Ultra Wide Band Antennas

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-12-20
  • Publisher: Iste/Hermes Science Pub

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Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recognized studies.

Author Biography

Xavier Begaud is Associate Professor at TELECOM ParisTech in France. His main research interests are the theory, design, modeling and characterization of wideband, dual polarized and 3D antennas (with special emphasis on numerical methods), and the design of metamaterials, channel sounders and mutual coupling analysis in the framework of Ultra Wide Band and Software Radio.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Applications of Ultra Wide Band Systemsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
UWB regulation: a complex contextp. 2
UWB regulation in the USAp. 2
UWB regulation in Europep. 3
UWB regulation in Japanp. 6
Emission mask in the United States, Europe and Japanp. 7
Formal Ultra Wide Band typesp. 8
Ultra Wide Band Impulse Radio (UWB-IP)p. 8
OFDM-ultra wide band (UWB-OFDM)p. 12
Non-formal ultra wide band typesp. 14
Ultra wide band frequency hopping (UWB-FH)p. 14
Chirp Ultra Wide Band (UWB-FM)p. 17
Comparison between the different Ultra Wide Band techniquesp. 20
Typical UWB-OFDM applicationsp. 21
Peripheral connection to a PCp. 21
High speed applications in large structures with optical fiber backbonep. 22
High speed UWB in harsh indoor environmentp. 26
High speed UWB combined with other technologiesp. 27
Specialized UWB-OFDM applicationsp. 28
Last mile radio applicationsp. 28
Information and video streaming applicationsp. 29
Typical applications of the Impulse Radio UWB, UWB-FH and UWB-FMp. 30
Professional geo-localizationp. 30
Geolocalization for private individualsp. 31
Impact on the antennasp. 32
Radiation Characteristics of Antennasp. 33
Introductionp. 33
What is an antenna and how can we define it?p. 36
Where does antenna radiation come from?p. 37
How can we characterize an antenna?p. 37
Plane wave and polarizationp. 38
Radiation fields and radiation powerp. 40
Radiation fieldsp. 40
Radiation powerp. 41
The radiation pattern, the phase centerp. 41
Directive gain, directivityp. 43
Radiation impedance and radiation resistancep. 46
Gain, efficiency and effective aperturep. 47
Gain and efficiencyp. 47
Receive antenna effective aperturep. 48
Budget link, transfer functionp. 49
Equivalent circuits of the antennasp. 51
Bandwidthp. 52
Example of characterization: the triangular probe antenna in Fp. 52
Description of the structurep. 53
Impedance matchingp. 53
Radiation patternsp. 54
Optimization of the antennap. 58
Representation, Characterization and Modeling of Ultra Wide Band Antennasp. 61
Introductionp. 61
Specificities of UWB antennas: stakes and representationp. 62
Context and requirements of an effective and complete representationp. 63
Transfer function in transmissionp. 64
Transfer function in reception, reciprocityp. 71
Transfer function and "conventional" quantitiesp. 75
Elements on the measurement of transfer functions in the frequency domainp. 76
Temporal behavior, distortionp. 77
Distortion and idealityp. 80
Performance characterization: synthetic indicatorsp. 82
Energy gain and mean realized gain (MRG)p. 83
Synthetic indicators of distortionp. 86
Parsimonious representation by development of singularities and spherical modesp. 95
The singularity expansion methodp. 95
Spherical mode expansion method (SMEM)p. 98
Parametric model with very high order reductionp. 102
Examples of processing of measured ATFp. 103
Experimental Characterization of UWB Antennasp. 113
Introductionp. 113
Measurements of the characteristics of radiationp. 114
Basic conceptsp. 114
Frequency methodsp. 117
Time domain methodp. 127
Measurements of the electric characteristicsp. 156
Preamblep. 156
Frequency domain measurementsp. 157
Time domain measurementsp. 159
Overview of UWB Antennasp. 163
Classification of UWB antennasp. 163
Frequency independent antennasp. 164
Equiangular antennasp. 164
Log-periodic antennasp. 170
Techniques of frequency-independent antennas performance improvementp. 176
Elementary antennasp. 177
The biconical antennap. 177
The discone antennap. 179
The bowtie antennap. 180
Planar monopoles antennasp. 181
Performance improvement techniques of elementary UWB antennasp. 190
Directive elementary antennasp. 195
Antennas with progressive transitionp. 196
Horn antennasp. 201
Miniaturization of UWB antennasp. 202
General principles of antenna miniaturizationp. 202
Miniaturization problems of UWB antennasp. 203
Miniaturization techniques applicable to UWB antennasp. 204
UWB antennas for surface penetrating radarsp. 206
Presentation of SPR UWB technologiesp. 206
Design of antennas for SPR radarsp. 207
Antenna-Channel Joint Effects in UWBp. 213
Introductionp. 213
Recalls on the UWB radio channelp. 214
Impact of the channel on the performance of UWB systemsp. 218
Effective antenna performance in an ideal channelp. 220
Introductionp. 220
Radiation patterns for various architecturesp. 221
Effective performance of non-directional antennas in dispersive channelsp. 225
Gain calculation for non-ideal antennasp. 225
Results on measured channelsp. 231
Effective performance of directional antennas in dispersive channelsp. 233
Factorization of antenna patternsp. 235
Conclusionp. 237
Appendicesp. 239
Reciprocity of the Antennas in Reception and Transmission Modesp. 241
Reciprocity applied to waveguidesp. 243
Reciprocity applied to the passive antennas in transmission and receptionp. 245
Method of the Stationary Phasep. 253
Acronyms and Abbreviationsp. 255
Bibliographyp. 259
List of Authorsp. 273
Indexp. 275
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