Understanding Statistics In The Behaviorial Sciences

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-06-14
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Based on over 30 years of successful teaching experience in this course, Robert Pagano's introductory text takes an intuitive, concepts-based approach to descriptive and inferential statistics. He uses the sign test to introduce inferential statistics, empirically derived sampling distributions, many visual aids and lots of interesting examples to promote student understanding. One of the hallmarks of this text is the positive feedback from students?even students who are not mathematically inclined praise the text for its clarity, detailed presentation, and use of humor to help make concepts accessible and memorable. Thorough explanations precede the introduction of every formula?and the exercises that immediately follow include a step-by-step model that lets students compare their work against fully solved examples. This combination makes the text perfect for students taking their first statistics course in psychology or other social and behavioral sciences.

Table of Contents

Overviewp. 1
Statistics and Scientific Methodp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Methods of Knowingp. 4
Definitionsp. 6
Scientific Research and Statisticsp. 9
Random Samplingp. 9
Descriptive and Inferential Statisticsp. 10
Using Computers in Statisticsp. 10
Statistics and the "Real World"p. 11
What is the Truth? Data, Data, Where Are the Data?p. 12
What is the Truth? Authorities Are Nice, But ...p. 13
What is the Truth? Data, Data, What Are the Data?-1p. 14
What is the Truth? Data, Data, What Are the Data?-2p. 15
Summaryp. 17
Important Termsp. 17
Questions and Problemsp. 17
Book Companion Websitep. 20
WebTutorp. 20
Descriptive Statisticsp. 21
Basic Mathematical and Measurement Conceptsp. 23
Study Hints for the Studentp. 23
Mathematical Notationp. 24
Summationp. 25
Measurement Scales: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scalesp. 27
Measurement Scales in the Behavioral Sciencesp. 31
Continuous and Discrete Variablesp. 31
Summaryp. 35
Important Termsp. 35
Questions and Problemsp. 35
Notesp. 36
Book Companion Websitep. 37
WebTutorp. 37
Frequency Distributionsp. 38
Introduction: Ungrouped Frequency Distributionsp. 38
Grouping Scoresp. 40
Percentilesp. 46
Percentile Rankp. 50
Graphing Frequency Distributionsp. 53
Exploratory Data Analysisp. 58
What is the Truth? Stretch the Scale, Change the Talep. 60
Summaryp. 62
Important Termsp. 62
Questions and Problemsp. 62
Book Companion Websitep. 65
WebTutorp. 65
Measures of Central Tendency and Variabilityp. 66
Introductionp. 66
Measures of Central Tendency: Arithmetic Mean, Median, and Modep. 67
Measures of Variability: Range, Standard Deviation, and Variancep. 76
Summaryp. 82
Important Termsp. 82
Questions and Problemsp. 82
Notesp. 85
Book Companion Websitep. 85
WebTutorp. 85
The Normal Curve and Standard Scoresp. 86
Introductionp. 86
The Normal Curvep. 87
Standard Scores (z Scores)p. 88
Summaryp. 100
Important Termsp. 100
Questions and Problemsp. 100
Book Companion Websitep. 102
WebTutorp. 102
Correlationp. 103
Introductionp. 103
Relationshipsp. 104
Correlationp. 111
What is the Truth? "Good Principal = Good Elementary School," or Does It?p. 126
Summaryp. 127
Important Termsp. 128
Questions and Problemsp. 128
Book Companion Websitep. 133
WebTutorp. 133
Linear Regressionp. 134
Introductionp. 134
Prediction and Imperfect Relationshipsp. 135
Constructing the Least-Squares Regression Line: Regression of Y on Xp. 137
Regression of X on Yp. 143
Measuring Prediction Errors: The Standard Error of Estimatep. 146
Considerations in Using Linear Regression for Predictionp. 149
Relation Between Regression Constants and Pearson rp. 150
Multiple Regression and Multiple Correlationp. 151
Summaryp. 156
Important Termsp. 156
Questions and Problemsp. 156
Book Companion Websitep. 160
WebTutorp. 160
Inferential Statisticsp. 161
Random Sampling and Probabilityp. 163
Introductionp. 163
Random Samplingp. 164
Probabilityp. 168
What is the Truth? "Not Guilty, I'm a Victim of Coincidence": Gutsy Plea or Truth?p. 191
What is the Truth? Sperm Count Decline-Male or Sampling Inadequacy?p. 192
What is the Truth? A Sample of a Samplep. 193
Summaryp. 195
Important Termsp. 195
Questions and Problemsp. 195
Notesp. 198
Book Companion Websitep. 198
WebTutorp. 198
Binomial Distributionp. 199
Introductionp. 199
Definition and Illustration of the Binomial Distributionp. 199
Generating the Binomial Distribution from the Binomial Expansionp. 202
Using the Binomial Tablep. 204
Summaryp. 213
Important Termsp. 213
Questions and Problemsp. 213
Notesp. 215
Book Companion Websitep. 215
WebTutorp. 215
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Using the Sign Testp. 216
Introductionp. 216
An Experiment: Marijuana and the Treatment of AIDS Patientsp. 217
Type I and Type II Errorsp. 222
Alpha Level and the Decision Processp. 223
Evaluating the Tail of the Distributionp. 225
One- and Two-Tailed Probability Evaluationsp. 227
Size of Effect: Significant Versus Importantp. 234
What is the Truth? Chance or Real Effect?-1p. 234
What is the Truth? Chance or Real Effect?-2p. 236
What is the Truth? "No Product Is Better Than Our Product"p. 237
What is the Truth? Anecdotal Reports Versus Systematic Researchp. 238
Summaryp. 240
Important Termsp. 241
Questions and Problemsp. 241
Notesp. 244
Book Companion Websitep. 244
WebTutorp. 244
Powerp. 245
Introductionp. 245
What Is Power?p. 246
P[subscript null] and P[subscript real]p. 246
Power Analysis of the AIDS Experimentp. 248
Alpha-Beta and Realityp. 255
Interpreting Nonsignificant Resultsp. 255
Calculation of Powerp. 256
What is the Truth? Astrology and Sciencep. 262
Summaryp. 264
Important Termsp. 264
Questions and Problemsp. 264
Notesp. 265
Book Companion Websitep. 266
WebTutorp. 266
Sampling Distributions, Sampling Distribution of the Mean, the Normal Deviate (z) Testp. 267
Introductionp. 267
Sampling Distributionsp. 268
The Normal Deviate (z) Testp. 272
Summaryp. 294
Important Termsp. 294
Questions and Problemsp. 294
Book Companion Websitep. 296
WebTutorp. 296
Student's t Test for Single Samplesp. 297
Introductionp. 297
Comparison of the z and t Testsp. 298
The Sampling Distribution of tp. 299
t and z Distributions Comparedp. 301
First Word Utterances Experiment Revisitedp. 302
Calculating t[subscript obt] from Original Scoresp. 303
Conditions Under Which the t Test Is Appropriatep. 308
t Distribution: Confidence Intervals for the Population Meanp. 308
Testing the Significance of Pearson rp. 313
Summaryp. 316
Important Termsp. 317
Questions and Problemsp. 317
Notesp. 320
Book Companion Websitep. 320
WebTutorp. 320
Student's t Test for Correlated and Independent Groupsp. 321
Introductionp. 322
Student's t Test for Correlated Groupsp. 323
z and t Tests for Independent Groupsp. 329
z Test for Independent Groupsp. 330
Student's t Test for Independent Groupsp. 333
Power of the t Testp. 341
Correlated Groups and Independent Groups Designs Comparedp. 342
Evaluating the Effect of the Independent Variable Using Confidence Intervals-Independent Groups Designp. 345
Summaryp. 349
Important Termsp. 350
Questions and Problemsp. 350
Notesp. 356
Book Companion Websitep. 357
WebTutorp. 357
Introduction to the Analysis of Variancep. 358
Introduction: The F Distributionp. 359
F Test and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)p. 360
Overview of the One-Way Analysis of Variance Techniquep. 361
Analyzing Data with the ANOVA Techniquep. 366
Logic Underlying the One-Way ANOVAp. 370
The Relationship Between the Analysis of Variance and the t Testp. 374
Assumptions Underlying the Analysis of Variancep. 374
Size of Effectp. 375
Power of the Analysis of Variancep. 376
Multiple Comparisonsp. 377
What is the Truth? Much Ado About Almost Nothingp. 388
Summaryp. 390
Important Termsp. 391
Questions and Problemsp. 391
Notesp. 395
Book Companion Websitep. 396
WebTutorp. 396
Introduction to Two-Way Analysis of Variancep. 397
Introduction to the Two-Way Analysis of Variance-Qualitative Presentationp. 397
Quantitative Presentation of the Two-Way Analysis of Variancep. 401
Analyzing an Experiment with Two-Way ANOVAp. 408
Multiple Comparisonsp. 422
Assumptions Underlying the Two-Way ANOVAp. 423
Summaryp. 423
Important Termsp. 424
Questions and Problemsp. 424
Book Companion Websitep. 426
WebTutorp. 426
Chi-Square and Other Nonparametric Testsp. 427
Introduction: Distinction Between Parametric and Nonparametric Testsp. 428
Chi-Square (X[superscript 2])p. 429
The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Ranks Testp. 443
The Mann-Whitney U Testp. 446
The Kruskal-Wallis Testp. 452
What is the Truth? Statistics and Applied Social Research-Useful or "Abuseful"?p. 457
Summaryp. 459
Important Termsp. 460
Questions and Problemsp. 460
Notesp. 467
Book Companion Websitep. 468
WebTutorp. 468
Review of Inferential Statisticsp. 469
Introductionp. 469
Terms and Conceptsp. 470
Process of Hypothesis Testingp. 471
Single Sample Designsp. 472
Two-Condition Experiments: Correlated Groups Designp. 474
Independent Groups Design: Two Groupsp. 476
Multigroup Experimentsp. 478
Two-Way Analysis of Variance, F Testp. 481
Analyzing Nominal Datap. 483
Choosing the Appropriate Testp. 484
Questions and Problemsp. 486
Book Companion Websitep. 492
Appendixesp. 493
Review of Prerequisite Mathematicsp. 495
Equationsp. 505
Answers to End-of-Chapter Questions and Problemsp. 513
Tablesp. 528
Glossaryp. 553
Indexp. 557
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