# Understanding Symbolic Logic

• ISBN13:

• ISBN10:

## 0130201421

• Edition: 4th
• Format: Hardcover
• Publisher: Prentice Hall
• Purchase Benefits
• Free Shipping On Orders Over \$35!
Your order must be \$35 or more to qualify for free economy shipping. Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace items, eBooks and apparel do not qualify for this offer.
• Get Rewarded for Ordering Your Textbooks! Enroll Now
List Price: \$94.40

### Summary

For one-semester/two-quarter/full-year, lower-/upper-level undergraduate courses in Formal Logic and Deductive Logic. This is a comprehensive Each unit is divided into easily comprehended small bites. The book provides extremely detailed explanations of procedures and techniques.

Preface xiii
PART ONE Sentential Logic
 Introduction to Logic
1(17)
 Why Study Logic?
2(2)
4(1)
 Induction and Deduction
5(2)
 Form and Validity
7(3)
 Truth and Validity
10(2)
 The Nature of Symbolic Logic
12(1)
 The Scope of Symbolic Logic
13(5)
 Definitions
15(1)
 Study Questions
16(1)
 Exercises
16(2)
 The Structure of Sentential Logic
18(12)
 Simple and Compound Sentences
19(4)
 Sentential Operators
23(2)
 The Structure and Symbolism of Sentential Logic
25(5)
 Definitions
27(1)
 Study Questions
28(1)
 Exercises
28(2)
 Computing Truth Values
30(17)
 Truth Tables for the Operators
31(8)
 Computing Truth Values
39(2)
 Truth-functional Operators
41(1)
 Non-truth-functional Operators
42(5)
 Definitions
44(1)
 Study Questions
44(1)
 Exercises
45(2)
 Symbolizing English Sentences
47(19)
 Simple Sentences
48(2)
 Truth-functional and Non-truth-functional Compounds
50(1)
 Symbolizing English Operators
51(8)
 Symbolizing Multiply Complex Sentences
59(7)
 Exercises
63(3)
 Truth Tables for Testing Validity
66(20)
 Constructing Base Columns for Truth Tables
67(4)
 The Truth Table Test for Validity
71(4)
 Shortcut Validity Tests
75(6)
 Mechanical Decision Procedures
81(5)
 Definitions
82(1)
 Study Questions
82(1)
 Exercises
83(3)
 Further Applications of the Truth Table Method
86(16)
87(3)
 Logical Implication and Logical Equivalence
90(3)
 Consistency
93(1)
 Statements and Statement Forms; Applying Truth Table Concepts
94(2)
 Four Kinds of Truth Table Problems and the Relations Between Them
96(6)
 Definitions
97(1)
 Study Questions
98(1)
 Exercises
98(4)
 The Proof Method: Eight Basic Inference Rules
102(34)
 Form and Substitution Instance
104(3)
 The Proof Process
107(2)
 Eight Basic Inference Rules
109(8)
 Derivations and Proofs
117(2)
 Constructing Simple Proofs
119(5)
 Constructing More Complex Proofs
124(12)
 Summary of Rules of Inference
127(1)
 Definitions
128(1)
 Exercises
128(8)
 Replacement Rules
136(27)
 The Structure of Replacement Rules
137(1)
 The Ten Replacement Rules
138(9)
 Constructing Simple Proofs with Replacement Rules
147(3)
 Strategies for More Complex Proofs
150(13)
 Summary of Replacement Rules
156(1)
 Exercises
156(7)
 Conditional Proof and Indirect Proof
163(24)
 Conditional Proof
164(4)
 Indirect Proof
168(3)
 Discharging Assumptions; Restrictions on C.P. and I.P.
171(2)
 Using C.P. and I.P.
173(3)
 Proofs of Theorems
176(3)
 Invalidity
179(1)
 Truth and Proof
180(7)
 Summary of Rules of Conditional Proof and Indirect Proof
181(1)
 Definitions
182(1)
 Exercises
183(4)
 Singular Sentences
187(10)
 Singular Sentences and Propositional Functions
189(3)
 Symbolizing Singular Sentences
192(5)
 Definitions
195(1)
 Exercises
195(2)
 Quantifiers
197(13)
 Universal and Existential Quantifiers
198(5)
 Free and Bound Variables; Scope of a Quantifier
203(1)
 Negated Quantifiers
203(7)
 Definitions
207(1)
 Exercises
208(2)
 Categorical Propositions
210(24)
 The Four Categorical Propositions
211(3)
 Individuals, Sets, and Properties
214(1)
 Venn Diagrams
215(4)
 Symbolizing Categorical Propositions
219(2)
 Negated Categorical Propositions
221(2)
 Deriving C.Q.N. Rules from Q.N. Rules
223(1)
 Symbolizing English Categorical Sentences
223(11)
 Symmary of Categorical Propositions
229(1)
 Definitions
230(1)
 Exercises
230(4)
 Complex Subjects and Predicates
234(13)
 Complex Subjects and Predicates
235(4)
 Equivalent Symbolizations
239(8)
 Exercises
244(3)
 Quantifier Form and Truth-Functional Compounds of Quantifier Statements
247(8)
 Quantifier Form
248(1)
 Truth-functional Compounds and Quantifier Form
249(2)
 Symbolizing Truth-functional Compounds
251(4)
 Definitions
252(1)
 Exercises
252(3)
 Proofs in Predicate Logic
255(25)
 Preliminary Statement of the Four Quantifier Rules
256(2)
 Instances of Quantified Formulas
258(1)
 The Rules of Universal Instantiation (U.I.) and Existential Generalization (E.G.)
259(1)
 The Rules of Existential Instantiation (E.I.) and Universal Generalization (U.G.); Flagging Restrictions
260(7)
 Constructing Proofs for ``Pure'' Quantifier Arguments
267(5)
 Constructing Proofs for Arguments Containing Truth-functional Compounds
272(2)
 Constructing Proofs of Quantifier Theorems
274(6)
 Statement of the Quantifier Rules, with All Necessary Restrictions
276(1)
 Exercises
277(3)
 Invalidity in Quantifier Logic
280(15)
 The Natural Interpretation Method
281(3)
 Truth Conditions for Quantifier Statements
284(1)
 The Model Universe Method
285(10)
 Definitions
292(1)
 Exercises
292(3)
PART THREE Relational Predicate Logic
 Symbolization in Relational Predicate Logic
295(28)
 Relational Predicates and Singular Sentences
296(3)
 Multiple Quantifiers
299(7)
 Quantifier Negation
306(3)
 Categorical Relational Statements; Complex Subjects and Predicates
309(4)
 Symbolizing English Sentences
313(10)
 Exercises
317(6)
 Proofs and Invalidity for Relational Predicate Logic
323(14)
 Proofs in Relational Predicate Logic
324(7)
 Invalidity in Relational Predicate Logic
331(6)
 Exercises
335(2)
 Identity and Definite Descriptions
337(16)
 Identity Statements and Their Negations
338(1)
 Exceptives and ``Only'' Statements
339(3)
 Superlatives
342(1)
 Numerical Statements
343(4)
 Definite Descriptions
347(6)
 Exercises
348(5)
 Proofs Involving Identity
353(12)
 Rules for Identity
353(4)
 Proofs Containing Identity Statements
357(8)
 Summary of Identity Rules
361(1)
 Exercises
361(4)
PART FOUR Extra Credit Units
 Well-Formed Formulas for Sentential Logic
365(4)
 Exercises
367(2)
 Polish Notation for Sentential Logic
369(4)
 Exercises
371(2)
 Proof Trees for Sentential Logic
373(6)
 Exercises
378(1)
 Using Venn Diagrams to Prove Validity
379(6)
 Exercises
383(2)
 Stroke (nand) and Dagger (nor) Operators
385(4)
 Exercises
388(1)
 Proof Trees for Predicate Logic
389(12)
 Exercises
399(2)