Understanding American Government

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2001-02-01
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
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UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN GOVERNMENT is a mainstream text that reflects a diversity point of view. Focusing on the responsiveness of government, the text helps students understand the evolution and impact of important features of government. The book is a three-time winner of the annual award given by the women's caucus of APSA for coverage of women. Written in an engaging style and offering more research citations than any book on the market, UNDERSTANDING AMERICAN GOVERNMENT is readable and scholarly. This brief version of AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, Eighth Edition, excludes the four policy chapters. Otherwise, the books are identical, and share the same supplement package.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
About the Authorsp. xx
The American System
American Democracyp. 2
You are There: Is Politics Futile?p. 2
The American Peoplep. 5
Cultural Diversityp. 5
Immigration and Political Cleavagep. 7
Economic and Geographic Diversityp. 10
Diversity and Politicsp. 11
American Diversity: Census and Sensibilityp. 12
Political Culturep. 13
American Democracy: The Core Valuesp. 14
Individual Libertyp. 15
Political Equalityp. 16
Majority Rulep. 17
Minority Rightsp. 17
Economic Rightsp. 17
American Democracy in Practicep. 17
Classical Democracyp. 18
Pluralismp. 18
Pluralism Reconsideredp. 19
Conclusion: Is Government Responsive?p. 20
Epilogue: What Will You Do?p. 21
The Constitutionp. 24
You are There: The Case of the Confidential Tapesp. 24
The Articles of Confederationp. 27
National Government Problemsp. 27
State Government Problemsp. 28
The Constitutionp. 29
The Constitutional Conventionp. 29
American Diversity: Founding Mothersp. 30
Features of the Constitutionp. 33
Motives of the Foundersp. 37
American Diversity: Did the Iroquois Influence the Founders?p. 38
Ratification of the Constitutionp. 42
Changing the Constitutionp. 42
Conclusion: Does the Constitution Allow Government to Be Responsive?p. 46
Epilogue: The President Compliesp. 47
Federalism and the Growth of Governmentp. 52
You are There: Should the President Expand Federal Lands?p. 52
Federal and Other Systemsp. 55
Federal Systemsp. 55
Unitary Systemsp. 56
Confederal Systemsp. 56
The Political Bases of Federalismp. 56
The Constitutional Bases of Federalismp. 57
Major Features of the Systemp. 57
Interpretations of Federalismp. 59
Federalism and the Growth of Governmentp. 60
Early Nationalist Periodp. 60
Pre--Civil War Periodp. 61
The Civil War to the New Dealp. 62
The New Dealp. 62
From the New Deal to the Great Societyp. 65
New Federalismp. 65
What Government Does Right: Responding to Disastersp. 66
The New New Federalismp. 67
The Practice of Federalismp. 69
Federal-State Relationsp. 69
Interstate Relationsp. 72
State-Local Relationsp. 74
Conclusion: Is Federalism Responsive?p. 74
Epilogue: Clinton Creates a New National Monumentp. 75
Links between People and Government
Public Opinionp. 78
You are There: Should a Pollster Make Public Details of His Polls?p. 78
Nature of Public Opinionp. 80
Formation of Public Opinionp. 81
Agents of Political Socializationp. 82
Impact of Political Socializationp. 86
Measuring Public Opinionp. 86
Early Polling Effortsp. 87
Emergence of Scientific Pollingp. 88
Polls and Politicsp. 88
How Informed Is Public Opinion?p. 91
Public Opinionp. 92
Ideologyp. 94
Social Welfare and the Proper Role of Governmentp. 95
Social Issuesp. 96
Racep. 97
Political Tolerancep. 99
Trust in Governmentp. 100
Conclusion: Is Government Responsive to Public Opinion?p. 102
Epilogue: Luntz Eventually Reveals Loaded Questionsp. 104
News Mediap. 108
You are There: Should You Torpedo the Admiral?p. 108
The Media Statep. 111
Roles of the Mediap. 111
Concentration of the Mediap. 112
Atomization of the Mediap. 114
Relationship between the Media and Politiciansp. 117
Symbiotic Relationshipp. 117
Adversarial Relationshipp. 121
Relationship between the Media and Recent Administrationsp. 123
Relationship between the Media and Congressp. 125
Relationship between the Media and the Supreme Courtp. 126
Bias of the Mediap. 126
Political Biasp. 127
Commercial Biasp. 131
Impact of the Media on Politicsp. 137
Impact on the Public Agendap. 137
Impact on Political Parties and Electionsp. 138
Impact on Public Opinionp. 141
Conclusion: Are the Media Responsive?p. 142
Epilogue: Evans Pursued the Storyp. 144
Interest Groupsp. 152
You are There: Do You Make More Concessions, or Do You Fight?p. 152
Group Formationp. 155
Why Interest Groups Formp. 155
Why People Joinp. 156
Who Joins?p. 156
Have Americans Stopped Joining?p. 156
Types of Interest Groupsp. 157
Private Interest Groupsp. 157
Public Interest Groupsp. 160
Tactics of Interest Groupsp. 166
Direct Lobbying Techniquesp. 166
Indirect Lobbying Techniquesp. 169
Protest and Civil Disobediencep. 174
Success of Interest Groupsp. 176
Resourcesp. 176
Competition and Goalsp. 178
Conclusion: Do Interest Groups Help Make Government Responsive?p. 178
Epilogue: The Tobacco Industry Fights Backp. 180
Political Partiesp. 184
You are There: Should You Endorse George W. Bush?p. 184
What Are Political Parties?p. 186
Development and Change in the Party Systemp. 188
Preparty Politics: The Founders' Views of Political Partiesp. 188
First Party System: Development of Partiesp. 188
Second Party System: Rise of the Democratsp. 188
Third Party System: Rise of the Republicansp. 189
Fourth Party System: Republican Dominancep. 190
Fifth Party System: Democratic Dominancep. 190
Has the Fifth Party System Realigned?p. 191
Characteristics of the Party Systemp. 193
Two Partiesp. 193
Fragmentationp. 194
Moderationp. 194
Minor Parties in American Politicsp. 194
Party in the Electoratep. 196
Party Identificationp. 196
Characteristics of Democrats and Republicansp. 197
Party in Governmentp. 198
Party Organizationp. 199
National Party Organizationp. 199
State and Local Party Organizationsp. 201
Big-City Party Organizationsp. 201
The Nominating Processp. 203
Caucusesp. 203
Conventionsp. 203
Primariesp. 203
Conclusion: Do Political Parties Make Government More Responsive?p. 206
Epilogue: McClain Endorsesp. 207
Electionsp. 210
You are There: To Package or Not?p. 210
The American Electoratep. 213
Early Limits on Voting Rightsp. 213
Blacks and the Right to Votep. 213
The Voting Rights Act and the Redistricting Controversyp. 214
American Diversity: Blacks and Hispanics in Officep. 215
What Government Does Right: The Voting Rights Act Enfranchises Millionsp. 216
Women and the Right to Votep. 217
American Diversity: Women in Officep. 219
Other Expansions of the Electoratep. 220
Voter Turnoutp. 220
Political Activism in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 220
Progressive Reformsp. 220
Recent Turnoutp. 221
Who Does Not Vote?p. 221
Why Turnout Is Lowp. 222
Other Campaign Participationp. 226
Presidential Nominating Campaignsp. 228
Who Runs for President and Why?p. 228
How a Candidate Wins the Nominationp. 229
American Diversity: Can an African American Be Elected President?p. 230
Presidential Caucuses and Conventionsp. 231
Presidential Primariesp. 232
Reforming the Nomination Processp. 233
The National Conventionsp. 234
Independent and Third-Party Nomineesp. 237
The General Election Campaignp. 237
Campaign Organizationp. 237
Images and Issuesp. 237
The Electoral Collegep. 238
Campaign Strategiesp. 238
The Media Campaignp. 241
Campaign Fundingp. 244
The Permanent Campaignp. 244
Votingp. 245
Party Loyaltiesp. 245
Candidate Evaluationsp. 246
Issuesp. 247
Parties, Candidates, and Issuesp. 249
Conclusion: Do Elections Make Government Responsive?p. 249
Epilogue: The Package Worksp. 250
Money and Politicsp. 254
You are There: To Accept or Not?p. 254
The Development of Laws to Regulate Money and Politicsp. 256
Money in Nineteenth-Century American Politicsp. 257
Early Reformsp. 257
The Role of Money in Election Campaignsp. 258
Campaign Finance Lawsp. 258
Failures of the Campaign Finance Lawsp. 259
Sources of Campaign Fundsp. 263
The Impact of Campaign Moneyp. 267
Does the Campaign Finance System Deter Good Candidates?p. 267
Does Money Win Elections?p. 267
Does Money Buy Favorable Policies?p. 268
Campaign Money and Public Cynicismp. 272
Conflicts of Interestp. 273
Conclusion: Does the Influence of Money Make Government Less Responsive?p. 275
Epilogue: Feingold Limits Campaign Donationsp. 277
Congressp. 280
You Are There: Should You Risk Your Career?p. 280
Members and Constituenciesp. 283
Membersp. 283
Constituenciesp. 285
Congressional Campaigns and Electionsp. 286
The Advantages of Incumbencyp. 286
American Diversity: Women in Congressp. 288
Unsafe at Any Margin?p. 290
Challengersp. 291
Campaignsp. 292
Voting for Congressp. 293
The Representative on the Jobp. 293
Informal Normsp. 293
Working Privately and "Going Public"p. 294
Voting by Membersp. 295
What Government Does Right: The GI Bill of Rightsp. 296
How Congress Is Organizedp. 299
How Congressional Organization Evolvedp. 299
Contemporary Leadership Positionsp. 300
Committeesp. 303
American Diversity: Minority Power in Congressp. 306
Staffp. 308
What Congress Doesp. 309
Lawmakingp. 309
Overseeing the Federal Bureaucracyp. 312
Budget Makingp. 313
Congress and the Publicp. 315
Conclusion: Is Congress Responsive?p. 318
Epilogue: Margolies-Mezvinsky Supports the President and Loses Her Jobp. 319
The Presidencyp. 324
You are There: Stand by Your Man?p. 324
The Growth of the Presidencyp. 327
Terms of Officep. 328
Qualificationsp. 328
Rewardsp. 328
Tenurep. 330
Successionp. 330
Duties and Powers of Officep. 332
Chief Executivep. 332
Head of Statep. 335
Chief Diplomatp. 336
Commander in Chiefp. 336
Presidential Staff and Advisorsp. 338
The Executive Office of the Presidentp. 339
The White House Officep. 339
Office of the Vice Presidentp. 341
The President and the Peoplep. 345
The Personal Presidencyp. 345
Persuading the Publicp. 346
Public Opinion and Effectiveness in Officep. 349
The President and Congressp. 350
Party Leadershipp. 350
Divided Governmentp. 351
Legislative Leadershipp. 353
Foreign Policy and Military Leadershipp. 355
Limits on Presidential Powerp. 357
What Makes an Effective President?p. 360
Conclusion: Is the Presidency Responsive?p. 362
Epilogue: "Every Step of the Way"p. 362
The Bureaucracyp. 366
You are There: Attacking AIDSp. 366
Bureaucracyp. 369
Nature of Bureaucracyp. 369
Public and Private Bureaucraciesp. 369
Federal Bureaucracyp. 372
Growth of the Bureaucracyp. 372
Why the Bureaucracy Has Grownp. 373
American Diversity: Women and Minorities in the Civil Servicep. 374
Types of Bureaucracyp. 376
Bureaucratic Functionsp. 379
Making Policyp. 379
Administering Policyp. 384
Other Functionsp. 384
Expectations about the Federal Bureaucracyp. 385
Responsivenessp. 385
Neutral Competencep. 385
Controlling the Bureaucracyp. 388
Presidentp. 388
Congressp. 389
Courtsp. 390
Interest Groups and Individualsp. 390
Conclusion: Is the Bureaucracy Responsive?p. 392
Epilogue: The Surgeon General Chooses Neutral Competencep. 393
The Judiciaryp. 396
You are There: Is the President Immune?p. 396
Development of the Courts' Role in Governmentp. 398
Founding to the Civil Warp. 399
Civil War to the Depressionp. 402
Depression to the Presentp. 403
The Next Erap. 405
Courtsp. 405
Structure of the Courtsp. 405
Jurisdiction of the Courtsp. 406
Judgesp. 407
Selection of Judgesp. 407
American Diversity: Do Women Judges Make a Difference?p. 409
Tenure of Judgesp. 411
Qualifications of Judgesp. 412
Independence of Judgesp. 412
Access to the Courtsp. 412
Wealth Discrimination in Accessp. 413
Interest Group Help in Accessp. 413
Restrictions on Accessp. 414
Proceeding through the Courtsp. 414
Deciding Casesp. 414
Interpreting Statutesp. 414
Interpreting the Constitutionp. 416
Restraint and Activismp. 417
Following Precedentsp. 418
Making Lawp. 418
Deciding Cases at the Supreme Courtp. 419
The Power of the Courtsp. 421
Use of Judicial Reviewp. 421
What Government Does Right: The Justices Do Their Own Workp. 422
Use of Political Checks against the Courtsp. 423
Conclusion: Are the Courts Responsive?p. 425
Epilogue: The Court Allows the President to Be Sued and the Government to Be Disruptedp. 426
Civil Liberties and Rights
Civil Libertiesp. 432
You Are There: Does Religious Liberty Include Animal Sacrifice?p. 432
The Constitution and the Bill of Rightsp. 434
Individual Rights in the Constitutionp. 434
The Bill of Rightsp. 435
Freedom of Expressionp. 435
Freedom of Speechp. 436
Freedom of the Pressp. 443
Libel and Obscenityp. 445
Freedom of Religionp. 447
Rights of Criminal Defendantsp. 455
Search and Seizurep. 455
Self-Incriminationp. 456
Counselp. 457
Jury Trialp. 458
Cruel and Unusual Punishmentp. 459
Rights in Theory and in Practicep. 460
Right to Privacyp. 461
Birth Controlp. 461
Abortionp. 461
Homosexualityp. 465
Right to Diep. 466
Conclusion: Are the Courts Responsive in Interpreting Civil Liberties?p. 468
Epilogue: The First Amendment Protects Animal Sacrificep. 468
Civil Rightsp. 474
You Are There: Compromise or Continue to Fight?p. 474
Race Discriminationp. 477
Discrimination against African Americansp. 477
American Diversity: Black Mastersp. 478
Overcoming Discrimination against African Americansp. 481
Continuing Discrimination against African Americansp. 490
Improving Conditions for African Americans?p. 497
Discrimination against Hispanicsp. 499
Discrimination against Native Americansp. 502
Sex Discriminationp. 505
Discrimination against Womenp. 505
Discrimination against Menp. 513
Affirmative Actionp. 513
Conclusion: Is Government Responsive in Granting Civil Rights?p. 517
Epilogue: Hamer Continues to Fightp. 518
The Declaration of Independencep. 526
Constitution of the United States of Americap. 528
Federalist Paper 10p. 538
Federalist Paper 51p. 541
Glossaryp. 543
Spanish Equivalents for Important Political Termsp. 553
Name Indexp. 557
Subject Indexp. 560
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