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Tests and Measurement for People Who (Think They) Hate Tests and Measurement,9781412913645
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Tests and Measurement for People Who (Think They) Hate Tests and Measurement

by
ISBN13:

9781412913645

ISBN10:
1412913640
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
9/28/2005
Publisher(s):
SAGE Publications, Inc
List Price: $89.60

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    Tests and Measurement for People Who (Think They) Hate Tests and Measurement




Summary

Tests & Measurement for People Who (Think They) Hate Tests & Measurement is ideal for undergraduate and graduate students in the social and behavioral sciences who are taking their first courses in tests and measurement. Neil J. Salkind guides readers through the fundamentals of tests and measurement, using the conversational writing style and straightforward presentation that have made his book Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics a bestseller. This book introduces readers to more advanced issues and explains why those topics are important. 'úWhat is amazing about this text is how it takes some very difficult material (particularly around reliability and validity, z-scores, etc.) and makes it easily understandable by an undergraduate student. Just as in his statistics book, Salkind has a genius for conveying difficult material in everyday language that engages the reader. This is the perfect text for any research methods instructor who has struggled with making testing and measurement concepts both understandable and FUN." '- John Q. Hodges, University of Missouri, Columbia 'úThe distinguishing factor with this book is the illustrative material. The 'úTech Talk'Ě boxes are helpful for students to quickly get the grasp of a concept and find it to review later. The new vocabulary in tests and measurements is often an obstacle, and these boxes help tremendously'¶. If there is a tests and measurements book that can enlighten and entertain, this book is the one." '- Joseph Matthews, Brigham Young University 'úThe author does a wonderful job conveying concepts clearly and with panache. Undergraduate audiences will be able to follow but not be bored. The book has a strong, consistent voice and I really enjoyed this and felt well cared for as a reader. The discussion on reliability and validity, for example, is better integrated and therefore more useful than any methods text I have read'¶. It's true. I hate tests but I liked this book." '- Christopher P. Bettinger, San Francisco State University 'úSalkind's book may not make test-taking painless, but it certainly makes learning about tests and measurements less painful. The book is a simple, informative, and easy-to-read introduction to all the basics of what seemed previously to be a difficult subject." '- Denise von Herrmann, The University of Southern Mississippi

Table of Contents

A Note to the Student: Why I Wrote This Book xxi
Acknowledgments xxiii
PART I In the Beginning ...
1(22)
Why Me-asurement? An Introduction
3(20)
A Five-Minute History of Testing
4(4)
So, Why Tests and Measurement?
8(4)
What We Test
9(2)
Why We Test
11(1)
Some Important Reminders
12(2)
What Am I Doing in a Tests and Measurement Class?
14(2)
Ten Ways to Use This Book (and Learn About Tests and Measurement at the Same Time!)
16(4)
About Those Icons
19(1)
The Famous Difficulty Index
20(1)
Glossary
20(1)
Summary
20(1)
Time to Practice
20(3)
PART II The Psychology of Psychometrics
23(84)
One Potato, Two Potatoes ... Levels of Measurement and Their Importance
25(12)
First Things First
25(2)
The Four Horsemen (or Levels) of Measurement
27(4)
The Nominal Level of Measurement
27(1)
The Ordinal Level of Measurement
28(1)
The Interval Level of Measurement
29(2)
The Ratio Level of Measurement
31(1)
A Summary: How Levels of Measurement Differ
31(1)
OK, So What's the Lesson Here?
32(1)
The Final Word(s)
33(1)
Summary
34(1)
Time to Practice
35(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
35(1)
Want to Know More?
36(1)
Further Readings
36(1)
And on the Internet
36(1)
Getting It Right Every Time: Reliability and Its Importance
37(26)
Test Scores: Truth or Dare
38(1)
Getting Conceptual
39(2)
If You Know About rxy, Skip This Section ...
41(1)
Different Flavors of Reliability
42(15)
Test-Retest Reliability
42(3)
Parallel Forms Reliability
45(1)
Internal Consistency Reliability
46(9)
Interrater Reliability
55(2)
How Big Is Big? Interpreting Reliability Coefficients
57(1)
And If You Can't Establish Reliability ... Then What?
58(1)
Just One More Thing (and It's a Big One)
59(1)
Summary
59(1)
Time to Practice
60(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
61(1)
Want to Know More?
61(2)
Further Readings
61(1)
And on the Internet
62(1)
The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing But the Truth: Validity and Its Importance
63(18)
A Bit More About the Truth
64(1)
Reliability and Validity: Very Close Cousins
65(1)
Different Types of Validity
65(11)
Content Validity
66(2)
Criterion Validity
68(3)
Construct Validity
71(4)
And If You Can't Establish Validity ... Then What?
75(1)
A Last Friendly Word
76(1)
Summary
77(1)
Time to Practice
77(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
78(1)
Want to Know More?
78(3)
Further Readings
78(1)
And on the Internet
79(2)
Welcome to Lake Woebegone, Where All the Children Are Above Average: Norms and Percentiles
81(26)
The Basics: Raw (Scores) to the Bone!
83(1)
Percentiles or Percentile Ranks
84(7)
Percentiles: The Sequel
88(2)
What's to Love About Percentiles
90(1)
What's Not to Love About Percentiles
91(1)
Stanines (or Stanine Scores)
91(4)
What's to Love About Stanines
94(1)
What's Not to Love About Stanines
94(1)
The Standard (Fare) Scores
95(6)
Our Favorite Standard Score: The z Score
95(4)
Normalized Standard Scores
99(1)
T Scores to the Rescue
99(2)
Standing on Your Own: Criterion-Referenced Tests
101(1)
The Standard Error of Measurement
102(2)
What the SEM Means
103(1)
Summary
104(1)
Time to Practice
104(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
105(1)
Want to Know More?
106(1)
Further Readings
106(1)
And on the Internet
106(1)
PART III The Tao and How of Testing
107(94)
Short Answer and Completion Items: Baskin Robbins® Has __ Flavors
109(10)
When We Use `Em and What They Look Like
109(1)
How to Write `Em: The Guidelines
110(3)
The Good and the Bad
113(3)
Why Completion and Short Answer Items Are Good
114(1)
Why Completion and Short Answer Items Are Not So Good
114(2)
Summary
116(1)
Time to Practice
116(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
116(1)
Want to Know More?
117(2)
Further Readings
117(1)
And on the Internet
118(1)
Essay Items: Hope You Can Write
119(14)
When We Use `Em and What They Look Like
119(2)
How to Write Essay Items: The Guidelines
121(3)
The Good and the Bad
124(2)
Why Essay Items Are Good
124(1)
Why Essay Items Are Not So Good
125(1)
How to Score Essay Items
126(3)
Summary
129(1)
Time to Practice
129(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
129(1)
Want to Know More?
130(3)
Further Readings
130(1)
And on the Internet
131(2)
Multiple-Choice Items: Always Pick Answer C and You'll Be Right About 25% of the Time
133(24)
When We Use `Em and What They Look Like
133(3)
Multiple-Choice Anatomy 101
135(1)
How to Write Multiple-Choice Items: The Guidelines
136(4)
The Good and the Bad
140(4)
Why Multiple-Choice Items Are Good
140(1)
Why Multiple-Choice Items Are Not So Good
141(3)
Analyzing Multiple-Choice Items
144(9)
Computing the Difficulty Index
148(1)
Computing the Discrimination Index
149(1)
How the Difficulty and Discrimination Index Get Along: Quite Well, Thank You
150(3)
Summary
153(1)
Time to Practice
154(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
154(1)
Want to Know More?
155(2)
Further Readings
155(1)
And on the Internet
156(1)
Matchmaker, Matchmaker, Make Me a Match: Matching Items
157(12)
When We Use `Em and What They Look Like
157(3)
How to Write `Em: The Guidelines
160(2)
The Good and the Bad
162(3)
Why Matching Items Are Good
163(1)
Why Matching Items Are Not So Good
164(1)
Summary
165(1)
Time to Practice
165(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
166(1)
Want to Know More?
167(2)
Further Readings
167(1)
And on the Internet
167(2)
True-False Tests: T or F? I Passed My First Measurement Test
169(12)
What We Use `Em for
169(1)
How to Write `Em: The Guidelines
170(3)
The Good and the Bad
173(4)
Why True-False Items Are Good
174(1)
Why True-False Items Are Not So Good
174(3)
Summary
177(1)
Time to Practice
177(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
178(1)
Want to Know More?
178(3)
Further Readings
178(1)
And on the Internet
179(2)
Portfolios: Seeing the Big Picture
181(8)
What Portfolios Are and How They Work
181(5)
What's a Good Portfolio?
183(2)
How Portfolios Work
185(1)
Summary
186(1)
Time to Practice
187(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
187(1)
Want to Know More?
188(1)
Further Readings
188(1)
And on the Internet
188(1)
So, Tell Me About Your Childhood: Interesting Interviews
189(12)
When We Use `Em and What They Look Like
189(4)
Interviews: A Flavor for Everyone
190(3)
How to Do `Em: The Guidelines
193(4)
The Good and the Bad
197(1)
Why Interview Items Are Good
198(1)
Why Interview Items Are Not So Good
198(1)
Summary
198(1)
Time to Practice
199(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
199(1)
Want to Know More?
200(1)
Further Readings
200(1)
And on the Internet
200(1)
PART IV What to Test and How to Test It
201(84)
Achievement Tests: Who Really Discovered America?
203(18)
What Achievement Tests Do
203(2)
How Achievement Tests Differ From One Another
205(2)
Teacher (or Researcher) Made Versus Standardized Achievement Tests
205(1)
Group Versus Individual Achievement Tests
206(1)
Criterion- Versus Norm-Referenced
206(1)
How to Do It: The ABCs of Creating a Standardized Test
207(2)
The Amazing Table of Specifications
209(5)
What They Are: A Sampling of Achievement Tests and What They Do
214(1)
Summary
214(1)
Time to Practice
214(5)
Answers to Practice Questions
219(1)
Want to Know More?
220(1)
Further Readings
220(1)
And on the Internet
220(1)
Personality Tests: Type A, Type B, or Type C?
221(16)
What Personality Tests Are and How They Work
221(3)
Objective or Projective: You Tell Me
222(2)
Developing Personality Tests
224(6)
Using Content and Theory
224(1)
Using a Criterion Group
225(3)
Using Factor Analysis
228(1)
Using Personality Theory
229(1)
What They Are: A Sampling of Personality Tests and What They Do
230(4)
Summary
234(1)
Time to Practice
234(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
234(1)
Want to Know More?
235(2)
Further Readings
235(1)
And on the Internet
236(1)
Aptitude Tests: What's in Store for Me?
237(14)
What Aptitude Tests Do
238(1)
How to Do It: The ABCs of Creating an Aptitude Test
239(3)
Types of Aptitude Tests
242(2)
Mechanical Aptitude Tests
242(1)
Artistic Aptitude Tests
242(1)
Readiness Aptitude Tests
243(1)
Clerical Aptitude Tests
244(1)
Some of the Big Ones
244(1)
Summary
244(4)
Time to Practice
248(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
248(1)
Want to Know More?
248(3)
Further Readings
248(1)
And on the Internet
249(2)
Intelligence Tests: That Rubik's Cube Is Driving Me Nuts
251(18)
The ABCs of Intelligence
252(6)
The Big ``g''
253(1)
More Than Just the Big ``g'': The Multiple Factor Approach
254(1)
The Three-Way Deal
255(1)
Way More Than One Type of Intelligence: Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
255(2)
Emotional Intelligence: A Really Different Idea
257(1)
From the Beginning: (Almost) All About the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
258(4)
A Bit of History
258(3)
What's the Score? Administering the Stanford-Binet (and Other Tests of Intelligence)
261(1)
And the Fab Five Are ...
262(4)
Summary
266(1)
Time to Practice
266(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
267(1)
Want to Know More?
267(2)
Further Readings
267(1)
And on the Internet
267(2)
Career Choices: So You Want to Be a What?
269(16)
What Career Development Tests Do
270(1)
Let's Get Started: The Strong Interest Inventory
270(3)
John Holland and the Self-Directed Search (SDS)
273(2)
Some Major Caveats: Career Counseling 101
275(2)
Five Career Tests
277(1)
Summary
277(1)
Time to Practice
277(4)
Answers to Practice Questions
281(1)
Want to Know More?
282(3)
Further Readings
282(1)
And on the Internet
282(3)
PART V It's Not Always As You Think: Issues in Tests and Measurement
285(32)
Test Bias: Fair for Everyone?
287(14)
The $64,000 Question: What Is Test Bias?
287(3)
Test Bias or Test Fairness?
288(2)
Moving Toward Fair Tests: The FairTest Movement
290(1)
Models of Test Bias
291(6)
The Difference-Difference Bias
291(1)
Item by Item
292(1)
On the Face of Things
292(1)
The Cleary Model
293(1)
Playing Fair
294(2)
Where It All Started: Test Differences Between Black and White American Children
296(1)
Summary
297(1)
Time to Practice
297(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
298(1)
Want to Know More?
298(3)
Further Readings
298(1)
And on the Internet
299(2)
The Law, Testing, and Ethics: No Child (Should Be) Left Behind and Other Concerns
301(16)
No Child Left Behind or NCLB: What It Is and How It Works
301(4)
How Testing Fits in
302(1)
What's Assessed and How
303(1)
What's the Big Deal About NCLB?
304(1)
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act: What They Are and How They Work
305(2)
What IDEA Does
306(1)
The Truth in Testing Law: High-Stakes Testing
307(2)
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, or FERPA: What It Is and How It Works
309(2)
Ethics and Assessment: 10 Things to Remember
311(2)
Summary
313(1)
Time to Practice
313(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
314(1)
Want to Know More?
314(3)
Further Readings
314(1)
And on the Internet
315(2)
Appendixes
317(28)
Appendix A: Your Tests and Measurement Toolkit
319(22)
Appendix B: The Guide to (Almost) Every Test in the Universe
341(4)
Glossary 345(12)
References 357(2)
Index 359(12)
About the Author 371


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