Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-01-28
  • Publisher: PEARSON
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Updated in a new 6th edition,Terrorism in the Twenty-First Centuryhelps readers understand terrorism, responses to it, and current trends that affect the future of this phenomenon. Putting terrorism into historical perspective and analyzing it as a form of political violence, this book presents the most essential concepts, the latest data, and numerous case studies to promote effective analysis of terrorist acts. It objectively breaks down the who-what-why-how of terrorism, giving readers a way both to understand patterns of behavior and to more critically evaluate forthcoming patterns.

Author Biography

Cindy Combs is Bonnie E. Cone Distinguished Professor of Political Science at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xii
Terrorism in Perspective
An Idea Whose Time Has Come?p. 1
Key Conceptsp. 1
Modern Definitions of an Old Conceptp. 2
Crucial Components of Terrorismp. 5
Violence, Audience, and a Mood of Fearp. 7
Victims: The Right Place-But The Wrong Timep. 9
Redefining "Terrorism"p. 11
Political Quicksandp. 12
Typologies of Terrorism: Useful Toolsp. 14
Using Tactics As Labelsp. 15
Not a Modern Phenomenonp. 18
Key Conceptsp. 18
Historic Rootsp. 18
State Terrorismp. 20
Tyrannicide: "To Go Too Fast"p. 22
Guerrilla Warfare: Selective Violencep. 23
Cyclical Nature of Terrorp. 26
Cycle of. Violence: From Germany to Israel to Palestinep. 28
Conclusionsp. 29
Political Assassinationsp. 29
Drugs, Religion, and Political Murdersp. 29
Piracyp. 30
State-Sponsored Terrorismp. 30
Technological Changesp. 30
Weaponsp. 31
Ideology and Terrorism: Rights From Wrongs?p. 34
Key Conceptsp. 34
The Rationalization of Violencep. 35
Tupamaros (Uruguay Faction)p. 37
Rebellion and The Right of Self-Determinationp. 38
The Palestiniansp. 41
Terrorism In The Name of Godp. 42
Causes of The Left, Right, and Centerp. 45
Religious Fanaticismp. 46
Anarchismp. 46
Neo-Nazism/Neofascismp. 46
Separatismp. 47
Nationalismp. 47
Issue-Oriented Terrorp. 47
Ideological Mercenariesp. 48
Pathological Terroristsp. 49
Counterterror Terroristsp. 49
Conclusionsp. 49
Who are The Terrorists?
Criminals or Crusaders?p. 52
Key Conceptsp. 52
Profile of a Terroristp. 53
Terrorist Beliefs and Imagesp. 56
Can We Generalize About A "Typical" Terrorist?p. 59
Individual-Level Analysis: Why Does Someone Become A Terrorist Today?p. 65
Simplicityp. 65
Identificationp. 65
Revengep. 67
Terrorism Is Different Todayp. 68
Aims or Goalsp. 68
Group Dynamicsp. 69
Religious Fanaticismp. 70
Demographic Trends in Group Membershipp. 71
Agep. 71
Educationp. 73
Economic Statusp. 73
Genderp. 74
the Black Widowsp. 75
Disturbing Patterns of Socializationp. 75
Socialization toward Violencep. 75
Alienation toward Western Systemsp. 76
Osama Bin Ladenp. 76
Conclusionsp. 78
Terrorism by The Statep. 82
Key Conceptsp. 82
Internal Terrorism: The Beast That Lurks Withinp. 83
Genocide In Nazi Germanyp. 84
Other Examples of Genocidep. 85
Coerced Conversion and Genocide In Stalin's USSRp. 86
Genocide in Darfurp. 87
Argentina's "Dirty War": Overt State-Supported Terrorismp. 88
The Continuing Reality of State Terrorp. 89
U.S. Prisoners in the "War on Terror"p. 91
External Terrorism: Waging War by Proxyp. 93
Reluctant Bedfellows: The Arms Bazaarp. 96
Weapons of Mass Destruction on The Arms Bazaarp. 98
Silent Partners: offering Arms and Safe Havenp. 98
Syriap. 98
Iranp. 100
Libyap. 102
Terrorist-Supported Statesp. 103
Afghanistan under The Taliban Leadershipp. 103
Palestinian Liberation Authorityp. 104
Conclusionsp. 105
Terrorism, Inc.p. 108
Key Conceptsp. 108
Networkingp. 108
Shared Strategic Planningp. 110
Terrorism Is Big Businessp. 111
Libyan Protectorp. 113
Iran's Support Networkp. 114
Al-Qaeda's Fundingp. 116
The Internationalization of Terrorismp. 118
Al-Qaeda's Networkp. 120
The "Lieutenants"p. 120
The Network and Netwarp. 121
Narco-Terrorismp. 123
Conclusionsp. 124
How Do They Operate?
Terrorist Trainingp. 129
Key Conceptsp. 129
The "How" Questionsp. 130
Training Sitesp. 130
Terrorist Camps in the United Kingdom and the United Statesp. 133
Traveling Training Campsp. 134
Training Topics: What Do They Learn At Camp?p. 135
Arson and Bombsp. 136
Assassination and Ambush Techniquesp. 136
Extortion And Kidnapping for Ransomp. 137
Disguise Techniques, Clandestine Travel, Recruitment, And Communicationsp. 137
Intelligence Collection and Counterintelligence Methodsp. 138
Weaponsp. 138
September 11, 2001, Attacks on the United Statesp. 140
Sequence of Eventsp. 140
Insights into Those Responsiblep. 142
Potential for Destruction: A Terrorist's Arsenalp. 143
Explosivesp. 143
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)p. 144
Assassinations and Ambushesp. 146
Small Armsp. 146
Automatic Weaponsp. 147
Portable Rocketsp. 147
Aerial Hijackingp. 148
Sabotagep. 149
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)p. 149
Chemical Or Biological Attacksp. 149
Al-Qaeda's Quest for A Biological Toxinp. 151
Radiological and Nuclear Attacksp. 152
Suicide Bombing: A "New" Weaponp. 155
Ideology, Not Psychology, of Suicide Bombingp. 155
Suicide Bombings in Iraqp. 155
Suicide Bomber Training Campp. 156
Phases of A Terrorist Incident: Putting The Lessons Learned At Camp into Practicep. 157
Conclusionsp. 159
The Media: A Weapon for Both Sides?p. 163
Key Conceptsp. 163
Mass-Mediated Terrorismp. 163
Terrorist Goals Regarding The Mediap. 164
Publicityp. 164
Favorable Understanding of Their Causep. 165
Legitimacy and Identityp. 165
Destabilizing The Enemyp. 166
Government Goals Regarding Mediap. 166
Publicityp. 166
Criminality of Actp. 167
Deny The Terrorist A Platformp. 167
Information and Cooperationp. 167
Media Goals In Terrorist Eventsp. 168
Getting A Scoopp. 168
Dramatic Presentation of Newsp. 168
Protection of Rightsp. 169
Personal Securityp. 169
Propaganda by The Deedp. 169
Media As A "Showcase" for Terrorismp. 171
Legal Issue of The Right of Accessp. 173
Censorship: The Ugly Wordp. 175
Complicity: A Very Serious Chargep. 178
Bin Laden's Tapesp. 182
Conclusionsp. 183
Domestic Terrorism in The United Statesp. 188
Key Conceptsp. 188
Historical Roots in The United Statesp. 188
Conceptualizing Domestic Terrorism in The United Statesp. 191
Left-Wing Terrorismp. 192
Left-Wing Extremismp. 192
Nationalist Groupsp. 193
Single-Issue Groupsp. 194
Earth Liberation Frontp. 194
Conclusion: Left-Wing Terrorism In The United States Todayp. 195
Right-Wing Extremism: From Militia Groups to Religious Fanatics;p. 196
Militia Movementsp. 196
Aryan Nationsp. 198
Christian Identity Movementp. 199
Montana Freemen and The Christian Patriotsp. 200
Field Manual of The Free Militiap. 201
Theological Trainingp. 202
Equipment for A "Prepared" Militia Memberp. 203
Transnational Terrorismp. 204
The "Lone Wolf" Terroristsp. 207
Oklahoma City Bombingp. 208
Conclusionsp. 209
Responses to Terrorism
Legal Perspectives on Terrorismp. 214
Key Conceptsp. 214
Terrorism Is A Crimep. 214
Laws of Warp. 217
Enemy Combatantsp. 220
Iraq: Differentiating Between Combatants and Noncombatantsp. 222
Piracy of Air and Seap. 223
Protection of Diplomatic Personnel and Heads of Statep. 226
Regional Legal Efforts to Prevent or Punish Terrorismp. 228
International Efforts to Restrict Internal State Terrorismp. 230
Arresting Sudan's Presidentp. 233
Is Terrorism A Political Crime?p. 234
The United Nations and The War on Terrorismp. 235
Conclusionsp. 239
The Use of Force to Combat Terrorismp. 244
Key Conceptsp. 244
Nations Without Defensesp. 245
Strike Forces: A First Line of Defense?p. 246
Israel's Sayaret Mat'kalp. 246
The British Special Air Servicesp. 249
Germany's GSG-9p. 252
Too Many U.S. Options?p. 254
Special Forces, U.S. Armyp. 255
1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (Delta Force), U.S. Armyp. 256
Ranger, U.S. Armyp. 256
Air Force Special Operations Commandp. 256
Naval Special Warfare Commandp. 257
New Units-and New Technologiesp. 258
Operation Chavin De Huantarp. 259
Mogadishup. 260
Conclusionsp. 262
The Use of Legislation and Intelligence Resources to Combat Terrorismp. 265
Key Conceptsp. 265
Legal Initiatives to Counter Terrorismp. 266
Canada's Legal War With The FLQp. 267
The "Temporary" British Problem In Northern Irelandp. 268
Italy and The "Penititi"p. 270
The PATRIOT Actp. 271
Investigation: The Intelligence Initiativep. 277
Germany's Intelligence Gathering: Target Search Teamsp. 278
U.S. Intelligence-Gathering: Multiple Toolsp. 280
Department of Homeland Securityp. 282
Computers As Tools of Investigationp. 283
Dark Web Project Tracking Terrorismp. 284
Government Use of Investigation and Intelligencep. 284
Conclusionsp. 287
Terrorism in Mumbaip. 287
Security Measures: A Frail Defensep. 292
Key Conceptsp. 292
Three Facets of Securityp. 293
NSA's Operation Eligible Receiverp. 295
Critical Infrastructure Protectionp. 297
Airport Security in The United Statesp. 297
Weaknesses in The Security Systemp. 297
Ease of Access to The Cockpitp. 298
Inadequate Screening Processesp. 299
Impact of September 11 Attacks on Airport Securityp. 299
"Fake Bomb" Smugglingp. 301
Protecting Other Forms of Public Transportationp. 303
London Transportation Attacks 2005p. 303
Port Securityp. 305
Preventive Securityp. 306
The Costs of Securityp. 307
Threat and Risk Assessmentp. 309
Threat Assessmentp. 309
Risk of Terrorist Attacksp. 310
Allocating Resources Based on Threat and Risk Assessmentp. 312
Conclusionsp. 312
Cyber Security and Cyberterrorp. 313
Current Trends and Future Prospects
The New Terrorist Threat: Weapons of Mass Destructionp. 318
Key Conceptsp. 318
Context of The Threatp. 318
Historical Use of Weapons of Mass Destructionp. 320
A Brief History of Biological Weaponsp. 320
A Brief History of Chemical Weaponsp. 321
A Brief History of Nuclear Weaponsp. 322
Types of Weapons of Mass Destruction Availablep. 323
Biological Agentsp. 323
Anthraxp. 325
Viral Hemorrhagic Feversp. 327
Bioterrorism Defensep. 328
Chemical Weaponsp. 331
Ricinp. 332
Radiological Weapons
Nuclear Weaponsp. 333
Access to and Use of Weapons of Mass Destructionp. 334
Chemical Agentsp. 335
Aum Attack on the Tokyo Subwayp. 336
Biological Agentsp. 337
Agroterrorismp. 339
Nuclear Devicesp. 339
Radiological Devicesp. 341
Risk Assessment: Comparative Effectiveness of WMDp. 341
Conclusionsp. 342
Future Trendsp. 347
Key Conceptsp. 347
Identifying Trends in Terrorismp. 347
A War on Terrorp. 349
The Counterterrorism Learning Curvep. 350
Globalization, and Understanding the "Why" of Terror Attacksp. 350
Using The Internetp. 351
Armed Efforts to Eliminate Terror: War in Iraqp. 352
Dealing With Weapons of Mass Destructionp. 353
Trends in Terrorist Incidentsp. 355
Volume and Lethality of Incidentsp. 355
Radicalization of Religion and Terrorism Todayp. 358
Deterrence as a Tool against Suicide Bombingp. 361
Impact of The Generational Differences within Terrorist Groupsp. 362
IED: Weapon of Choicep. 363
The Threat and Reality of Cyberterrorp. 363
Nature of Groups as Limiting Factorp. 365
Goals of Groups as Limiting Factorsp. 366
Conclusionsp. 367
Indexp. 371
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