THINK Public Relations

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-07-20
  • Publisher: Pearson
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THINK Public Relationsengaging visual design and contemporary applications help readers develop a fundamental understanding of current issues affecting public relations practice today - all at a low price. Readers are introduced to exciting and innovative public relations campaign examples in the context of relevant theory and core concepts that they will need to succeed in the world of public relations.

Author Biography

DENNIS L. WILCOX, Ph.D., is professor emeritus of public relations and past director of the School of Journalism and Mass Communications at San Jose State University, California. He is a Fellow and accredited (APR) member of the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA), former chair of the PRSA Educator’s Academy, and past chair of the public ­relations division of Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC). Dr. Wilcox has written six books, including being the lead author of Public Relations Strategies and Tactics and Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques. His honors include PRSA’s “Outstanding Educator,” the Xifra-Award from the University of Girona (Spain), and an honorary doctorate from the University of Bucharest. He is active in the International Public Relations Association (IPRA) and a member of the Arthur W. Page Society, a group of senior communication executives. Dr. Wilcox regularly consults and gives lectures and workshops to students and professionals in a variety of nations. 


GLEN T. CAMERON, Ph.D., is Gregory Chair in Journalism ­Research and founder of the Health Communication ­Research Center at the University of Missouri. Dr. Cameron has authored more than 300 articles, chapters, award-­winning conference ­papers, and books on public relations topics. A popular lecturer internationally, Dr. Cameron has received the Baskett-Mosse and Pathfinder awards for ­career achievement. The University of ­Missouri honored him in 2006 with the 21st Century Corps of Discovery Lectureship, which is given once each year by a globally recognized campus scholar. Dr. Cameron’s ongoing public ­relations ­experience includes his management of more than $42 million in external funding of health public relations projects from sources such as the ­National Institutes of Health, the National Cancer Institute, Missouri Foundation for Health, the U.S. ­Department of Agriculture, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S Department of Defense, and Monsanto. Whenever he can, Dr. Cameron enjoys the rivers and mountains of his native Montana as well as wild spots around the world.


BRYAN H. REBER, Ph.D., is associate professor of public ­relations at the University of Georgia, Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication. Dr. Reber teaches courses that offer an introduction to public relations, management, writing, and campaigns. On the graduate level, he teaches classes in topics including management, persuasion, campaign research, and public opinion. His research focuses on public relations theory, practice, pedagogy, and health communication and has been published in the Journal of Public Relations Research, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Journal of Health Communication, Public Relations Review, and Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. Dr. Reber regularly presents his research at national and international academic conferences. He is the co-author of two books: Gaining Influence in Public Relations and Public Relations ­Today: Managing Competition and Conflict. Dr. Reber worked for 15 years in public relations at Bethel College, Kansas. He has conducted research for the Sierra Club, Ketchum, and the Georgia Hospital Association, among ­others.


JAE-HWA SHIN, Ph.D., Mph., is associate professor in the School of Mass Communication and Journalism at the University of Southern Mississippi. Dr. Shin is widely recognized as a prolific researcher in the field of public relations and has ­actively participated in the emerging development of public relations theory.

She co-authored Public Relations ­Today: Managing Conflict and Competition, a text that incorporates her research, teaching, and professional experience. In addition, she has published her research in peer-reviewed journals such as Public ­Relations Review, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Science Communication Journal, and Journal of Communication in Health Care. Dr. Shin is an active presenter at national and ­international conferences such as those sponsored by the ­International Communication Association, National Communication Association, and Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Prior to her teaching at the University of Southern Mississippi, she worked as the Public Relations Director for the Korea Economic Research Institute of the Federation of Korean Industries.

Table of Contents

What Is Public Relations?   2

The Challenge of Public Relations   4

Global Scope   5

A Variety of Definitions   6

PR Casebook> Doritos PR Helps Steal the ­Super Bowl Away from Budweiser   7

Public Relations as a Process   8

The Components of Public Relations   11

How Public Relations Differs from Journalism   12

Scope   13 

Objectives   13

Audiences   13

Channels   13

How Public Relations Differs from Advertising   14

How Public Relations Differs from Marketing   15

How Public Relations Supports Marketing     15

Toward an Integrated Perspective: Strategic Communication   17

Summary   20

Questions for Review and Discussion   21

TACTICS  Other Firms’ Suffering Has Bolstered the Public Relations Business, The Economist   22


Careers in Public Relations   24

A Changing Focus in Public Relations   26

The Range of Public Relations Work   28

Personal Qualifications and Attitudes   28

Five Essential Abilities   29

PR Casebook> Pepsi Creates Social Media Buzz with Amp App   31

Organizational Roles   32

The Value of Internships   33

Salaries in Public Relations   34

Entry-Level Salaries   34

Salaries for ­Experienced Professionals  34

Salaries for Women: The Gender Gap  36

The Value of Public Relations   38

Summary   40

Questions for Review and Discussion   41


Managing Competition and Conflict   42

A New Way of Thinking: Conflict and Competition   44

The Role of Public Relations in Managing Conflict   46

It Depends: Factors That Affect Conflict ­Management   48

The Threat Appraisal Model   48 • Contingency Theory   48

PR Casebook> Water Purveyors Face Conflict and Competition   51

The Conflict Management Life Cycle   50

Proactive Phase   50

Strategic Phase   50

Reactive Phase   51

Recovery Phase   51

Managing the Life Cycle of a Conflict   52

Issues Management   52

Strategic ­Positioning and Risk Communication   53

Crisis Management   54

Reputation ­Management   58 

Déjà Vu–All Over Again   59

Summary   60

Questions for Review and Discussion   61

TACTICS  Maybe Tiger Woods Knows Exactly What He Is Doing, New York Magazine   62


The Growth of a Profession   64

A Brief History of Public Relations   66

Ancient Beginnings   66

Public Relations in Colonial America   67

The Age of the Press Agent   67

Public Relations Grows as America Grows  67

The Rise of ­Politics and Activism   68

Modern Public Relations Comes of Age   69

PR Casebook> Constructive Public Relations   for the New York Subway   71

Public Relations Expands in Postwar ­America   73

Evolving Practice and ­Philosophy   74

Trends in Today’s Practice of Public Relations   76

Feminization of the Field   76

The Importance of Diversity   78

Other ­Major Trends in Public Relations   79

A Growing Professional Practice   80

The Public Relations Society of America   88

The International Association of Business Communicators   81

The International Public Relations Association   81

Other Groups   81

Professionalism, Licensing, and Accreditation  81

Professionalism   81

Licensing   82

Accreditation   83

Summary   84

Questions for Review and Discussion   85


Today’s Practice: Departments and Firms  86

Public Relations Departments   88

Organizational Factors Determine the Role of Public Relations   89

What Public ­Relations Departments Are Called   90

How Public Relations Departments Are ­Organized   91

Line and Staff Functions   92

Levels of Influence   92

Sources of Friction   92

The Trend ­Toward ­Outsourcing   94

Public Relations Firms   96

Global Reach   98

The Rise of Communication Conglomerates   98

Structure of a Counseling Firm   100

Pros and Cons of Using a Public Relations Firm   100

PR Casebook> Taking SXSW to the Next Level   101

Fees and Charges   102

Summary   104

Questions for Review and Discussion   105

TACTICS  Census Campaign Focuses on ­Messaging, Minority Communities, PRWeek  106


Research and Campaign Planning  108

The Four Essential Steps of Effective Public Relations  110

Research:  The First Step  110

Using ­Research   111

Research Techniques  112

Random Sampling  118

Sample Size  118

Reaching Respondents   119

Planning: The Second Step  122

Approaches to Planning  122

The Eight Elements of a Program Plan  122

PR Casebook> What Did Fleishman-Hillard Do for Brown?   125

Summary  130

Questions for Review and Discussion  131


Communication and Measurement   132

Making Sure the Audience Receives the Message  136

Making the Audience Pay Attention to the Audience  137

Making Sure the Message Is Understood  138 • Making the Message Credible   139

Making the Message Memorable   141

Making Sure the Audience Acts on the ­Message  141

Measurement: The Fourth Step   143

Objectives: A Prerequisite for Measurement   144

Measurement and Evaluation Status   144

Measure of Production   145

Measurement of Message Exposure   146

Media Impressions   146

Internet Hits   147

Advertising Equivalency   147

Systematic Tracking   148

Information Requests   149

Cost per Person   149

Audience Attendance   150

Measurement of Audience Awareness   150

Measurement of Audience Attitudes   151

Measurement of Audience Action   152

PR Casebook> Media Reality Check   153

Summary   154

Questions for Review and Discussion   155

TACTICS  Americans Split on Whether Goals in Afghanistan Will Be Met, Gallup   156


Public Opinion and Persuasion   158

What Is Public Opinion?   160

Opinion Leaders as Catalysts   162

The Flow of Opinion   162

The Role of Mass Media   164

Agenda Setting   164

Framing   164

The Role of Conflict   166

PR Casebook> War over Wal-Mart: Retail ­Giant Fights Back   169

Persuasion in Public Opinion   168

The Uses of Persuasion   168

Persuasion and Negotiation   170

Factors in Persuasive Communication   171

Audience Analysis   171

Appeals to Self-Interest   171

Audience Participation   172

Suggestions for Action 173

Source Credibility   173

Clarity of Message   174

Channels   174

Timing and Context   174

Reinforcement   175

The Limits of Persuasion   176

Lack of Message Penetration   177

Competing or Conflicting Messages 177

Self-Selection   177

Self-Perception   177

Summary   178

Questions for Review and Discussion   179


Ethics and the Law   180

What Is Ethics?   182

The Ethical Advocate   182

Professional Guidelines   184

Codes of Conduct   184

Ethics in ­Individual Practice   185

Dealing with the News Media   186

Public Relations and the Law   187

Defamation   188 • Avoiding Libel Suits 188

PR Casebook> Make It Work, People   189

Employee Communications   190

Product Publicity and Advertising   190 

Employee Free Speech   190

Copyright Law   191

Fair Use Versus Infringement   192

Photography and Artwork   192

The Rights of Freelance Writers   193

Trademark Law   194

The Protection of Trademarks   194

Trademark Infringement   194

Misappropriation of Personality   195

Regulations by Government Agencies   196

The Federal Trade Commission   196

The Securities and Exchange Commission   197

Other Regulatory Agencies   198

Liability for Sponsored Events   198

Working with Lawyers   199

Summary   200

Questions for Review and Discussion   201

TACTICS  Financial Sector Targets Diverse Audiences, PRWeek   202


Reaching Diverse Audiences   204

The Nature of the Public Relations Audience   206

Age Group Audiences   209

Youth   209 • Baby Boomers   210

Seniors   210

Gender/Lifestyle Audiences   211

Women   211

Gays and Lesbians   213

Religious Groups   214

Ethnically Diverse Audiences   214

PR Casebook> Getting the Word  Out on Gay Tourism   215

Divesity Media   216

Hispanics   216

African Americans   218

Global Audiences   219

Matching the Audience with the Media   220

Print   220

Radio and Video   221

Television   221

Online Media   221

Social Media   222

Summary   224

Questions for Review and Discussion   225


The Internet and Social Media   226

The Internet Is Everywhere   228

Leveraging the Power of the Web  229

Interactivity   230

Cost-Effectiveness  231

Webcasts: Real-Time Interaction   232

The Rise of Social Media  233

Blogs: Everyone’s a Journalist   233

Corporate or Organizational Blogs   234

Employee Blogs   234

Third-Party Blogs  235

Making Friends on MySpace and Facebook  237

YouTube: Video Clips and Controversy  238

PR Casebook> Pizza Chain Responds to YouTube Video  239

Texting: A Way of Life  241

Wikis, Tweets, and Podcasts: Oh My!  241

The Next Generation: Web 3.0   243

Summary  244

Questions for Review and Discussion  245

TACTICS  Social Media Puts Fizz into Coke, Financial Times  246


Public Relations Tactics   248

News Releases   250

Is it Time for a News Release?   250

The Content of a News Release   251

Publicity Photos   252

Media Advisories, Fact Sheets, Media Kits, and Pitch Letters   253

PR Casebook> Doing Good for the World and for the Balance Sheet   255

Interviews with Journalists and News ­Conferences   256

Interviews   256 • News Conferences   256

Planning and Conducting a News Conference   257

The Press Party and the Media Tour   257

The Reach of Radio and Television   259

Radio   259

Audio News Releases   260

Public Service Announcements   260

Radio ­Media Tours   260

Television   261

Video News Releases   261

Satellite ­Media Tours   262

Personal Appearances   263

Talk Shows and Magazine Shows   263

Booking a Guest   263

Product Placements   264

Summary   266

Questions for Review and Discussion   267


Events and Promotions   268

A World Filled with Meetings and Events   270

Group Meetings   271

Meeting Location   271

Meeting Invitations   271

Getting the Meeting Started   272

Speakers   273

Meals   273

Banquets   274

Receptions and Cocktail Parties   276

Open Houses and Plant Tours   277

Conventions   278

Convention Planning   278

Convention Programs   279

Trade Shows   280

Exhibit Booths   280

Press Rooms and Media Relations   281

Promotional Events   283

Corporate Sponsorships: Another Kind of Event   283

Celebrity Appearances 284

Promotional Event Logistics   284

PR Casebook> When Going to the Restroom Is an Event   285

Summary   286

Questions for Review and Discussion   287

TACTICS  Dealing with Global Media Can Be Difficult, but if Done Correctly Brings Numerous Rewards, PRWeek   288


Global Public Relations   290

What Is Global Public Relations?   292

Public Relations Development in Other Nations   293

International Corporate Public Relations   295

Language and Cultural Differences   297

Foreign Corporations in the United States   298

PR Casebook> Romania Rehabilitates Its ­Image “Virtually”   299

Representing U.S. Corporations in Other ­Nations   300

Public Diplomacy   301

Foreign Public Diplomacy Efforts   302

The Rise of NGOs   304

Opportunities in International Work   304

Summary   306

Questions for Review and Discussion   307


Corporate Public Relations   308

Modern Corporations   310

The Role of Public Relations   311

Media Relations   312

Customer Relations   313

Consumer Activism   315

Consumer Boycotts   315

Employee Relations   316

Investor Relations   318

Marketing Communications   318

PR Casebook> Coors Brews a Community Relations Problem  319

Product Publicity   320

Cause-Related Marketing   321

Corporate Sponsorship  321

Viral Marketing   322

Environmental Relations   323

Corporate Philanthropy   324

Summary   326

Questions for Review and Discussion   327

TACTICS  The How-To of an Admission in the Steroid Era, The New York Times   328


Entertainment, Sports, and Tourism   330

Public Relations in Entertainment, Sports, and Tourism   332

The Entertainment Industry   332

The Personality Campaign   334

Conducting the Campaign   334

Promoting an Entertainment Event   336

The “Drip-Drip-Drip” Technique   336

The Movie Industry   337

Sports Publicity   338

PR Casebook> A Tiger in Trouble   341

Travel Promotion   342

Appeals to Target Audiences   343

Tourism in Times of Crisis   344

Summary   346

Questions for Review and Discussion   347


Government and Politics   348

Government Organizations   350

Basic Purposes of Government Public ­Relations   350

Public Information and Public Affairs   351

The Federal Government   352

The White House   352

Congress   353

Federal Agencies   353

PR Casebook> America’s Image Overseas   354

State Governments   357

Local Governments   358

Government Relations by Corporations   360

Lobbying   361

Pitfalls of Lobbying   362

Grassroots Lobbying   362

Election Campaigns   363

Summary   366

Questions for Review and Discussion   367

TACTICS  First 100 Days of the Obama ­Administration: PR Review, PRWeek   368


Nonprofit, Health, and Education   370

The Role of Public Relations in Nonprofit, Health, and Education Organizations   372

Competition, Conflict, and ­Cooperation in Nonprofit, Health, and ­Education Organizations   373

Fund-Raising   374

Motivations for Giving   374

Fund-Raising Methods   375

Membership Organizations   378

Professional Associations   378

Trade ­Associations   378

Labor Unions   379

Chambers of Commerce   379

Advocacy Groups   380

Activist Groups   380

Social Issue ­Organizations   380

PR Casebook> Advocacy Groups Face Off over Whole Foods CEO John Mackey’s ­Position on Healthcare   381

Social Service Organizations   382

Philanthropic Foundations  382

Cultural Organizations  383

Religious ­Organizations  383

Health Organizations   384

Health Campaigns: Strategies and Tactics  384

Educational Organizations   386

Colleges and Universities   386

Elementary and Secondary Schools   387

School Districts   387

Summary   388

Questions for Review and Discussion  389


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