Understanding Ethnic Conflict

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2009-08-07
  • Publisher: Routledge

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Understanding Ethnic Conflictprovides all the key concepts needed to understand conflict among ethnic groups. Including approaches from both comparative politics and international relations, this text offers a model of ethnic conflictrs"s internationalization by showing how domestic and international actors influence a countryrs"s ethnic and sectarian divisions. Illustrating this model in five original case studies, the unique combination of theory and application inUnderstanding Ethnic Conflictfacilitates more critical analysis of contemporary ethnic conflicts and the worldrs"s response to them.

Author Biography

Raymond C. Taras is Professor of Political Science at Tulane University.

Rajat Ganguly is Senior Lecturer in Politics at the University of East Anglia.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Ethnic Conflict and International Politics: A Conceptual Framework
Ethnic Conflict on the World Stagep. 1
Introductionp. 1
Definitionsp. 1
How Is Ethnic Identity Formed?p. 3
Why Does Ethnic Conflict Occur?p. 6
The First Wave: Modernization, Nationalism, and Ethnic Conflictp. 6
The Second Wave: Multiethnic States and Democratic Instabilityp. 10
The Third Wave: Resource Competition and Ethnic Nationalismp. 13
The Fourth Wave: Theories of Ethnic Conflict in the Post-Cold War Erap. 13
Goals of Ethnic Political Movementsp. 24
Conclusionp. 25
Ethnic Conflict and International Normsp. 34
Introductionp. 34
International Norms Affecting Ethno-Secessionp. 34
The Doctrine of Sovereigntyp. 36
The Principle of National Self-Determinationp. 41
The Moral Case for Secessionp. 47
The Emerging Global Regime of Ethnic Minoritiesp. 56
Conclusionp. 58
Ethnic Conflict and International Securityp. 63
Introductionp. 63
Complex Humanitarian Emergenciesp. 64
IDPs and Refugeesp. 65
Torture, Abuse, and Mass Rapep. 66
Child Soldiersp. 67
State Failure and Collapsep. 68
Ethno-terrorismp. 69
Guns-for-Drugs Syndromep. 70
Partisan Intervention and Counterintervention in Ethnic Conflictsp. 71
The Staying Power of Ethnic Insurgency Movementsp. 78
Conclusionp. 79
Resolving Ethnic Conflicts Through International Interventionp. 85
Why Resolving Ethnic Conflicts Is Importantp. 85
Ethnic Conflict Resolution by International Third Partiesp. 86
Peace Keepingp. 86
Peace Makingp. 87
Peace Buildingp. 90
Ethnic Conflict Resolution by the United Nationsp. 91
The United Nations as a Peace Keeperp. 92
The United Nations as a Peace Makerp. 95
The United Nations as a Peace Builderp. 98
States as Third Parties in Ethnic Conflict Resolutionp. 101
Major Powers and Ethnic Conflict Resolutionp. 102
Ethnic Conflict Resolution by Third-World Regional Powersp. 103
Regional Organizations as Third Parties in Ethnic Conflict Resolutionp. 105
International Nongovernmental Organizations as Third Parties In Ethnic Conflict Resolutionp. 107
Conclusionp. 108
Case Studies
Nationalism and the Collapse of Empire: The Russian-Chechen Conflictp. 115
The Disintegration of Empiresp. 115
Why Did Ethnic Conflict Occur?p. 118
Soviet Imperialism and Great Russian Nationalismp. 118
Democratization as a Source of Ethnic Conflictp. 121
The Conflict of Identitiesp. 122
Box 5.1 Theorizing the Linkage Between the Soviet Internationalism Versus Russian Nationalism Conflict and its International Dimensionp. 124
Nationalist Mobilization in Post-Soviet Russiap. 124
The Core Ideas of Russian Nationalismp. 126
Russian Nationalists Resurgentp. 127
Russia's New Minoritiesp. 129
Russia and Chechnyap. 130
Chechen Ethno-secessionismp. 133
International Reactionp. 135
Noninternationalization of the Chechen Conflictp. 137
Box 5.2 Theorizing the Linkage Between the Russian Nationalism Versus Chechen Ethno-secessionism Conflict and Its International Dimensionp. 139
The Internationalization of Ethnic Conflict in Georgiap. 141
Box 5.3 Theorizing the Linkage Between the Georgian-Versus-Minorities Conflict and Its International Dimensionp. 142
Box 5.4 Theorizing the Linkage Between the Georgia-Versus-Russia Nationalist Conflict and Its International Dimensionp. 144
Conclusionp. 145
Separatist Movements in Constitutional Democracies: Canada and Quebec Nationalismp. 150
Introductionp. 150
Why Is There Conflict? Sources of Quebec Nationalismp. 151
British Colonizationp. 152
Confederationp. 154
Economic Stagnationp. 154
Conscription Crisesp. 155
Disputed Bordersp. 155
Society in Transformationp. 156
The Quiet Revolutionp. 156
Quebec's Exclusion from the Canadian Constitutionp. 158
The Failure to Bring Quebec Back Inp. 159
The Growth of the Sovereignty Movementp. 161
The Canadian Supreme Court on Secessionp. 163
Why Peaceful Secession Is Rarep. 166
International Reactionp. 168
Can a Constitutional Dispute Be Internationalized?p. 169
Is External Mediation Necessary in Canada?p. 171
Box 6.1 Theorizing the Linkage Between Ethno-secessionism in Quebec and Its International Dimensionp. 172
Intractable Ethnic War?: The Tamil-Sinhalese Conflict In Sri Lankap. 177
Introductionp. 177
Why Did Ethnic Conflict Occur in Sri Lanka?p. 177
Internationalization of the Ethnic Civil Warp. 183
India's Attempt at Conflict Resolutionp. 184
The Ethnic Civil War in the 1990sp. 189
The Norway-Facilitated Peace Processp. 190
Peace Negotiationsp. 193
Suspension of Peace Talksp. 195
Political Turmoil and Its Impact on Peace Talksp. 196
Tsunami Disaster and the Dispute over Relief and Reconstructionp. 198
Endgame: Back to War and the LTTE's Destructionp. 199
Box 7.1 Theorizing the Linkage Between the Tamil-Sinhalese Conflict in Sri Lanka and Its International Dimensionp. 201
Conclusionp. 202
Weak States and Ethnic Conflict: State Collapes and Reconstruction in Africap. 210
Introductionp. 210
Weak Statesp. 211
Weak States, Politicized Identities in Central Africap. 213
The Colonial Legacy and Hutu-Tutsi Rivalryp. 213
International Involvement in Rwanda and Burundip. 215
Box 8.1 Theorizing the Linkage Between Ethnic Conflicts and Outside Involvement in Rwandap. 217
World War in the Democratic Republic of Congop. 218
The Ethnic-Foreign Nexus in Eastern Congop. 221
International Mediation in the Congo Conflictp. 225
Box 8.2 Theorizing the Linkage Between Ethnic Conflicts and Outside Involvement in Congop. 226
The Darfur Conflict: A Clash of Civilizations?p. 226
The Ethno-religious Dimension: Muslim Arabs Versus Animist Africansp. 228
Outside Actors in Sudanp. 231
Box 8.3 Theorizing the Linkage Between Ethnic Conflicts and Outside Involvement in Sudanp. 233
Keeping the State Strong: South Africap. 233
Transition from Apartheidp. 234
Ethnicity, State Building, and the International Systemp. 237
Box 8.4 Theorizing the Linkage Between Ethnic Diversity and Outside Interest in South Africap. 237
Conclusionp. 239
Western Military Intervention and Ethno-Religious Conflicts: Iraq, Afghanistan, and Former Yugoslaviap. 243
Introductionp. 243
The U.S. Occupation of Iraqp. 245
Toppling a Dictator, Creating a Weak Statep. 247
The Domestic and International Impact of Ethno-sectarian Cleavagesp. 251
Box 9.1 Theorizing the Linkage Between Ethnic Conflicts and Outside Involvement in Iraqp. 255
Expanding Afghanistan's Wars Through Interventionp. 255
Ethnicity, Warlords, and Internal Conflictp. 257
International Intervention, Renewed Contactp. 260
Box 9.2 Theorizing the Linkage Between Ethnic Conflicts and Outside Involvement in Afghanistanp. 263
Wars in Disintegrating Yugoslaviap. 264
International Responses in Bosnia and Kosovop. 269
Third-Party Mediation and Peace Keepingp. 272
Box 9.3 Theorizing the Linkage Between Ethnic Conflicts and Outside Involvement in Bosnia and Kosovop. 275
Conclusionp. 276
To Intervene or Not to Intervene?p. 281
Studying Post-Cold War Policy Makingp. 281
Rationales for Interventionp. 283
Promoting Liberal Internationalismp. 283
Preempting Security Threatsp. 284
Prosecuting a Just Warp. 285
Promoting Functional Integrationp. 287
Conclusionp. 288
Selected Bibliographyp. 290
Glossaryp. 299
Indexp. 309
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