Tourism Policy and Planning

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2011-08-15
  • Publisher: Routledge
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For many communities and countries throughout the world tourism is the most valuable industry. Economic changes taking place in China, India, and the United States (with almost 3 billion people, half the world?s population), for example, will have major impacts on the global tourism markets of tomorrow. Social-cultural changes in Europe, with borderless tourism crossings and a common currency, are increasing opportunities for tourism growth. East Asia and the Pacific Rim are experiencing unprecedented growth and change in tourism. From the perspective of economic policy, tourism for local communities is a vital economic development tool producing income, creating jobs, spawning new businesses, spurring economic development, promoting economic diversification, developing new products, and contributing to economic integration. If local and national governments are committed to broad based tourism policies, then tourism will provide its citizens with a higher quality of life while it generates sustained economic, environmental, and social benefits. The wellspring to future growth for tourism throughout the world is a commitment toward good policy. Governments, the private sector, and not-for-profit agencies must be the leaders in a sustainable tourism policy that transcends the economic benefits and embraces environmental and cultural interests as well. Tourism Policy and Planning: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow addresses key ingredients for positive tourism policies and planning that will lead this generation and the next toward a greater quality of life resulting from tourism growth. The aim of this book is to provide government policy-makers (at all levels), business leaders, not-for-profit executives, university professors, students, tourism industry managers, and the general public with an introduction and examination of important policy and planning issues in tourism. * The only book to integrate policy with strategic planning * Provides an international perspective on policy through case studies and analysis * Looks at the future of tourism policy development

Author Biography

David L. Edgell, Sr. is Professor and Director of the Institute for Tourism, College of Human Ecology, East Carolina University, and Consultant and President, Global Tourism Solutions, Inc., Greenville, North Carolina, USA.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgementsp. xvii
Introductionp. 1
Tourism definedp. 1
Tourism policy definedp. 7
Worldwide importance of tourismp. 9
In the global tourism contextp. 10
New challengesp. 11
A new look at tourism policyp. 13
Economic and non-economic benefitsp. 16
Economic and non-economic costsp. 18
Cooperation / integrationp. 19
Balanced / comprehensive tourism policyp. 19
Kansas Tourism Opportunities: Strategic Overviewp. 22
Referencesp. 35
Tourism policy issues of yesterdayp. 37
Historic perspectivesp. 37
The beginnings of modern tourism policyp. 42
International tourism policy for the United Statesp. 43
The importance of the National Tourism Policy Act of 1981p. 47
Some reasons for a US tourism policyp. 49
National Tourism Policy Act of 1981p. 52
Referencesp. 62
Tourism policy issues for todayp. 63
Introduction and overviewp. 63
Business ethics in a tourism policy issues frameworkp. 64
Types of tourism policy evaluation stagesp. 65
Formative phase tourism policy evaluationp. 66
Development phase tourism policy evaluationp. 67
Summative phase tourism policy evaluationp. 68
Importance of tourism policy issuesp. 69
Tourism, regulation and public policyp. 69
Sex tourismp. 70
Tourism and health related issuesp. 71
Tourism and safety / securityp. 72
Space travelp. 73
Agritourismp. 74
Complexity of tourism policy issuesp. 75
Tourism technologies and information communicationp. 76
Tax legislationp. 77
International development aidp. 77
Banking loans and bondsp. 79
Grantsp. 80
Tourism policy issues, destination management and the future - an open-ended conclusionp. 80
Summary and conclusionp. 81
World Hotel Link - An ICT (Information and Communication Technology) Driven Approach to Equitable and Sustainable Tourismp. 82
Bibliography for case report 3p. 93
Tourism as a commercial and economic activityp. 97
Global importancep. 100
Tourism as an economic development toolp. 100
Demand side of tourismp. 105
Supply side of tourismp. 108
Coopetitionp. 109
Comparative advantagep. 111
Employmentp. 114
Incomep. 115
Multiplier effectp. 116
Exporting tourismp. 118
Economic developmentp. 119
Rural tourism in the United Statesp. 120
Economics of tourism informationp. 122
Conclusionp. 122
Sustainable Tourism as an Economic Development Strategy Along Coastlines (Edited for this publication)p. 123
Referencesp. 138
Political and foreign policy implications of tourismp. 141
Tourism agreementsp. 142
Intergovernmental organizations and regional industry associationsp. 143
United Nations World Tourism Organizationp. 144
World Travel and Tourism Councilp. 145
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Developmentp. 146
Organization of American Statesp. 147
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperationp. 149
Caribbean Tourism Organizationp. 151
Southeast Tourism Societyp. 152
Tourism facilitationp. 154
Tourism and foreign policyp. 157
Tourism as a policy for peacep. 158
A reason to maintain peacep. 160
Political stability, safety and tourismp. 160
Mutual trust and respect created by tourismp. 163
Conclusionp. 164
Southeast Tourism Policy Council: An Emerging Model for Federal Tourism Advocacyp. 165
Referencesp. 180
Managing sustainable tourismp. 181
Sustainable tourism - its essencep. 183
Current trends in sustainable tourismp. 186
The natural environmentp. 189
The built environmentp. 190
Global impactp. 191
Planning firstp. 193
Policy and management strategyp. 194
Benefitsp. 196
Important preceptsp. 197
The Credop. 198
Sustainable Ecotourism: Balancing Preservation and Economic Growth (Edited for this publication)p. 199
Referencesp. 217
Education and training in tourismp. 219
Introduction and overviewp. 219
Workforce supply and workplace demand: need for defining tourismp. 221
Defining tourism and hospitality education and trainingp. 223
Defining education, training and human resource developmentp. 225
Factors contributing to the dominant role of the hospitality sectorp. 228
Human resources issues for education and training in tourismp. 231
Need for understanding and reducing misperceptionsp. 231
Need for credibility of post-secondary education programmesp. 233
Need for investment in human resources in tourismp. 234
Need for education and training performance standards and accreditation processesp. 235
Leadership role of the United Nations World Tourism Organizationp. 237
UNWTO Education Council of the Affiliate Membersp. 237
UNWTO-Themis Foundation and TedQual Programp. 237
Need for coordinated education and training infrastructure for tourismp. 239
Higher education and training programmes in tourismp. 240
Hong Kongp. 240
United Statesp. 240
Canadap. 241
Non-credit tourism training programmesp. 241
United Statesp. 241
Need for vertical and horizontal coordination among key stakeholdersp. 242
Need to understand the dynamics of a rapidly changing world and the impact on workforce developmentp. 244
Importance of education and training in tourismp. 245
BEST EN Business Enterprises for Sustainable Tourism Education Network Curriculum Development Think Tank Processp. 247
BEST EN Think Tank Vp. 248
Referencesp. 254
Supplemental readingsp. 257
Affecting and influencing tourism policyp. 189
An applied study of tourism policy influencesp. 260
Politicization of the tourism officep. 261
Misunderstanding of tourism policyp. 262
Increasing importance of the tourism industryp. 262
Understanding the public decision-making processp. 263
Influencing political decisions with informationp. 265
Conflict and compromisep. 267
Techniques of cost-benefit analysisp. 269
Defining the project and alternativesp. 269
Identifying, measuring, and valuing costs and benefits of each alternativep. 270
Calculating cost-benefit valuesp. 270
Presenting the resultsp. 273
Influencing political decisions with financial contributionsp. 274
Conclusionp. 280
A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Coordinating International Visitor Information Collection and Distribution in the United Statesp. 281
Referencesp. 295
Strategic tourism planningp. 297
Defining strategic tourism planningp. 299
Planning examplep. 302
Internal analysisp. 303
External environmental scanp. 305
Sustainable tourism's effect on planningp. 306
Canada: An Effective Tourism Policyp. 308
Referencesp. 323
Future world tourism policy issuesp. 325
Safety and security in tourismp. 326
The impact of the world's economy on tourismp. 330
Managing sustainable tourism responsiblyp. 331
Tourism policy and strategic planningp. 334
Utilizing e-commerce tools in tourismp. 335
Weblogsp. 336
Podcastsp. 336
Internet marketingp. 337
Tourism education and trainingp. 338
Emerging tourism marketsp. 340
Quality tourism products and experiencesp. 341
Partnerships and strategic alliances in tourismp. 344
The impact of health issues / natural disasters / climate change on tourismp. 346
Health issues and tourismp. 347
Effects of natural disasters on tourismp. 348
Climate change and tourismp. 350
Conclusionp. 353
United Nations World Tourism Organization Global Code of Ethics for Tourismp. 354
Referencesp. 362
Appendixp. 365
Education and Training in Tourism: An Historical Viewp. 365
Agreement between the United States of America and the United Mexican States on the Development and Facilitation of Tourismp. 383
United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement Sectoral Annexesp. 391
Manila Declaration on World Tourismp. 395
World Peace Through Tourism - The Columbia Charterp. 401
Traveler Safety and Security Initiativep. 405
Indexp. 407
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