Understanding Research and Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders A Primer for Students and Practitioners

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-10-24
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Understanding Research and Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disordersis an engaging, student-friendly text that explores the connection between common communication science research methods and clinical practice. Covering both the conceptual and the quantitative aspects of research methods, evidence-based practice, experimental design, and statistics, this book both elucidates various models of research and practice and explains how these models are important to the greater field of communication science.

Author Biography

William O. Haynes has been teaching courses in speech-language pathology at the university level for over thirty years and is currently a professor at Auburn University. Having written over fifty scientific articles and textbooks, Dr. Haynes is the author of Communication Disorders in the Classroom (Jones & Bartlett, 2006), Diagnosis and Evaluation in Speech Pathology (Allyn & Bacon, 2003) and Communication Development (Williams and Wilkins, 1998). 


Carole E. Johnson is a professorat Auburn University and has been teaching courses in audiology at the university level for almost twenty years.  She has over 45 publications and has successfully written federal grants for many of her projects.  Dr. Johnson is the author of Handbook of Outcomes Measurement in Audiology (Singular-Thomson, 2002) and Guidebook for Support Programs in Aural Rehabilitation (Singular-Thompson, 1999). 

Table of Contents

Introduction t
Research in Communication Disorders
The Importance of Research in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Learning Objectives
Preconceived notions
The role of research in making a profession(al) credible
Three examples of professional credibility
Our professional literature and the information base
The scientific method and clinical work: The notion of clinician-researcher
Common research misconceptions
Parallels in clinical and research skills: Diagnosis
Parallels in clinical and research skills: Treatment
The benefits of becoming a clinician-researcher
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
The Nature of Scientific Inquiry and Essentials of Experimental Control
Scientific Principles and Methods Used by Researchers
Learning Objectives
Sinister stereotypes
Ways of knowing about the world
Characteristics of science
The Systematic Nature of Science: Scientific method
Experimental Control
The Public Nature of Science
Replication in Science
The Empirical Nature of Science
Probabilistic Knowledge
Ethical issues in research
Junk science, pseudoscience and quackery
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Crafting Scientific and Answerable Questions
Learning Objectives
Theories, problems, hypotheses and questions
Deductive and inductive approaches t
generating questions
Independent and dependent variables: Critical elements
A final word on independent variables
Selecting dependent variables
Operational definitions
Evaluating research by asking questions about the questions
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Controlling Threats and Confounding Variables Through Experimental Design
Learning Objectives
Threats and experimental design
Introduction t
our design notation: Between and within subjects experimental designs
Internal validity
Threats t
internal validity
The Maturation Threat
The History Threat
The Threat of Testing Effects
The Statistical Regression Threat
The Experimenter/Participant Bias Threat
Experimenter's General Demeanor and Communication
Experimenter Gathering or Scoring of Experimental Data
The Hawthorne Effect
Control Groups and the Placeb
The Instrumentation Threat
Common Steps in Using Instrumentation for Research
Generic Sources of Error Related t
Quality of the Instrument
Condition of the Instrument
Interpretive Skill
The Participant Selection Threat
Establish Selection Criteria
Random Assignment
Including Extraneous Variable in Your Design and Using Statistics as Control
Group Summary Information
The Mortality Threat
External validity
Threats t
external validity
Participant Selection Bias
Experimental Arrangements
Reactive Testing
Multiple Treatment Interactions
The linkage between internal and external validity
The art and science of compromise
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Design and Analysis of Research on Groups and Single Cases
Levels of Measurement and Distribution of Scores
Learning Objectives
Levels of Measurement: What kind of data does your dependent variable represent?
Nominal Data
Ordinal Data
Interval Data
The shape of the distribution and it's importance in research
Summary Statistics: Central Tendency
The Mode
The Median
The Mean
Relationships of Measures of Central Tendency in Normal and Abnormal Distributions
Type of Data and its Effect on Selection of Central Tendency Measures
Summary Statistics: Variability
The Variance
The Standard Deviation
Assumptions of Parametric and Non-Parametric Statistics
Type of Data
Number of Participants
Normal Distribution
Homogeneity of Variance
Differing Views of Assumptions
Transforming Data
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
An Introduction Hypothesis Testing with Inferential Statistics
Learning Objectives
Probability and level of confidence
The process of hypothesis testing
Stating the Null and Alternative Hypotheses
Set the Alpha Level or Significance level for use in Evaluating Hypotheses
Gather Data from a Research Sample
Compute a Test Statistic on Sample Data Obtain a Calculated Value
Compare Calculated Value of Test Statistic the Critical Value t Determine Statistical Significance
Making a Decision about Hypotheses
Type I and Type II errors
Statistical power
Statistical versus practical significance
Effect size and practical significance
The null hypothesis revisited
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Common Statistical Analyses for Finding Differences Among Tw or More Groups of Conditions on One Independent Variable
Learning Objectives
Conceptual and mechanical aspects of statistical analysis
Review of basic between subjects designs
Putting in the summary statistics
Independent t-test: A parametric statistic for comparing tw groups (between subjects)
One factor analysis of variance (ANOVA1) between subjects: A parametric statistic for comparing more than tw independent groups
Post hoc testing
Commonly used non-parametric statistics for finding differences between tw or more independent groups (between subjects)
Correlated t-test: A parametric statistic for comparing tw related groups or conditions (within subjects)
One factor analysis of variance (ANOVA1) within subjects: A parametric statistic for comparing more than tw conditions
Commonly used non-parametric statistics for finding differences among more than tw conditions (within subjects)
Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA): A parametric statistic for finding differences among more than tw groups or conditions on multiple dependent variables (between and within subjects)
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Studies that analyze differences in groups using factorial designs with more than one independent variable: Between, Within and Mixed
Learning Objectives
Tw Factor ANOVA (Between subjects)
Tw Factor ANOVA (Within subjects)
Three Factor ANOVA (Between subjects)
Three Factor ANOVA (Within subjects)
Tw Factor Mixed ANOVA with Repeated measures on one factor
Three Factor Mixed ANOVA with Repeated measures on one factor
Three Factor Mixed ANOVA with Repeated measures on tw factors
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
Factorial Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA)
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Studies That Measure Relationships Among Variables or Attempt Prediction
Learning Objectives
The Nature of Relationships
Direction of a Relationship
Strength of a Relationship
Significance of a Relationship
Importance of the Relationship and Accounting for Variance
Nonparametric Correlation Procedures
Bivariate Regression Analysis: Prediction with a Single Independent and Dependent Variable
Multivariate Procedures for Studying Relationships and Prediction: A Caveat
Multiple Regression Analysis
Canonical Correlation Analysis
Discriminant Analysis
Factor Analysis
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Single-subject Experimental Designs in Clinical Fields
Learning Objectives
Characteristics of Single-subject Design Research
Descriptive Designs
Other Assessments
Scientific Methodology in Single-subject Design Research
Advantages and Disadvantages t Single-subject Design Research versus Group-design Research
Statistical Procedures in Single-subject Design Research
Critiquing Single-subject Design Research
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Review Exercises
Critiquing Single-subject Design Research
Evidence-Based Practice and Applied Clinical Research
Introduction t
Evidence-based Practice
Learning Objectives
Evidence-based Practice in Communication Sciences and Disorders
What is evidence-based practice?
What skills are required for evidence-based practice?
Chapter Summary
Levels of Evidence
Learning Objectives
Levels of Evidence
What criteria are used in establishing hierarchies of rigor?
What hierarchies are appropriate for Communication Sciences and Disorders?
Levels of Evidence for Interventional Research
Level I: Meta-analysis of Multiple, Well-designed Clinical Studies
What are systematic reviews and meta-analyses?
What does a summary of a systematic review look like?
What are the major components of a systematic review?
What are characteristics of good systematic reviews?
Level II: Well-designed Randomized Clinical Trials
What is the role of clinical trials in healthcare?
How relevant are clinical trials t
Communication Sciences and Disorders?
What are the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of well-designed clinical trials?
Level III: Non-randomized Intervention Studies
Level IV: Cohort Studies, Case-control Studies, and Cross-sectional Surveys
Cohort Studies
Case-control Studies
Cross-sectional Surveys
Level V: Case Studies
Level VI: Expert Opinion
General Characteristics and Rigor of Diagnostic Studies
Assessment of Test Accuracy
Some Points of Discussion about Levels of Evidence for Diagnostic Studies
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Review Exercises
Framing the Clinical Question and Searching for the Evidence
Learning Objectives
A Rubric for Framing Clinical Questions
Types of Clinical Questions
Defining the Population, Intervention, Alternative Treatment, and Outcome
Formulating Clinical and/or Research Questions
Searching for the Evidence
Sources of Evidence in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Search Strategies
Documenting Search Strategies
A Multi-layered Selection Strategy
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Review Exercises
PIC Worksheet for Evidence-based Practice
Documentation of an Electronic Database Search
Report of Title Review
Report of Abstract and/or Article Review
Evaluating the Evidence
Learning Objectives
Common Weaknesses in Communication Sciences and Disorders Research
Critiquing Studies for Evidence-based Practice
Systematic Reviews
Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trials
Cohort Studies
Case-control Studies
Diagnostic Studies
Rating of the Evidence and Grading of the Recommendations
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Review Exercises
Checklist for Evaluating Systematic Reviews
Checklist for Evaluating Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trials
Checklist for Evaluating Cohort Studies
Checklist for Evaluating Case-control Studies
Checklist for Evaluating Diagnostic Studies
Evidence-based Practice: Blending Patient Preferences, Scientific Evidence, and Clinical Expertise
Learning Objectives
Patient Preferences
Scientific Evidence
Developing a Clinical/ Research Question
Searching for the Evidence
Critical Appraisal of the Evidence
Clinical Expertise
Conference on Guideline Standards
Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation Collaboration
Clinical Practice Guidelines in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Review Exercises
Putting Knowledge int
Practice: Evaluating Research, Designing your own Study and Obtaining Resources
Producing Research as a Student or Practitioner
Learning Objectives
Theses, Capstone Projects and Dissertations
The Beginning
Defining a General Area of Research Interest
The Director
The Specific Research Idea
The Committee
Format and Submission Requirements
The Literature Review
The Justification
Crafting Answerable Questions
Designing the Method
The Prospectus
The Prospectus Meeting
The Midpoint
Finding Participants
Informed Consent
Gathering Data
Organization in Gathering and Safeguarding Data
Data Analysis
The End Game
Writing the Results
Writing the Discussion
Limitations of the study and Suggestions for Future Research
The Defense
Writing up a Presentation and Journal Article
Another Perspective on Ethics for Students and Practitioners
Collaborative Research by Practitioners
Finding a Collaborator
Defining Roles and Contributions
The Idea and Research Questions
Designing the Study and Defining Roles
Review of the Literature
The IRB Protocol
Obtaining Equipment/Instrumentation
Finding Participants
Gathering Data
Analyzing Data
Writing up a Presentation and Journal Article
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Grantsmanship: Funding Research Endeavors
Learning Objectives
Funding Sources in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Four Types of Funding
Levels of Investigative Experience
Specific Granting Mechanisms Appropriate for Various Levels of Investigative Experience
Undergraduate Students
Graduate Students
New Investigators
Independent Investigators
Preparing a Grant Application
Grant Review Process
Chapter Summary
Learning Activities
Review Exercises
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