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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-01-07
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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"Real Thinking for Real Life with Real Success" For your classes in Critical Thinking, McGraw-Hill introduces the new edition of THiNK, from the acclaimed M Series. Critical Thinking begins by listening and we began THiNKby listening to and observing students and instructors. McGraw-Hill conducted extensive research to gain insight into students' studying and buying behavior, as well as instructor challenges. Students told us they wanted more portable texts with innovative visual appeal and content that is designed according to the way they learn. Instructors told us they wanted a way to engage their students without compromising on high quality content. THiNKis critical thinking come to life. This innovative text provides instructors with scholarly yet succinct content on critical thinking and logical argumentation in a format that captivates students. With current examples, exercises, and applications, and powerful pedagogy that links concepts within and between chapters, THiNKdirects students to make connections between skill development and application to their college studies, careers, and personal lives. Imagine a class where students are actively and personally engaged in thinking critically while also discovering how to apply those thinking skills in everyday life. Now imagine those same students confidently participating in class, working efficiently through the exercises outside class, and performing better in the course. With Connect Critical Thinking, students can achieve this success. Connect Critical Thinkingis a first: a learning program with pedagogical tools that are anchored in research on critical thinking. More current, more portable, more captivating, a rigorous and innovative research foundation, plus Connect Critical Thinkingadds up to: more learning. When you meet students where they are, you can take them where you want them to be.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Why are Critical Thinking and Logic Skills Important

What is Critical Thinking?

Critical Thinking in Everyday Life
Cognitive Development in College Students

Characteristics of a Good Critical Thinker

Analytical Skills
Effective Communication
Research and Inquiry Skills
Flexibility and Tolerance for Ambiguity
Open-minded Skepticism
Creative Problem-solving
Attentive, Mindful, and Curious
Collaborative Learning

Critical Thinking and Self-Development

Living the Self-Examined Life
Developing a Rational Life Plan
Facing Challenges
The Importance of Self-Esteem
Critical Thinking in a Democracy

Barriers to Critical Thinking

The Three-tier Model of Thinking
Types of Resistance
Rationalization and Doublethink
Cognitive and Social Dissonance
Stress as a Barrier

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Affirmative Action in College Admissions

Nancy Cantor, Affirmative Action and Higher Education
George W. Bush, Remarks by the President on the Michigan Affirmative Action Case

Chapter 2: Reason and Emotion in Critical Thinking

What is Reason?

Traditional Views of Reason
Gender, Race, Age, and Reason
Dreams and Problem-Solving

The Role of Emotion in Critical Thinking

Cultural Attitudes Toward Emotion
Emotional Intelligence and the Positive Effects of Emotion
Negative Effects of Emotion
Integrating Emotion and Reason

Artificial Intelligence, Reason, and Emotion

The Field of Artificial Intelligence
Can Computers Think?
Can Computers Feel Emotion?

Faith and Reason

Fideism: Faith Transcends Reason
Rationalism: Religious Beliefs and Reason
Critical Rationalism: Faith and Reason are Compatible
Religion, Spirituality and Real-Life Decisions

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Spirituality and Evolution of Artificial Intelligence

Ray Kurzweil, Artificial Intelligence and Evolution
Noreen Herzfeld, In Our Image: Artificial Intelligence and the Human Spirit

Chapter 3: Language and Communication

What is Language?

Functions of Language
Nonverbal Language


Denotative and Connotative Meanings
Stipulative Definitions
Lexical Definitions
Precising Definitions
Persuasive Definitions

Evaluating Definitions

Five Criteria
Verbal Disputes Based on Ambiguous Definitions

Communication Styles

Individual Styles of Communication
Communication Style, Gender and Race
Cultural Differences in Communication Styles

The Use of Language to Manipulate

Emotive Language
Rhetorical Devices
Deception and Lying

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Free Speech Zones on College Campuses

West Virginia University, Policy on Free Speech Activities
Greg Lukianoff, Letter to President Hardesty, WVU, Freedom for IndividualRights in Education
Robert J. Scott, Reasonable Limits Are Good

Chapter 4: Knowledge, Evidence and Errors in Thinking

Human Knowledge and Its Limitations

Rationalism and Empiricism
Kant and the Structure of the Mind

Evaluating Evidence

Direct Experience and False Memories
The Unreliability of Hearsay and Anecdotal Evidence
Experts and Credibility
Evaluating Evidence for a Claim
Research Resources

Cognitive and Perceptual Errors in Thinking

Perceptual Errors
Misperception of Random Data
Memorable Events Error
Probability Error
Self-serving Biases
Self-fulfilling Prophecies

Social Errors and Biases

"One of Us/One of Them" Error
Society Expectations
Group Pressure and Conformity
Diffusion of Responsibility

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Existence of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs)

Edward U. Condon, Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects
J. Allen Hynek, The UFO Experience: A Scientific Inquiry
Royston Paynter, Physical Evidence and UFOs

Chapter 5: Informal Fallacies

What is a Fallacy?

Fallacies of Ambiguity

Fallacy of Accent
Fallacy of Division

Fallacies of Relevance

Personal Attack (Ad Hominem Fallacy)
Appeal to Force (Scare Tactics)
Appeal to Pity
Popular Appeal
Appeal to Ignorance
Hasty Generalization
Straw Man
Red Herring

Fallacies Involving Unwarranted Assumptions

Begging the Question
Inappropriate Appeal to Authority
Loaded Question
False Dilemma
Questionable Cause
Slippery Slope
Naturalistic Fallacy

Strategies for Avoiding Fallacies

Critical Thinking Issues: Perspectives on Going to War in Iraq

President George W. Bush, Remarks on the Iraqi Threat
Dave Koehler, Fallacies and War: Misleading a Nervous America to the Wrong Conclusion

Chapter 6: Recognizing, Analyzing, and Constructing Arguments

What is an Issue?

Identifying an Issue
Asking the Right Questions

Argumentation versus Rhetoric

Distinguishing Between Rhetoric and Argumentation
Avoiding Rhetoric

Recognizing an Argument

Premises and Conclusions
Nonarguments: Explanations and Conditional Statements

Breaking Down and Diagramming Arguments

Breaking Down an Argument into Propositions
Identifying Premise(s) and Conclusion in Complex Arguments
Diagramming an Argument

Evaluating Arguments

Clarity: Is the Argument Clear and Unambiguous?
Credibility: Are The Premises Supported by Evidence?
Relevance: Are The Premises Relevant to the Conclusion?
Completeness: Are There Any Unstated Premises and Conclusions?
Soundness: Are the Premises True and Do They Support the Conclusion?

Constructing an Argument

Steps for Constructing an Argument
Testing and Revising Your Argument

Writing a College Essay Based on Logical Argumentation

Using Arguments in Making Real-Life Decisions

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Same Sex Marriage

Michael Nava and Robert Dawidoff, The Case for Gay Marriages
Robert Sokolowski, The Threat of Same-Sex Marriage

Chapter 7: Inductive Arguments

What is an Inductive Argument?

The Use of Inductive Reasoning in Everyday Life


Using Polls, Surveys, and Sampling to Make Generalizations
Applying Generalizations to Particular Cases
Evaluating Inductive Arguments Using Generalization


Uses of Analogies
Arguments Based on Analogies
Analogies as Tools for Refuting Arguments
Evaluating Inductive Arguments Based on Analogies

Causal Arguments

Causal Relationships
Establishing Causal Relationships
Causal Arguments in Public Policy and Everyday Decision Making
Evaluating Causal Arguments

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Legalizing Marijuana

Karen P. Tandy, Marijuana: The Myths Are Killing Us
Paul Armentano, Cannabis, Mental Health and Context: The Case for Regulation
Wayne Hall, MD, The Cannabis Policy Debate: Finding a Way Forward

Chapter 8: Deductive Arguments

What is a Deductive Argument?

Deductive Reasoning and Syllogisms
Valid and Invalid Arguments
Sound and Unsound Arguments

Types of Deductive Arguments

Arguments by Elimination
Arguments Based on Mathematics
Arguments from Definition

Hypothetical Syllogisms

Modus Ponens
Modus Tollens
Chain Arguments
Evaluating Hypothetical Syllogisms for Validity
Evaluating Hypothetical Syllogisms for Soundness

Categorical Syllogisms

Standard Form Categorical Syllogisms
Quantity and Quality
Diagramming Propositions with Venn Diagrams
Using Venn Diagrams to Evaluate Categorical Syllogisms

Translating Ordinary Arguments into Standard Form

Rewriting Everyday Propositions in Standard-Form
Identifying the Three Terms in the Argument
Putting the Argument in Standard Form

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on the Death Penalty

Gregg v. Georgia: Excerpts from the Majority Opinion of Justice Potter Stewart
Ernest van den Haag, The Ultimate Punishment: A Defense of Capital Punishment
European Union, Memorandum on the Death Penalty

Chapter 9: Critical Thinking in Ethics and Moral Decision-Making

What is Moral Reasoning?

Moral Values and Happiness
Conscience and Moral Sentiment

The Development of Moral Reasoning

Lawrence Kohlberg's Stage Theory of Moral Development
Carol Gilligan on Moral Reasoning Women
The Development of Moral Reasoning in College Students

Moral Theories: Morality is Relative

Ethical Subjectivism
Cultural Relativism

Moral Theories: Morality is Universal

Utilitarianism (Consequence-Based Ethics)
Deontology (Duty-Based Ethics)
Rights-Based ethics
Virtue Ethics

Moral Arguments

Recognizing Moral Arguments
Constructing Moral Arguments
Evaluating Moral Arguments
Resolving Moral Dilemmas

Critical Thinking Issue: Perspectives on Abortion

Roe v. Wade: Excerpts from the Majority Opinion, Justice Blackmun
Judith Jarvis Thomson, A Defense of Abortion
Serrin M. Foster, Refuse to Choose: Women Deserve Better than Abortion

Chapter 10: Critical Thinking in Marketing and Advertising

Marketing in a Consumer Culture

Marketing Research
Avoiding Confirmation Bias and Other Errors in Thinking

Marketing Strategies

The SWOT Model
Consumer Awareness of Marketing Strategies

Advertising and the Media

The Role of Advertising in the Media
Product Placement
Television Advertising and Children

Evaluating Advertisements

Common Fallacies in Advertisements
Rhetorical Devices and Misleading Language
Faulty and Weak Arguments
A Critique of Advertising

Chapter 11: Critical Thinking in the Mass Media

Mass Media in the United States

The Rise of Mass Media
The Media Today

The News Media

Credibility of News Coverage
Sensationalism and the News as Entertainment
Bias in the News
Depth of News Analysis
Confirmation Bias

Science Reporting

Misrepresentation of Scientific Findings
Government Influence and Bias
Evaluating Scientific Reports

The Internet

Impact of the Internet on Daily Life
Social Networking
The Internet as "The Great Equalizer"
Misuse of the Internet: Pornography and Plagiarism

Media Literacy: A Critical Thinking Approach

Experiencing the Media
Interpreting Media Messages

Chapter 12: Critical Thinking in the Sciences

What is Science?

The Scientific Revolution
Assumptions Underlying Science
Limitations of Science
Science and Religion

The Scientific Method

Identify the Problem
Develop an Initial Hypothesis
Gather Additional Information and Refine the Hypothesis
Test the Hypothesis
Evaluate the Hypothesis Based on Testing or Experimental Results

Evaluating Scientific Hypotheses

A Good Hypothesis is Relevant to the Problem under Study
A Good Hypothesis is Consistent with Well Established Theories
A Good Hypothesis is Simple
A Good Hypothesis is Testable and Falsifiable
A Good Hypothesis has Predictive Power
Distinguishing Between Scientific and Pseudoscientific Hypotheses

Research Methodology and Scientific Experiments

Research Methodology and Data
Field Experiments
Controlled Experiments
Single Group (Pretest-Posttest) Experiments
Evaluating an Experimental Design
Interpreting Experimental Results
Ethical Concerns in Scientific Experimentation

Thomas Kuhn and Scientific Paradigms

Normal Science and Paradigms
Scientific Revolutions and Paradigm Shifts

Chapter 13: Critical Thinking in Law and Politics

The Social Contract Theory of Government

The State of Nature
Social Contract Theory
International Law

The Development of Democracy in the United States

Representative Democracy: A Safeguard against the "Tyranny of the Majority"
Liberal Democracy: Protection of Individual Rights
olitical Campaigns and Elections
Voting: A Right or a Duty?

The Executive Branch of Government

The Role of the Executive Branch
Executive Orders and National Security
Checks on Executive Power

The Legislative Branch

The Role of the Legislative Branch
Citizens and Legislation
Unjust Laws and Civil Disobedience

The Judicial Branch

The Role of the Judicial Branch
Rules of Evidence
Legal Reasoning and the Doctrine of Legal Precedent
Jury Duty

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