Understanding Generalist Practice With Socialworknow? And Infotrac

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-02-15
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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In this top-selling, respected, and insightful book, Karen Kirst-Ashman and Grafton Hull, Jr., help you build the knowledge and skills you need to work effectively with individuals, groups, and organizations. You'll explore the links between these various levels of social work practice-micro, mezzo, and macro-through insightful case examples and hands-on applications. Empowerment, the strengths perspective, and planned change are a focus of coverage throughout, providing you with the information and resources that will put you on the path to a rewarding career. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
Introducing Generalist Practice: The Generalist Intervention Modelp. 2
Introducing Generalist Practicep. 4
The Uniqueness of Social Workp. 5
Defining Generalist Practicep. 7
Defining Generalist Practice: An Eclectic Knowledge Basep. 9
Defining Generalist Practice: Emphasis on Client Empowermentp. 21
Defining Generalist Practice: Application of a Wide Range of Skills to Target Systems of Any Sizep. 22
Defining Generalist Practice: Working in an Organizational Structure under Supervisionp. 25
Defining Generalist Practice: A Wide Range of Rolesp. 25
Defining Generalist Practice: Critical Thinking Skillsp. 25
Defining Generalist Practice: Planned Changep. 26
The Generalist Intervention Model (GIM)p. 26
Planned Change Steps in GIMp. 29
Other Practical Generalist Skills: A Perspective on the Rest of the Textp. 38
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 38
On the Internetp. 39
Micro Practice Skills: Working with Individualsp. 40
Introductionp. 42
Micro Skills and the Generalist Intervention Model (GIM)p. 42
Interviewing: A Key Micro Skillp. 43
Beginning the Worker-Client Relationshipp. 44
Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviorp. 44
Eye Contactp. 44
Attentive Listeningp. 45
Facial Expressionsp. 46
Body Positioningp. 46
Warmth, Empathy, and Genuinenessp. 47
Warmthp. 47
Empathyp. 48
Genuinenessp. 50
Client Self-Determination and Empowermentp. 51
Starting the Interviewp. 51
The Interview Settingp. 52
How to Dress for the Interview and for the Jobp. 52
Thinking Ahead about an Interview with a Clientp. 52
Initial Introductionsp. 53
Alleviating the Client's Anxietyp. 53
Portraying Confidence and Competencep. 53
Beginning Statement of Purpose and Rolep. 54
Conducting the Interviewp. 55
Verbal Responses to the Clientp. 55
Overlap of Techniquesp. 64
Interviewing, Specific Techniques, and the Planned Change Processp. 64
Critical Thinking: Challenges in Interviewingp. 64
Dealing with Diversity: Cross-Cultural Awareness in Interviewingp. 64
Silence in the Interviewp. 67
Confronting Clientsp. 69
Involuntary Clientsp. 70
Suspicion of Untruthp. 72
Terminating the Interviewp. 74
Using Micro Practice Skills in Multiple Rolesp. 75
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 75
On the Internetp. 75
Mezzo Practice Skills: Working with Groupsp. 76
Introductionp. 78
Benefits of Groupsp. 78
Mutual Assistancep. 78
Connectionsp. 78
Testingp. 79
Goal Achievementp. 79
Types of Groupsp. 79
Task Groupsp. 79
Treatment Groupsp. 81
Worker Roles in Groupsp. 84
Brokerp. 84
Mediatorp. 85
Educatorp. 85
Facilitatorp. 85
Basic Group Dynamicsp. 85
Group Developmentp. 85
Group Culture, Norms, and Powerp. 86
Group Size and Compositionp. 88
Durationp. 89
Decision Making in Groupsp. 89
Group Fuctions and Rolesp. 94
Micro Skills in Groupsp. 96
Groups and the Generalist Intervention Model (GIM)p. 97
Task and Treatment-Group Skillsp. 98
Conflict Resolutionp. 98
Modeling and Coachingp. 100
Team Buildingp. 101
Confrontationp. 102
Consultationp. 103
Coordinationp. 103
Using Structurep. 104
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 104
On the Internetp. 104
Macro Practice Skills: Working with Organizations and Communitiesp. 106
Introductionp. 108
Defining Macro Practicep. 108
The Organizational Context of Social Work Practicep. 109
Professional-Organizational Conflictsp. 109
Limitations and Risk Assessmentp. 110
Theoretical Base for Organizational and Community Changep. 111
Social Reformp. 113
Social Actionp. 114
Cause Advocacyp. 114
Case Advocacyp. 114
Micro Skills for Organizational and Community Changep. 115
Mezzo Skills for Organizational and Community Changep. 116
Macro Skills for Organizational and Community Changep. 117
Evaluating Outcomesp. 117
Fund-Raisingp. 118
Budgetingp. 119
Negotiatingp. 122
Mediatingp. 122
Influencing Decision Makersp. 123
Needs Assessmentp. 128
Planningp. 130
Working with Coalitionsp. 130
Worker Roles in Organizational and Community Changep. 132
Initiatorp. 132
Negotiatorp. 132
Advocatep. 132
Spokespersonp. 132
Organizerp. 133
Mediatorp. 133
Consultantp. 133
Generalist Intervention Model (GIM) in Macro Practicep. 134
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 135
On the Internetp. 135
Engagement and Assessment in Generalist Practicep. 136
Introductionp. 138
Engagementp. 138
Greeting the Clientp. 139
Demonstrating Effective Attending Skillsp. 139
Discussing Agency Services and Client Expectationsp. 140
Deciding If the Agency and Worker Can Helpp. 140
Offering Agency and Worker Services to the Clientp. 140
Orienting the Client to the Helping Processp. 141
Completing Required Paperworkp. 141
Assessmentp. 142
How to Approach Assessmentp. 143
Goals of Assessmentp. 147
Assessment from a Micro Practice Perspectivep. 147
Family Assessmentp. 156
Assessment in Mezzo Practice: Assessing Groupsp. 166
Assessment in Macro Practicep. 174
Assessment, Client Empowerment, and Strengthsp. 178
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 178
On the Internetp. 178
Planning in Generalist Practicep. 180
Introductionp. 182
Steps in the Planning Processp. 182
Work with Your Client(s)p. 182
Prioritize Problems-Which Problem Should You Work on First?p. 182
Translate Problems into Needsp. 185
Evaluate Levels of Intervention-Selecting a Strategyp. 186
Establish Goalsp. 188
Specify Objectivesp. 189
Specify Action Stepsp. 192
Formalize a Contractp. 192
Planning in Mezzo Practicep. 199
The Complexity of Setting Objectives in Mezzo Practicep. 199
Contracts in Mezzo Practicep. 204
Planning in Macro Practicep. 204
An Approach to Program Planningp. 204
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 208
On the Internetp. 209
Implementation Applicationsp. 210
Introductionp. 212
Child Maltreatment and Protective Servicesp. 213
Family Preservation Philosophy: Empowering Familiesp. 213
The Generalist Intervention Model: Engagementp. 219
The Generalist Intervention Model: Assessmentp. 220
The Generalist Intervention Model: Planningp. 222
The Generalist Intervention Model: Implementationp. 223
The Generalist Intervention Model: Evaluation, Termination, and Follow-Upp. 223
Empowerment, Child Maltreatment, and Mezzo Practicep. 223
Empowerment, Child Maltreatment, and Macro Practicep. 223
Crisis Interventionp. 224
The Crisis Processp. 224
Steps in Crisis Interventionp. 224
A Case Example of Crisis Intervention in Micro Practicep. 227
Crisis Intervention at the Mezzo Levelp. 230
Crisis Intervention at the Macro Levelp. 231
Practice Issues with Populations-at-Riskp. 231
Generalist Practice, Empowerment, and the Elderlyp. 231
Generalist Practice, Empowerment, and People Having Other National Originsp. 235
Alcohol and Other Substance Abusep. 236
People with Alcohol Problemsp. 240
Alcoholism and Family Relationshipsp. 242
The Effects of Alcoholic Parents on Their Childrenp. 243
Your Role in Intervention with Alcoholicsp. 244
Treatment Approaches for Alcoholismp. 244
Other Issuesp. 247
Empowerment at the Mezzo Levelp. 248
Empowerment at the Macro Levelp. 248
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 250
On the Internetp. 250
Evaluation, Termination, and Follow-Up in Generalist Practicep. 252
Introductionp. 254
Evaluating Social Work Practicep. 255
Definition and Purposes of Evaluationp. 255
External Factors in Evaluationp. 256
Obstacles to Evaluationp. 257
The Evaluation Processp. 258
Evaluation Designs for Generalist Practicep. 263
Single-Subject Designsp. 263
Goal-Attainment Scalingp. 266
Task-Achievement Scalingp. 267
Client Satisfaction Questionnairesp. 269
Target-Problem Scalingp. 270
Evaluation Designs for Programsp. 271
Needs Assessmentsp. 271
Evaluability Assessmentsp. 271
Process Analysisp. 271
Program Outcome Analysisp. 272
Continuous Quality Assurance Evaluationsp. 272
Program Monitoringp. 273
Issues and Problems in Evaluationp. 273
Problems in Generalizabilityp. 273
Wrong Choices of Evaluation Toolsp. 274
Failure to Involve Clients in the Evaluation Processp. 274
Staff Distrust of Evaluationp. 274
Evaluation Process Interference with Service Givingp. 275
Alternative Explanations for Program Outcomesp. 275
Unanticipated Consequencesp. 275
Termination and Follow-Upp. 277
Ethical Practice and Critical Thinking about Terminationp. 277
Terminating Professional Relationshipsp. 277
Tasks of Terminationp. 278
Planned Terminationsp. 280
Unplanned Terminationsp. 280
Other Points about Terminationp. 281
Reactions and Feelings in Terminationsp. 281
Helping Clients at Terminationp. 283
Stabilization of Changep. 284
Client Follow-Upp. 287
Doing the Follow-Upp. 287
Overcoming Barriers to Follow-Upp. 288
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 289
On the Internetp. 289
Understanding Familiesp. 290
Introductionp. 292
Families and the Generalist Intervention Modelp. 294
Family Assessmentp. 294
Assessing Family Communicationp. 294
Assessing Family Structurep. 297
Assessing Life-Cycle Adjustmentsp. 301
Impacts of the Impinging Social Environmentp. 302
Family Conflicts, Problems, and Their Resolutionsp. 307
Partner Difficultiesp. 307
Parent-Child Relationship Difficultiesp. 309
Personal Problems of Individual Family Membersp. 310
External Environmental Stresses: The Impact of Social and Economic Forcesp. 311
Variations in Family Structuresp. 311
Single-Parent Familiesp. 311
Remarriage and Blended Familiesp. 313
Enhancing Cultural Competency: Family Assessment and Keys to Empowermentp. 316
Acculturationp. 317
Immigration Historyp. 317
School Adjustmentp. 317
Employmentp. 317
Male and Female Interactive Patternsp. 318
Role of Extended Familyp. 318
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 318
On the Internetp. 318
Working with Familiesp. 320
Introductionp. 322
Generalist Practice with Familiesp. 323
Family Treatment and the Planned Change Processp. 323
Strategizing for Family Intervention: Do You Always Have to See the Entire Family?p. 323
Engagement, Assessment, and Planning with Familiesp. 328
Alleviate or at Least Minimize Early Apprehensionp. 328
Ask Family Members to Explain What Is Wrongp. 329
Establish Agreement about What Is Wrongp. 329
Concentrate on How Family Members Relate to Each Otherp. 331
Establish Commitment to a Plan of Actionp. 331
Implementation of Family Interventionp. 331
Reframingp. 332
Teaching Families Problem-Solving Techniquesp. 334
Teaching Child-Management Methodsp. 334
Offering Families Supportp. 335
Role Playingp. 335
Videotapingp. 336
Homework Assignmentsp. 336
Evaluation, Termination, and Follow-Up with Familiesp. 337
Family Issues and Servicesp. 337
Multiproblem Familiesp. 337
Family Preservationp. 338
Enhancing Cultural Competency: Diversity and Familiesp. 341
The Current Status of Family Servicesp. 347
Macro Practice with Families: Promoting Social and Economic Justicep. 348
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 351
On the Internetp. 351
Values, Ethics, and the Resolution of Ethical Dilemmasp. 352
Introductionp. 354
The NASW Code of Ethicsp. 355
Social Workers' Ethical Responsibilities to Clientsp. 356
Social Workers' Ethical Responsibilities to Colleaguesp. 362
Social Workers' Ethical Responsibilities in Practice Settingsp. 365
Social Workers' Ethical Responsibilities as Professionalsp. 366
Social Workers' Ethical Responsibilities to the Social Work Professionp. 368
Social Workers' Ethical Responsibilities to the Broader Societyp. 369
The Canadian Association of Social Workers' Code of Ethicsp. 369
Ethical Dilemmasp. 369
Conceptualizing and Addressing an Ethical Dilemma: Decision-Making Stepsp. 370
Recognize the Problemp. 371
Investigate the Variables Involvedp. 372
Get Feedback from Othersp. 372
Appraise What Values and Ethical Standards Apply to the Dilemmap. 372
Evaluate the Dilemma on the Basis of Established Ethical Principlesp. 373
Identify and Think About Possible Alternatives to Pursuep. 373
Weigh the Pros and Cons of Each Alternativep. 373
Make Your Decisionp. 374
Ranking Ethical Principles: Loewenberg, Dolgoff, and Harrington's "Ethical Principles Screen"p. 374
People Have the Right to Exist with Their Basic Needs Metp. 374
People Have the Right to Treatment That Is Fair and Equalp. 374
People Have the Right to Have Free Choice and Freedomp. 374
People Have the Right to Experience Injury That Is Minimal or Nonexistentp. 374
People Have the Right to Cultivate a Good Quality of Lifep. 375
People Have the Right to Secure Their Privacy and Confidentialityp. 375
People Have the Right to Understand the Truth and All Available Informationp. 375
Postscriptp. 375
Discussion and Resolution of Ethical Dilemmas in Generalist Practice Contextsp. 376
Confidentiality and Privileged Communicationp. 376
Self-Determination and Paternalismp. 379
Dual Relationshipsp. 383
Telling the Truthp. 387
Laws, Policies, and Regulationsp. 388
Whistle-Blowingp. 389
Distribution of Limited Resourcesp. 391
Personal and Professional Valuesp. 392
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 392
On the Internetp. 393
Culturally Competent Social Work Practicep. 394
Introductionp. 396
Diversity in the United Statesp. 396
Race and Ethnicityp. 396
Disabilitiesp. 398
Historic and Current Discriminationp. 398
Barriers to Culturally Competent Social Workp. 400
Integrating Cultural Competence in the Generalist Intervention Modelp. 402
Engagementp. 402
Assessmentp. 402
Planningp. 403
Implementationp. 404
Evaluationp. 404
Termination and Follow-Upp. 405
Practice Knowledge and Skillsp. 405
Native Americans/First Nations Peoplesp. 405
Hispanics/Latinosp. 409
African Americansp. 411
Asian Americans and Pacific Islandersp. 414
People with Disabilitiesp. 418
Developing Culturally Competent Interventionsp. 420
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 422
On the Internetp. 423
Gender-Sensitive Social Work Practicep. 424
Introductionp. 426
Gender Sensitivityp. 426
Women and the Generalist Intervention Modelp. 427
A Feminist Perspective on Micro, Mezzo, and Macro Aspects of Generalist Practicep. 428
A Definition of Feminism for Practitionersp. 430
Micro Practice with Women: Common Problemsp. 432
Stressful Life Eventsp. 432
Lack of Self-Esteem and a Sense of Powerlessnessp. 432
Empowering Women in Micro Practicep. 433
Enhance Self-Esteemp. 433
Increase Assertivenessp. 434
Expand Optionsp. 436
Change Old Rules and Expectationsp. 436
Macro-Level Empowerment: Help Women Work Togetherp. 436
Common Circumstances Facing Womenp. 436
Women as Survivors of Sexual Assaultp. 438
The Feminist Perspective on Sexual Assaultp. 439
Reactions to Rapep. 439
Counseling Survivors of Sexual Assaultsp. 441
Macro Perspectives on Sexual Assaultp. 443
Battered Womenp. 444
A Profile of Battered Womenp. 444
Survivors versus Victims: A Strengths Perspectivep. 445
The Abusive Perpetratorp. 445
The Battering Cyclep. 445
Why Does She Stay?p. 445
Counseling Battered Womenp. 447
Suggestions for Macro Practice on Behalf of Battered Womenp. 450
The Feminization of Povertyp. 451
Micro and Mezzo Perspectives on Women and Povertyp. 452
Macro Perspectives on Women and Povertyp. 453
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 459
On the Internetp. 459
Advocacyp. 460
Introductionp. 462
Defining Advocacyp. 462
Advocacy and the Generalist Intervention Modelp. 462
Case Advocacyp. 462
Cause Advocacyp. 463
Useful Skills in Advocacyp. 464
The Goals of Advocacyp. 464
Targets of Advocacyp. 464
History of Advocacy in Social Workp. 465
Observations about Advocacyp. 466
Observations about Powerp. 466
Observations about Organizationsp. 467
Observations about Clientsp. 467
Knowledge Required by Advocatesp. 468
Knowing the Rights of Clientsp. 468
Avenues of Appealp. 468
Available Resourcesp. 469
Tactics and Strategies of Interventionp. 469
Assessment in Advocacy Situationsp. 469
Self-Assessmentp. 469
What Are Your Sources of Power?p. 470
Other Assessment Considerationsp. 470
Planning in Advocacy Situationsp. 473
The Ultimate Decisionp. 473
Intervention: Advocacy Strategies and Tacticsp. 473
Persuasionp. 473
Fair Hearings and Legal Appealsp. 475
Political and Community Pressurep. 475
Using the Mediap. 476
Petitioningp. 476
Selecting a Strategy for Advocacyp. 476
Whistle-Blowingp. 477
Legislative Advocacyp. 477
Factors Affecting Legislative Advocacyp. 479
Steps in Legislative Advocacyp. 479
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 482
On the Internetp. 483
Brokering and Case Managementp. 484
Introductionp. 486
A Definition of Brokeringp. 486
The Importance of the Brokering Role in Generalist Practicep. 487
The Effective Brokerp. 487
The Importance of Knowing Resourcesp. 487
Types of Resourcesp. 489
The Planned Change Process in Brokeringp. 493
Case Managementp. 495
What Is Case Management?p. 496
The Importance of Case Management for Generalist Practicep. 498
Assessmentp. 499
Planningp. 502
Implementationp. 504
Evaluation in Case Managementp. 507
Termination in Case Managementp. 507
Follow-Up in Case Managementp. 507
Factors Influencing Case Management Service Deliveryp. 508
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 509
On the Internetp. 509
Recording in Generalist Social Work Practicep. 510
Introductionp. 513
The Importance of Writing in Social Workp. 513
What Is in the Record?p. 515
Recording Formatsp. 529
Process Recordingp. 529
Using Videotapes and Audiotapesp. 529
Progress Notesp. 531
Narrative Recordingp. 532
Summaries of Case Conferencesp. 533
Problem-Oriented Recordingp. 533
Standardized Formsp. 541
Recording Progress in Groupsp. 543
Writing Lettersp. 544
Memosp. 546
Recording in Meetingsp. 548
Other Types of Recording Formatsp. 550
Technological Advancesp. 550
Computersp. 550
E-Mailp. 550
Faxesp. 554
Writing Skills and Recordingp. 555
Privacy Principlesp. 556
InfoTrac Exercisesp. 558
On the Internetp. 559
Bibliographyp. 561
Creditsp. 581
Name Indexp. 583
Subject Indexp. 589
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