Understanding Business Research

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-08-28
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Designed to assist readers in the fields of business, finance, and management science, this book provides step-by-step coverage of the research process including research design, models for design, statistical considerations, and guidance on writing and presenting results. Filled with simple explanations, real-world examples, and numerous illustrations to help readers understand complex and abstract concepts, this is an ideal book for MBA-level students, as well as researchers and practitioners who want understand and utilize qualitative and quantitative research methods in applied scenarios.

Author Biography

Bart L. Weathington, PhD, is UC Foundation Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, where he is also Coordinator of the Industrial-Organizational Psychology graduate program. Dr. Weathington is coauthor of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (Wiley). Christopher J. L. Cunningham, PhD, is UC Foundation Associate Professor of Industrial-Organizational and Occupational Health Psychology at the University of Tennessee of Chattanooga, where he is also Adjunct Clinical Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine in the College of Medicine. Dr. Cunningham is coauthor of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (Wiley). David J. Pittenger, PhD, is Dean of the College of Liberal Arts at Marshall University. Dr. Pittenger is coauthor of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (Wiley).

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Overview of the Research Processp. 1
Research and Businessp. 3
Introductionp. 4
Why Is Understanding Research Methods so Important?p. 4
The Role of Science in Business and Everyday Lifep. 4
The Scientific Methodp. 5
Brief History of the Science of Behavior in the Workplacep. 6
Bacon's Legacyp. 10
Other Important Historical Figuresp. 10
Assumptions of Sciencep. 12
Requirements for Scientific Researchp. 13
Chapter Summaryp. 18
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 20
Referencesp. 21
Ethics and Researchp. 23
Introductionp. 23
What Is Ethics?p. 24
Approaches to Ethical Analysisp. 26
Making Ethical Decisionsp. 29
Ethical Business Researchp. 30
Components of an Ethical Research Planp. 32
Research in Action: Ethical Dilemmasp. 37
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 40
Referencesp. 40
The Foundations of Researchp. 41
Introductionp. 41
The Hypothesis in Researchp. 42
Types of Hypothesesp. 46
Measurementp. 52
Reliability of Measurementp. 57
Validity of Measurementp. 59
Populations and Samplesp. 61
Research in Action: Credit or Cash?p. 65
Chapter Summaryp. 68
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 69
Referencesp. 71
An Overview of Empirical Methodsp. 73
Introductionp. 74
Internal, Statistical, and External Validityp. 74
Survey of Empirical Methodsp. 33
Intact Groups Designs and Quasi-Experimental Studiesp. 87
Surveysp. 90
Correlational Studiesp. 90
Interviews and Case Studiesp. 92
Meta-Analysisp. 93
Computers and Statisticsp. 94
Research in Action: Price Mattersp. 95
Chapter Summaryp. 99
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 101
Referencesp. 103
Nuts and Bolts of Researchp. 105
Writing the Research Reportp. 107
Introductionp. 107
What Do Readers Appreciate in Good Writing?p. 109
Elements of Stylep. 109
Special Grammatical Issuesp. 113
Academic Integrityp. 117
Parts of the Research Reportp. 122
Chapter Summaryp. 135
Referencesp. 136
Reviewing the Literature and Forming Hypothesesp. 137
Introductionp. 138
Bibliographic Researchp. 138
The Internet as a Sourcep. 141
Developing a Search Strategyp. 143
Searching the Literature: The Libraryp. 144
Research in Action: Does Listening to Mozart Make You Smarter?p. 148
Statistical Inference and Testing Hypothesesp. 150
Chapter Summaryp. 154
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 155
Referencesp. 156
Sampling: The First Steps in Researchp. 157
Introductionp. 158
The Nature of Samplesp. 159
Probability Samplingp. 160
Sampling Methodsp. 162
Nonprobability Samplingp. 165
Central Limit Theoremp. 167
Applications of the Central Limit Theoremp. 170
Sources of Bias and Error: A Reprisep. 176
Research in Action: Sampling Mattersp. 178
Chapter Summaryp. 180
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 181
Referencesp. 182
Creating and Using Assessments, Surveys, and Objective Measuresp. 183
Introductionp. 184
Purpose of Measurementp. 184
Caveat Assessorp. 184
Creating a Measurement Scale and Developing a Data-Collection Strategyp. 186
Interviews, Questionnaires, and Attitude Surveysp. 187
Question Response Formatsp. 190
Writing Good Survey Itemsp. 194
Determining the Sample Size for a Surveyp. 199
Naturalistic Observationp. 201
Research in Action: Analysis of Assaultsp. 207
Chapter Summaryp. 212
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 212
Referencesp. 215
A Model for Research Designp. 215
Introductionp. 216
A Model for Research Designp. 216
What Is the Independent Variable?p. 221
What Is the Dependent Variable?p. 223
Are There Confounding Variables?p. 224
What Are the Research Hypotheses?p. 227
Mathematical Hypothesesp. 228
Evaluating Hypothesesp. 229
Evaluating Hypotheses: Practical Mattersp. 232
Research in Action: Sex Differences and Shopping Behaviorp. 236
Research in Action: Changing Attitudes by Writing Essaysp. 236
Chapter Summaryp. 237
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 239
Referencesp. 240
Common Research Designsp. 243
Correlational Researchp. 245
Introductionp. 246
Conceptual Review of Correlationp. 246
Pearson's rp. 248
Interpreting the Correlation Coefficientp. 248
Factors that Corrupt a Correlation Coefficientp. 250
Sample Size and the Correlation Coefficientp. 253
Applications of the Correlation Coefficientp. 255
Regression Analysisp. 259
Introduction to Mediation and Moderationp. 261
Regression to the Meanp. 262
Research in Action: Education and Incomep. 264
Chapter Summaryp. 268
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 269
Referencesp. 270
Between-Subjects Designsp. 271
Introductionp. 271
Student's t-Ratio for Independent Groupsp. 272
Review of Hypothesis Testingp. 274
Testing Statistical Hypothesesp. 276
Common Errors in the Interpretation of pp. 282
The Power of a Testp. 284
Estimating the Sample Sizep. 289
Statistics Behind The Researchp. 291
Chapter Summaryp. 295
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 296
Referencesp. 296
Single-Variable Between-Subjects Researchp. 297
Introductionp. 298
Independent Variablep. 298
Cause and Effectp. 301
Gaining Control Over the Variablesp. 301
The General Linear Modelp. 303
Components of Variancep. 306
The F-Ratiop. 307
H0 and H1p. 310
F-Ratio Sampling Distributionp. 310
Summarizing and Interpreting ANOVA Resultsp. 312
Effect Size and Powerp. 313
Multiple Comparisons of the Meansp. 315
Research in Actionp. 318
Chapter Summaryp. 320
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 321
Referencesp. 322
Between-Subjects Factorial Designsp. 325
Introductionp. 326
The Logic of the Two-Variable Designp. 326
Advantages of the Two-Variable Designp. 327
Factorial Designs: Variables, Levels, and Cellsp. 331
Examples of Factorial Designsp. 332
Main Effects and Interactionp. 334
Designing a Factorial Studyp. 342
Identifying Samples and Estimating Sample Sizep. 344
Interpreting the Interaction: Advanced Considerationsp. 346
Chapter Summaryp. 348
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 348
Referencesp. 349
Correlated-Groups Designsp. 351
Introductionp. 351
Logic of the Correlated-Groups Research Designp. 352
Repeated-Measures Designp. 353
Longitudinal Designsp. 362
Matched-Groups Designp. 365
Mixed-Model Designp. 367
Research in Actionp. 368
Chapter Summaryp. 370
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 370
Referencesp. 371
Special Research Designsp. 373
Research with Categorical Datap. 375
Introductionp. 375
Goodness-of-Fit Testp. 377
X2 Test of Independencep. 381
X2 Test of Homogeneityp. 384
Further Analysis of the x2p. 385
McNemar Testp. 388
Research in Action: Gambling and Productivityp. 391
Chapter Summaryp. 393
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 394
Referencesp. 394
Qualitative and Mixed-Methods Researchp. 397
Introductionp. 398
Qualitative Versus Quantitative Researchp. 398
Theory and Perspectives Guiding Qualitative Researchp. 399
Mixing Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Combinedp. 400
Qualitative and Mixed-Methods Data Collection and Analysisp. 402
Benefits and Challenges of Mixed-Methods Researchp. 408
Sources of Published Qualitative and Mixed-Methods Researchp. 411
Research in Action: Gender- and Job-Based Differences in Work Stressp. 412
Chapter Summaryp. 414
Chapter Glossary for Reviewp. 415
Referencesp. 415
Statistics Behind the Research, or, "What Was I Supposed to Remember from My Statistics Class Anyway?"p. 417
Statistical Tablesp. 435
Indexp. 485
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