
Bombing of Iraq's Intelligence Headquarters (1993)p. 297
Missile Strikes in Afghanistan and Sudan (1998)p. 297
The Post-9/11 War Against Terrorismp. 298
Military Action Against Al Qaeda and the Taliban (2001)p. 300
The Invasion of Iraq (2003)p. 301
The Iraq War: Different News Coverage Abroadp. 304
Conclusion: Living with Terrorist Threatsp. 307
Appendix: Major Terrorist Incidents Since the Early 1970sp. 313
Bibliographyp. 323
Indexp. 331
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