Tire and Vehicle Dynamics

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-04-09
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd

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In this new paperback edition of Tyre and Vehicle Dynamics, theory is supported by practical and experimental evidence. Pacejka provides both basic and advanced explanations of the pneumatic tyre and its impact on vehicle dynamic performance. The book shows the way in which tyre models are incorporated in vehicle models and how important tyre influence is on overall vehicle behaviour. Those working in any industry involving equipment with tyres will continue to find this book both extremely relevant and useful. * Written by a world expert in tyre dynamics * Covers both basic and advanced tyre modelling and simulation, including case studies of application examples and chapter exercises * Indispensable for any engineer working in vehicle system dynamics and for any industry involving equipment with tyres

Table of Contents

Exercisesp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Tire Characteristics and Vehicle Handling and Stability
Introductionp. 2
Tire and Axle Characteristicsp. 3
Introduction to Tire Characteristicsp. 3
Effective Axle Cornering Characteristicsp. 7
Vehicle Handling and Stabilityp. 16
Differential Equations for Plane Vehicle Motionsp. 17
Linear Analysis of the Two-Degree-of-Freedom Modelp. 22
Nonlinear Steady-State Cornering Solutionsp. 35
The Vehicle at Braking or Drivingp. 49
The Moment Methodp. 51
The Car-Trailer Combinationp. 53
Vehicle Dynamics at More Complex Tire Slip Conditionsp. 57
Basic Tire Modeling Considerations
Introductionp. 59
Definition of Tire Input Quantitiesp. 61
Assessment of Tire Input Motion Componentsp. 68
Fundamental Differential Equations for a Rolling and Slipping Bodyp. 72
Tire Models (Introductory Discussion)p. 81
Theory of Steady-State Slip Force and Moment Generation
Introductionp. 87
Tire Brush Modelp. 90
Pure Side Slipp. 92
Pure Longitudinal Slipp. 97
Interaction between Lateral and Longitudinal Slip (Combined Slip)p. 100
Camber and Turning (Spin)p. 112
The Tread Simulation Modelp. 128
Application: Vehicle Stability at Braking up to Wheel Lockp. 140
Semi-Empirical Tire Models
Introductionp. 150
The Similarity Methodp. 150
Pure Slip Conditionsp. 152
Combined Slip Conditionsp. 158
Combined Slip Conditions with Fx as Input Variablep. 163
The Magic Formula Tire Modelp. 165
Model Descriptionp. 165
Full Set of Equationsp. 176
Extension of the Model for Turn Slipp. 183
Ply-Steer and Conicityp. 191
The Overturning Couplep. 196
Comparison with Experimental Data for a Car, a Truck, and a Motorcycle Tirep. 202
Non-Steady-State Out-of-Plane String-Based Tire Models
Introductionp. 212
Review of Earlier Researchp. 212
The Stretched String Modelp. 215
Model Developmentp. 216
Step and Steady-State Response of the String Modelp. 225
Frequency Response Functions of the String Modelp. 232
Approximations and Other Modelsp. 240
Approximate Modelsp. 241
Other Modelsp. 256
Enhanced String Model with Tread Elementsp. 258
Tire Inertia Effectsp. 268
First Approximation of Dynamic Influence (Gyroscopic Couple)p. 269
Second Approximation of Dynamic Influence (First Harmonic)p. 271
Side Force Response to Time-Varying Loadp. 277
String Model with Tread Elements Subjected to Load Variationsp. 277
Adapted Bare String Modelp. 281
The Force and Moment Responsep. 284
Theory of the Wheel Shimmy Phenomenon Introductionp. 287
Introductionp. 287
The Simple Trailing Wheel System with Yaw Degree of Freedomp. 288
Systems with Yaw and Lateral Degrees of Freedomp. 295
Yaw and Lateral Degrees of Freedom with Rigid Wheel/Tire (Third Order)p. 296
The Fifth-Order Systemp. 297
Shimmy and Energy Flowp. 311
Unstable Modes and the Energy Circlep. 311
Transformation of Forward Motion Energy into Shimmy Energyp. 317
Nonlinear Shimmy Oscillationsp. 320
Single-Contact-Point Transient Tire Models
Introductionp. 329
Model Developmentp. 330
Linear Modelp. 330
Semi-Non-Linear Modelp. 335
Fully Nonlinear Modelp. 336
Nonlagging Partp. 345
The Gyroscopic Couplep. 348
Enhanced Nonlinear Transient Tire Modelp. 349
Applications of Transient Tire Models
Vehicle Response to Steer Angle Variationsp. 356
Cornering on Undulated Roadsp. 356
Longitudinal Force Response to Tire Nonuniformity, Axle Motions, and Road Unevennessp. 366
Effective Rolling Radius Variations at Free Rollingp. 367
Computation of the Horizontal Longitudinal Force Responsep. 371
Frequency Response to Vertical Axle Motionsp. 374
Frequency Response to Radial Run-outp. 376
Forced Steering Vibrationsp. 379
Dynamics of the Unloaded System Excited by Wheel Unbalancep. 380
Dynamics of the Loaded System with Tire Properties Includedp. 382
ABS Braking on Undulated Roadp. 385
In-Plane Model of Suspension and Wheel/Tire Assemblyp. 386
Antilock Braking Algorithm and Simulationp. 390
Starting from Standstillp. 394
Short Wavelength Intermediate Frequency Tire Model
Introductionp. 404
The Contact Patch Slip Modelp. 406
Brush Model Non-Steady-State Behaviorp. 406
The Model Adapted to the Use of the Magic Formulap. 426
Parking Maneuversp. 436
Tire Dynamicsp. 444
Dynamic Equationsp. 444
Constitutive Relationsp. 453
Dynamic Tire Model Performancep. 462
Dedicated Dynamic Test Facilitiesp. 463
Dynamic Tire Simulation and Experimental Resultsp. 466
Dynamic Tire Response to Short Road Unevennesses
Model Developmentp. 475
Tire Envelopment Propertiesp. 476
The Effective Road Plane Using Basic Functionsp. 478
The Effective Road Plane Using the 'Cam' Road Feeler Conceptp. 485
The Effective Rolling Radius When Rolling Over a Cleatp. 487
The Location of the Effective Road Planep. 493
SWIFT on Road Unevennesses (Simulation and Experiment)p. 497
Two-Dimensional Unevennessesp. 497
Three-Dimensional Unevennessesp. 504
Motorcycle Dynamics
Introductionp. 506
Model Descriptionp. 508
Geometry and Inertiap. 509
The Steer, Camber, and Slip Anglesp. 511
Air Drag, Driving or Braking, and Fore-and-Aft Load Transferp. 514
Tire Force and Moment Responsep. 515
Linear Equations of Motionp. 520
The Kinetic Energyp. 521
The Potential Energy and the Dissipation Functionp. 523
The Virtual Workp. 524
Complete Set of Linear Differential Equationsp. 525
Stability Analysis and Step Responsesp. 529
Free Uncontrolled Motionp. 529
Step Responses of Controlled Motionp. 536
Analysis of Steady-State Corneringp. 539
Linear Steady-State Theoryp. 540
Non-Linear Analysis of Steady-State Corneringp. 555
Modes of Vibration at Large Lateral Accelerationsp. 563
The Magic Formula Tire Modelp. 565
Tire Steady-State and Dynamic Test Facilitiesp. 567
Outlines of Three Advanced Dynamic Tire Models
Introductionp. 577
The RMOD-K Tire Model (Christian Oertel)p. 578
The Nonlinear FEM Modelp. 578
The Flexible Belt Modelp. 579
Comparison of Various RMOD-K Modelsp. 581
The FTire Tire Model (Michael Gipser)p. 582
Introductionp. 582
Structure Modelp. 583
Tread Modelp. 584
Model Data and Parametrizationp. 586
The MF-Swift Tire Model (Igo Besselink)p. 586
Introductionp. 586
Model Overviewp. 587
MF-Tire/MF-Swiftp. 588
Parameter Identificationp. 589
Test and Model Comparisonp. 589
Referencesp. 593
List of Symbolsp. 603
Sign Conventions for Force and Moment and Wheel Slipp. 609
Online Informationp. 611
MF-Tire/MF-Swift Parameters and Estimation Methodsp. 613
Indexp. 627
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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