Think Rock

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-01-03
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


THINK ROCK is the first Music title in the THINK series. It is designed for an introduction to rock music course for the non-music major. Taking a chronological approach, it offers a basic introduction to the key eras, performers, and songs that shaped rock music. THINK ROCKis a full history, beginning with pre-rock styles and covering all styles right up to todayrs"s latest sounds. In addition to the music itself,THINK ROCKaddresses the rich cultural history of the rock era, and how social/cultural events shaped rock and were shaped by it. The book is richly illustrated with period photographs and reproductions of album covers and concert posters.

Author Biography

Professor Dettmar splits his research and teaching between British & Irish modernism, esp. James Joyce, and contemporary popular music. He is the editor of the Journal of Popular Music Studies, editor for Oxford University Press of the book series Modernist Literature & Culture, and general editor of the Longman Anthology of British Literature.

Table of Contents


1 The Prehistory of Rock & Roll 2

 Section 1 What Were the First Influences of Rock & Roll? 4

Mongrel Genealogy: The Ancestors of Rock & Roll 4

A Sheet-Music Economy and a New Mass-Market 4

The “Golden Age” of Tin Pan Alley: 1920s and 1930s 5

Section 2 How Did New Technologies Influence Musical Styles? 6

Technological Breakthroughs Create a New Audience 6

Recording Takes Hold 6

 Rock Places: Black Swan Records 6

Popular Music and the National Scene 7

Rock Technology: Electrical Recording 7

Section 3 What Musical Styles Prefigured Rock & Roll? 8

The Jazz Craze 8

The Swing Bands Get in the Mood 9

Major Swing Bands and Bandleaders 9

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock 9

Race Records and the Blues 10

Surprise Hits Find a Market 10

Country Blues 11

“Classic” Blues and the Smoother Sound 12

Section 4 How Did Crossover Hits Pave the Way for Rock & Roll? 13

Blues Goes Electric 13

Folk Begins with the Depression 13

Woody Guthrie 13

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! August 11, 1945 13

Urban Folk: From Guthrie to Seeger 14

Classic Recordings: “Goodnight Irene,” The Weavers (written by Lead Belly) 14

The Beginning of Country 15

The Carter Family 15

Hybrid Styles: Western Swing and Country-Lite 16

Bluegrass and Instrumental Proficiency 17

Rhythm & Blues 18

Rock People: Louis Jordan 18

Women and Rhythm & Blues 19

Post-war Crossovers Become Rock & Roll 19


2 The “Birth” of Rock & Roll (1951—1955) 23

Section 1 Where Did Rock & Roll Come From? 24

The History of the Term 24

The Evolution of Rock & Roll 25

1950s America: A Changing Country 25

A Changing Music 26

Rock Technology: The 45 26

Section 2 How Did Rock & Roll First Emerge in the United States? 27

The First Rock & Roll Records 27

 “I’ve Got a Woman”: Gospel Meets R&B 27

Classic Recordings: “I Got a Woman” 28

 “Good Rockin’ Tonight”: R&B Meets the Party Animal 28

 “Rocket ’88”: Rock & Roll Meets the Automobile 28

 The First Rock & Roll Singers 29

The Fabulous Little Richard 29

Chuck Berry Plays, Sings, and Duck Walks 30

Rock Place: Sun Studio 31

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! 1956 32

Elvis Aaron Presley 32

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock 34

Royalties and Rights 34

Jerry Lee Lewis 35

Carl Perkins 36

 Classic Recordings: “That’s All Right”/”Blue Moon of Kentucky” 37

Section 3 How Was Rock & Roll Marketed? 37

Selling the Music 37

AM Radio 37

Alan Freed: Finding the Audience 37

DJ Dewey Phillips: Finding the Talent 38

Rock People: “Colonel” Tom Parker: Selling the Superstar 39


3 The Establishment Strikes Back (1954—1960) 43

Section 1 How Did Rock & Roll Divide the Generations? 44

Rock Gets Its First “Black Eye” 44

Blackboard Jungle 44

The Teenage National Anthem 45

Top of the Charts: Billboard Top 100, July 9, 1955 46

Section 2 What Effect Did Scandals Have on Rock? 46

Another “Black Eye” for Rock: ASCAP vs. BMI 46

 The Payola Scandal 48

Alan Freed and Dick Clark 48

Flashpoint: Issues in Rock 48

The End of Payola 50

Section 3 In What Other Ways Was Rock Music Attacked in the 1950s? 51

Attack of the Musical Mainstream 51

The Plan of Attack 51

Classic Recordings: Let’s All Sing with the Chipmunks by Alvin and the Chipmunks 52

Rock & Roll and the Red Scare 52

Rock Places: Washington, D.C. 53

Section 4 What Nearly Killed Rock & Roll? 54

Domestication and the Near Death of Rock Music 54

 Elvis Presley Meets Television 54

Classic Recordings: Elvis Presley by Elvis Presley 55

 “Clean Teens” in Film 56

Rock’s Deathbed 56

Jerry Lee Lewis 56

Rock Technology: Jukebox 57

The Day the Music Died 57

Rock People: Buddy Holly 58

Rock on Hiatus 59


American Bandstand, Teen Idols, and Race Lines (1957—1961) 63

Section 1 How Did White Cover Artists “Hijack” Records by African American Artists? 64

Cover Versions 64

Hijacking Hits 64

Pat Boone 65

Bill Haley 65

Implications of White-Bread Pop 65

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock 66

Squeaky-Clean Teen Idols 66

American Bandstand 67

Rock People: Dick Clark 68

Section 2 What Was the Impact of Teen Idols? 69

Teen Idols 69

The Brill Building Bunch 69

Top of the Charts: Billboard Hot 100 1959 69

Musical Families 70

Section 3 What Were the Early Influences of Surf Music? 70

Surfing U.S.A. 70

Early Surf 71

Rock Technology: The Fender Stratocaster, Fender Amp, and Fender Reverb Unit 71

Section 4 How Did Motown Originate? 72

R&B Lives On 72

[huck Berry 72

Little Richard 72

Etta James 3 73

Classic Albums: At Last! by Etta James 73

Doo-wop 74

One-Hit Wonder Groups 74

Beginnings of Motown 75

The Sound of Young America 76

Rock Places: Detroit 76

The Supremes 77

The Temptations 77

The Four Tops 78

Martha and the Vandellas 79

The Jackson Five 79


5 Changin’ Times (1962—1966) 83

] What Is Folk Music? 84

Folk’s Roots 84

Folk Crosses the Color Line 84

Folk Gets Political 85

Woody Guthrie 85

Pete Seeger 85

The Kingston Trio 86

Classic Recordings: Time to Think by the Kingston Trio 86

How Did the Spirit of the 1960s Change Folk Music? 87

The Folk Revival of the 1960s 87

Dylan Embraces Folk 87

Rock Places: Greenwich Village, New York City 88

Dylan and the Civil Rights Movement 88

Rock People: John Hammond 89

Joan Baez 89

Classic Recordings: I Ain’t Marching Anymore by Phil Ochs 90

The Lighter Side of Folk 91

Meanwhile, at the Beach 91

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! September 4, 1965 91

Jan and Dean 92

The Beach Boys 92

Classic Recordings: Surfer Girl by the Beach Boys 93

Hot-Rod Music 93

Section 3 How Did Folk Music Influence Emerging Rock & Roll Genres? 94

Folk Collides with Rock 94

Flashpoints–Issues in Rock: Dylan Plugs In 94

Dylan and the Brits 95

The Byrds 95

The Turtles 96

Simon and Garfunkel 96

The Rise of the Singer-Songwriter 97

Rock Technology: The Harmonica Neck Rack 97

The Canadian Invasion 97

Rock Before the Invasion 99


6 The British Invasion (1964—1966) 103

 Section 1 How Did British Bands Influence Rock in the 1960s? 104

The Skiffle Craze 104

Merseybeat 104

The Beatles and Beatlemania 105

Rock Places: Liverpool 105

Origins of the Beatles 106

Brian Epstein 106

Rock People: George Martin 107

The Road to America 107

Top of the Charts: Billboard Hot 100 April 4, 1964 108

 British Invasion Bands of the First Wave 109

The Rolling Stones 109

Classic Albums: Rubber Soul by the Beatles, Aftermath by the Rolling Stones 111

The Kinks 112

The Who 112

Rock Technology: The Stereo LP 113

The Animals 114

Herman’s Hermits 114

The Zombies 115

The Yardbirds 115

Individual Performers  116

Petula Clark 116

Dusty Springfield 116

Donovan 117

Section 2 What Was the American Reaction to the British Invasion? 118

The Colonies Fight Back! 118

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock 118

Gary Lewis and the Playboys 118

Paul Revere and the Raiders 119

The Monkees 119

Section 3 What Ended the British Invasion? 119


7 The Summer of Love and Psychedelic Rock (1967—1969) 123

Section 1 How Did the Hippie Movement Influence Rock Music in the Late 1960s? 124

 Rock’s Alliance with the Counterculture 124

 Hippie Opposition to the Vietnam War 124

[Section 2] What Patterns Emerge when Comparing the Leading Bands of the 1960s? 125

The Grateful Dead 125

The Grateful Dead Live 125

Jefferson Airplane 126

Rock Places: San Francisco 126

Moby Grape 127

Janis Joplin 127

 Jimi Hendrix 128

The Doors 129

Classic Albums: The Doors by the Doors 129

Love 130

Frank Zappa 130

Rock People: Bill Graham 131

13th Floor Elevators 131

Pink Floyd 132

Rock Technology: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) 132

Section 3 How Did Music Festivals Define the Hippie Era? 133

Rock and the Counterculture 133

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! November 16, 1968 133

The Festivals 133

The Human Be-In 133

The Monterey International Pop Music Festival 133

The Isle of Wight Festivals 133

The Woodstock Music & Art Fair 134

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock — The 27 Club 135

The Altamont Speedway Free Festival 136

Section 4 How Did the Rise of Studio Craft Change Rock Music? 137

The Rise of Studio Craft 137

 Pet Sounds 137

 Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band 138

 A British Blues Revival and Folk Goes Electric 138

 John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers 139

Cream 139

 Spencer Davis Group and Traffic 139

 Fairport Convention and Pentangle 139


8 Sirens, Soul Singers, and Sellouts (1967—1975) 143

Section I What Were the Musical Responses Produced by the Social Crises of the Late 1960s? 144

Protest Versus Soft Rock 144

Easy Listening Artists 144

Section 2 Who Took Part in the Soul Revival? 146

The Soul Revival Takes Flight 146

Wattstax Music Festival 146

Riding on the Soul Train 146

Aretha Franklin 147

Rock Places: Philadelphia 147

Section 3 What Were the Early Influences of Glam Rock? 148

The Origins of Glam 148

The Velvet Underground 148

David Bowie 149                                                                                                                                      

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock — Rock as Performance Art 149

Marc Bolan 150

Mott the Hoople 150

Rock People: Iggy Pop 150

Queen 151

Elton John 151

Section 4 What Led to the Rise of Heavy Metal and Progressive Rock? 152

The Rise of Heavy Metal 152

Led Zeppelin 152

Classic Albums: Led Zeppelin IV 153

Black Sabbath 153

Deep Purple 154

Progressive Rock 155

Progressive Rock and Art Rock 155

Yes 156

Genesis 156

Emerson, Lake and Palmer 157

Pink Floyd 157

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! April 28th, 1973 157

Mike Oldfield 158

Stadium Rock 158

Bruce Springsteen: The Future of Rock & Roll? 159

Rock Technology: Multitrack Recording 159


9 Disco, Punk & New Wave: Strange Bedfellows (1973—1979) 163


Section 1 How Did Disco Change the Music Scene during the 1970s? 164

Disco Dances In164

The Producers164

Dancing and Disco164

Donna Summer: Queen of Disco165


Barry White: The Sultan of Soul165

Rock Places: Studio 54 166

Saturday Night Fever, Hitmaker167

The Village People168

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock — Disco vs. Rock & Roll 168

Section 2 What Were the Origins of the Punk Movement in American Musical Culture? 169

Punk Pre-History169

Iggy Pop and the Stooges 169

Motor City Five (MC5)170

The Velvet Underground170

The New York Dolls171

Section 3 Where Did Punk Begin? 171

New York City171

Rock People: Patti Smith 171

 The Ramones 172


The Sex Pistols173

Classic Albums: Never Mind the Bollocks, Here’s the Sex Pistols by the Sex Pistols 173

The Clash174

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! April 1, 1978 175

Section 4 How Did New Wave Emerge from the Death of Punk? 176

New Wave Rears Its Head176

Classic Albums: My Aim is True by Elvis Costello 176

Public Image Limited (PiL)176

Gang of Four177

X-Ray Spex 177

 The Slits177

The Au Pairs177

Joy Division178

Rock Technology: Do It Yourself (DIY) Technology 178

The Jam178

Tom Verlaine, Richard Hell, and Television 179

New Wave Goes Full Circle179


10 New Wave & Synth Pop (1977—1987) 183

Section 1 How Did Punk’s Destructive Focus Create New Options for Later Musicians? 184

New Wave Takes Shape 184

New Wave in New York 185

Blondie and Television 185

Rock People: Hilly Kristal 186

Section 2 What Role Did Britain Play in Crafting the New Wave Sound? 187

The British Post-Pistols 187

Elvis Costello 187

British Successes, Punk Holdouts, and New Wave 188

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! 1977 188

Pure Pop in Britain and the United States 189

Synth Pop 190

Synthetic Dreams 190

Welcome to the Machine 191

Rock Technology: The Synthesizer 192

Die Mensch Maschine: Kraftwerk 193

Rock Places: Berlin 193

Ultravox 194

Section 3 What Was the Place of Dance Music in Postpunk and New Wave? 195

Dance Pop: What Have I Done to Deserve This? 195

Classic Album: Pet Shop Boys, Actually 195

Section 4 How Did MTV Change the Way that Music Was Received? 196

I Want My MTV 196

Video Made the TV Star 196

Video Kills the Radio Star 197

Flashpoints: Did Video Kill Rock? 197

 The Band with a Thorn in its Side: The Smiths 198

Formation and Initial Success 198

Morrissey’s Controversial Sexuality 199



11 Alternative Rock (1982-1987) 203

Section 1 How Did Alternative Rock Get the Word Out? 204

Alternative Rock’s Three Trajectories 204

Punk Attitude 204

College Radio 205

Indie Rock 205

U2: Band of the 1980s and Today 205

Rise to Stardom 205

Politics and Popularity 206

 R.E.M.: Kings of College Rock 207

Michael Stipe: Breaking the Rock Star Mold 207

Classic Albums: Fables of the Reconstruction by R.E.M. 207

Cashing In or Selling Out? 208

Rock Places: Athens, Georgia 208

Selling Albums without Selling Out: Bruce Springsteen209

Section 2 How Did the Rock Underground Influence Rock during the 1980s? 209

American Hardcore Shakes Up the Musical Underground 209

Sonic Youth: Breaking the Noise Barrier 209

Bad Brains: Fusion Punk210

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! August 8, 1987 211

Teen Idles Kick Off a Movement211

Minor Threat: Breaking the Age Limit211

Fugazi Takes the Baton212

Black Flag Declares War213

Rock Technology: The Van213

 The Minutemen214

Husker Dü215

 England’s Alternative to Alternative Rock216

Kate Bush: Literary Pop216

Classic Album: Hounds of Love by Kate Bush 217

Bauhaus Goes Goth217

The Cure217

Section 3 How Did Alternative Rock Try to Change the World? 218

The Rock Benefit Concert218

Rock People: Sir Bob Geldof 218

Live Aid, Farm Aid, and Band Aid 218

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock — Rock with a Purpose 219


12 American Punk: The Second Wave (1987—1994) 223


Section 1 What Elements Did Grunge Borrow from Punk Rock to Make a New Musical Genre? 224

Beginnings of a Seattle Scene 224

Hardcore Punk and Grunge 224

Source of Inspiration: The Pixies 225

Abrasive and Melodic 225

Alternative Precursors: The Butthole Surfers 226

Section 2 What Were the Most Important Bands that Grew Out of the Seattle Scene? 226

Seattle Goes Subterranean 226

Early Seattle Bands 227

The Melvins 227

Soundgarden 227

Green River and Mudhoney 228

Rock People: Bruce Pavitt and Jonathan Poneman (Sub Pop Records) 228

Nirvana 229

Nevermind the Labels 229

Classic Albums: Nirvana’s Nevermind 230

In Utero and Cobain’s Suicide 230

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! — November 6, 1993 230

Pearl Jam 231

Pearl Jam vs. Nirvana 231

Vedder and the Media 231

Section 3 How Were Other Simultaneous Movements Affected by Grunge? 232

Riot Grrrls 232

Rock Places: Olympia, Washington 232

Bikini Kill 233

Other Seattle Riots 234

Oregon Grrrls 234

Courtney Love and Hole 235

L7 236

Huggy Bear 236

Flashpoints in Rock: Huggy Bear and the Barbi Twins on the BBC 236

Babes in Toyland 236

Slacker Rock 237

Pavement 237

Beck 237

Britpop 238

Oasis 238

Rock Technology: The MP3 238

Blur 239

Pulp 239


13 Hip-Hop and Rap (1973- ) 243

Section 1 How Did Hip Hop Get Its Start? 244

What is Hip Hop? 244

 “The Godfather” of Hip Hop and Hip Hop’s Beginnings 244

Old-School Hip Hop (c. 1979-1984) 245

Rock Places: South Bronx 246

Section 2 How Did Hip Hop Gain Mainstream Recognition? 246

Mainstream Recognition for Hip Hop 246

New-School Hip Hop (c. 1983)246

Rock Technology: “Two Turntables and a Microphone” and “The Wheels of Steel” 247

Rap’s Golden Age (late 1980s-early 1990s) 248

Classic Albums: Fear of a Black Planet by Public Enemy 248

Section 3 What Are The Different Branches of Hip Hop and Rap? 250

Gangsta Rap250


N.W.A, Straight Outta Compton (1988) 251

Snoop Doggy Dogg252

 Cypress Hill252

Tupac Shakur (a.k.a. 2Pac)252

 East Coast Figures253

The Notorious B.I.G.253

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock — The Murder of Tupac Shakur 253


House of Pain254

The Wu-Tang Clan254

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! November 28, 1998 254

Rock People: Sean “Puffy” Combs 255

 Pop Rap255

 DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince255

 MC Hammer255

 Vanilla Ice256

 Marky Mark and the Funky Bunch256


 From Between the Coasts256

 Atlanta Hip Hop256

 The Midwest and New Orleans257

 Across the Atlantic258

 Trip Hop258

 Rap Rock, Rap Metal, and Rapcore259


14 Smooth Sounds, Slick Packaging: The Persistence of Pop (1994—) 263

Section 1 Why Was 1994 an Important Year in the History of Rock Music? 264

The Death of Rock & Roll?264

1994: Woodstock’s 25th Anniversary 264

Did the Death of Kurt Cobain Equal the Death of Rock?266

 Since 1994: Three Main Streams in Rock & Roll266

Domestication of Rock & Roll266

Madonna  267

Rock Technology: Pro-Tools and Music Editing in the Recording Studio 267

Section 2 How Have Girl Groups and Boy Bands Influenced the History of Rock? 268

Girl Groups268

Occasional Revivals of the Girl Group268

The Spice Girls269

Destiny’s Child270

Classic Albums: Survivor by Destiny’s Child 270

 Britney Spears271

Christina Aguilera271

Jessica Simpson272

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock — Lip-Synching 272

Boy Bands273

Backstreet Boys273

N Sync273

Rock People: Lou Pearlman 274

98 Degrees275

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! 1999 275


 The Pop Idol Phenomenon276

 Simon Cowell277

Section 3 How Has Rock & Roll Been Changed by Aggressive Marketing to Younger Audiences? 278

The Disneyfication of Pop Rock278

Miley Cyrus278

The Jonas Brothers278

Rock Places: Los Angeles 279

The High School Musical Franchise279


15 Hyphenated-Rock & Explorations of the Postmodern Self (1994—) 283

Section 1 How Did a New Generation Update Some Older Styles of Rock & Roll? 284

Progressive Rock, Reborn284



Godspeed You! Black Emperor285

Rock Places: Oxford, UK 286

Sigur Rós286

TV on the Radio287

Classic Albums: Return to Cookie Mountain by TV on the Radio 287


The Dandy Warhols288

The Flaming Lips289

Section 2 How Did Rock & Roll Become Even More Personal? 289

Emo: The New Confessionalism289

Pop Successes291

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! — October 8, 2005 291

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock — Selling Out 292

Section 3 How Does Rock & Roll Continue to Update Itself? 293

Nü Metal293


Rage Against the Machine294


Classic Albums: Evil Empire by Rage Against the Machine 295


Rock People: Marilyn Manson 296


 Linkin Park297

 Garage Rock Revival297

 The White Stripes297

The Strokes298


The Arctic Monkeys298

The Yeah Yeah Yeahs298

Defying All Categories: PJ Harvey299


16 Remix Culture 303

Section 1 What Is the Role of Appropriation in Popular Music? 304

Remixes and Mashups304

Visual Predecessors304

Fair Use305

Beg, Borrow, and Steal: The Legacy of Appropriation in Popular Music306

 Cover Songs306

Section 2 What Was the Impact of the Digital Sampler? 307

A Little Bit of This, a Little Bit of That: Sampling307

Sampling in Hip-Hop307

Sampling in Electronica308

Jailhouse Rock: Legal Roadblocks to Sampling308

What Price Beats?309

Rock Technology: The MP3 310

Section 3 What Was Napster and How Did It Affect Digital Distribution? 311

iPod People311

Digital Distribution311

Rock People: Shawn Fanning 312


Classic Albums: The Grey Album by Danger Mouse/ Feed the Animals by Girl Talk 315

This One’s on Me: More Free Digital Distribution316

Mix Tapes to iPod Playlists316

Top of the Charts: What’s Hot! September 19, 2009 316

Music Festivals316

A Return to the 1970s?317

Flashpoints: Issues in Rock — RIAA Lawsuits 317

Rock Places: Your Parents’ Basement 318

Activate Star Power: Rock Band and Guitar Hero319

 The Rock Nation319

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