Preface | p. xiii |
Acknowledgment | p. xvii |
List of Acronyms | p. xix |
Notes on Editors and Contributors | p. xxix |
Introduction | p. 1 |
Modern Approaches to Radio Network Modelling and Planning | p. 3 |
Historical aspects of radio network planning | p. 3 |
Importance and limitations of modelling approaches | p. 5 |
Manual versus automated planning | p. 7 |
References | p. 9 |
Introduction to the UTRA FDD Radio Interface | p. 11 |
Introduction to CDMA-based networks | p. 11 |
The UTRA FDD air interface | p. 15 |
Spreading codes | p. 15 |
Common physical channels | p. 20 |
Dedicated physical channels | p. 27 |
UTRA FDD key mechanisms | p. 29 |
Cell breathing and soft capacity | p. 29 |
Interference and power control | p. 31 |
Soft handover and compressed mode | p. 32 |
Parameters that require planning | p. 34 |
Signal path parameters | p. 34 |
Power allocation | p. 35 |
System settings | p. 35 |
References | p. 35 |
Spectrum and Service Aspects | p. 37 |
Spectrum aspects | p. 37 |
Spectrum requirements for UMTS | p. 38 |
Spectrum identified for UMTS | p. 39 |
Frequency arrangements for the UMTS terrestrial component | p. 39 |
Operator spectrum demands | p. 45 |
Service features and characteristics | p. 46 |
References | p. 52 |
Trends for the Near Future | p. 55 |
Introduction | p. 55 |
Systems yet to be deployed | p. 56 |
UTRA TDD | p. 56 |
TD-SCDMA | p. 57 |
Satellite segment | p. 58 |
Enhanced coverage | p. 60 |
Ultra High Sites (UHS) | p. 61 |
High Altitude Platform System (HAPS) | p. 61 |
Enhanced capacity | p. 61 |
Hierarchical Cell Structures (HCS) | p. 61 |
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) | p. 62 |
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) | p. 63 |
Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (OFDM) | p. 64 |
Heterogeneous approaches | p. 64 |
Wireless LANs | p. 64 |
Wireless MANs (WiMAX) | p. 65 |
Concluding Remarks | p. 65 |
References | p. 65 |
Modelling | p. 67 |
Propagation Modelling | p. 69 |
Radio channels in wideband CDMA systems | p. 69 |
Electromagnetic wave propagation | p. 69 |
Wideband radio channel characterisation | p. 73 |
Introduction to deterministic methods in modelling WCDMA systems | p. 75 |
Deterministic methods: comparison of performance | p. 79 |
Application of empirical and deterministic models in picocell planning | p. 80 |
Techniques for indoor modelling | p. 80 |
Techniques for outdoor-to-indoor modelling | p. 82 |
Application of empirical and deterministic models in microcell planning | p. 84 |
Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami model | p. 85 |
Manhattan model | p. 87 |
Other microcellular propagation models | p. 88 |
Application of empirical and deterministic models in macrocell planning | p. 90 |
Modified Hata | p. 90 |
Other models | p. 91 |
Propagation models of interfering signals | p. 94 |
ITU-R 1546 model | p. 94 |
ITU-R 452 model | p. 100 |
Statistics in the Modified Hata model | p. 104 |
Radio propagation model calibration | p. 105 |
Tuning algorithms | p. 106 |
Single and multiple slope approaches | p. 108 |
Calculation of inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution function | p. 110 |
References | p. 111 |
Theoretical Models for UMTS Radio Networks | p. 115 |
Antenna modelling | p. 115 |
Mobile terminal antenna modelling | p. 117 |
Base station antenna modelling | p. 118 |
Link level model | p. 122 |
Relation to other models | p. 123 |
Link level simulation chain | p. 124 |
Link level receiver components | p. 126 |
Link level receiver detectors | p. 128 |
Capacity considerations | p. 134 |
Capacity of a single cell system | p. 134 |
Downlink power-limited capacity | p. 134 |
Uplink power-limited capacity | p. 137 |
Static system level model | p. 139 |
Link level aspects | p. 140 |
Propagation data | p. 141 |
Equipment modelling | p. 142 |
Transmit powers and power control | p. 144 |
Services and user-specific properties | p. 146 |
Soft handover | p. 147 |
Complete model | p. 148 |
Applications of a static system-level network model | p. 149 |
Power control at cell level | p. 152 |
Equation system solving | p. 157 |
Dynamic system level model | p. 161 |
Similarities and differences between static and dynamic models | p. 161 |
Generic system model | p. 162 |
Input/output parameters | p. 164 |
Mobility models | p. 164 |
Traffic models | p. 165 |
Path loss models | p. 167 |
Shadowing models | p. 168 |
Modelling of small scale fading | p. 169 |
SIR calculalion | p. 170 |
References | p. 172 |
Business Modelling Goals and Methods | p. 177 |
Business modelling goals | p. 177 |
New business planning | p. 177 |
Infrastructure development | p. 178 |
Budgeting | p. 179 |
Business modelling methods | p. 179 |
Trends and statistical approach | p. 180 |
Benchmarking and drivers | p. 181 |
Detailed quantitative models | p. 181 |
Other non-quantitative methods | p. 182 |
References | p. 183 |
Plannin | p. 185 |
Fundamentals of Business Planning for Mobile Networks | p. 187 |
Process description | p. 187 |
Market analysis and forecasting | p. 187 |
Modelling the system | p. 189 |
Financial issues | p. 190 |
Recommendations | p. 190 |
Technical investment calculation | p. 191 |
CAPEX calculation methods | p. 191 |
OPEX calculation methods | p. 196 |
The role of drivers: Sanity checking | p. 197 |
Revenue and non-technical related investment calculation | p. 198 |
Input parameters and assumptions | p. 198 |
Revenue calculation methods | p. 199 |
Non-technical related investments | p. 199 |
Business planning results | p. 199 |
Business plan output parameters | p. 200 |
Business plan assessment methods | p. 200 |
References | p. 201 |
Fundamentals of Network Characteristics | p. 203 |
Power characteristics estimation | p. 203 |
Distance to home base station dependency | p. 203 |
Traffic load dependency | p. 207 |
Network capacity considerations | p. 210 |
Irregular base station distribution grid | p. 210 |
Improper antenna azimuth arrangement | p. 212 |
Required minimum network size for calculations | p. 214 |
References | p. 218 |
Fundamentals of Practical Radio Access Network Design | p. 219 |
Introduction | p. 219 |
Input parameters | p. 222 |
Base station classification | p. 222 |
Hardware parameters | p. 222 |
Environmental specifics | p. 229 |
Technology essentials | p. 231 |
Network dimensioning | p. 238 |
Coverage versus capacity | p. 238 |
Cell coverage | p. 239 |
Cell Erlang capacity | p. 249 |
Detailed network planning | p. 251 |
Site-to-sile distance and antenna height | p. 252 |
Site location | p. 254 |
Sectorisation | p. 256 |
Antenna and sector direction | p. 259 |
Electrical and mechanical tilt | p. 260 |
Temporal aspects in HCS | p. 263 |
References | p. 268 |
Compatibility of UMTS Systems | p. 271 |
Scenarios of interference | p. 272 |
Interference between UMTS and other systems | p. 272 |
Intra-system interference | p. 274 |
Approaches to compatibility calculations | p. 275 |
Principles of compatibility calculations | p. 275 |
Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) method | p. 280 |
Monte Carlo (MC) method | p. 283 |
Propagation models for compatibility calculations | p. 284 |
Characteristics of UTRA stations for the compatibility calculations | p. 286 |
Internal electromagnetic compatibility | p. 286 |
External electromagnetic compatibility | p. 292 |
UMTS TDD versus DECT WLL | p. 292 |
Compatibility between UMTS and Radio Astronomy Service | p. 294 |
Compatibility between UMTS and MMDS | p. 295 |
Intemational cross-border coordination | p. 296 |
Principles of coordination | p. 296 |
Propagation models for coordination calculations | p. 297 |
Application of preferential frequencies | p. 298 |
Use of preferential codes | p. 300 |
Examples of coordination agreements | p. 301 |
References | p. 305 |
Network Design - Specialised Aspects | p. 309 |
Network infrastructure sharing | p. 309 |
Network sharing methods | p. 309 |
Legal aspects | p. 313 |
Drivers for sharing | p. 314 |
Adjacent channel interference control | p. 315 |
Fundamentals of Ultra High Site deployment | p. 318 |
References | p. 320 |
Optimisation | p. 321 |
Introduction to Optimisation of the UMTS Radio Network | p. 323 |
Automation of radio network optimisation | p. 324 |
What should be optimised and why? | p. 325 |
How do we benchmark the optimisation results? | p. 326 |
Location based information | p. 327 |
Sectors and network statistical data | p. 328 |
Cost and optimisation efforts | p. 330 |
References | p. 331 |
Theory of Automated Network Optimisation | p. 333 |
Introduction | p. 333 |
From practice to optimisation models | p. 334 |
Optimisation techniques | p. 335 |
Optimisation parameters for static models | p. 339 |
Site location and configuration | p. 340 |
Antenna related parameter | p. 340 |
CPICH power | p. 344 |
Optimisation targets and objective function | p. 345 |
Coverage | p. 345 |
Capacity | p. 346 |
Soft handover areas and pilot pollution | p. 247 |
Cost of implementation | p. 348 |
Combination and further possibilities | p. 348 |
Additional practical and technical constraints | p. 348 |
Example of objective function properties | p. 349 |
Network optimisation with evolutionary algorithms | p. 354 |
Genetic algorithms | p. 355 |
Evolution strategies | p. 357 |
Practical implementation of GA for tilt and CPICH | p. 361 |
Optimisation without simulation | p. 366 |
Geometry-based configuration methods | p. 355 |
Coverage-driven approaches | p. 368 |
Advanced models | p. 369 |
Expected coupling matrices | p. 372 |
Comparison and suitability of algorithms | p. 373 |
General strategies | p. 374 |
Discussion of methods | p. 374 |
Combination of methods | p. 375 |
References | p. 375 |
Automatic Network Design | p. 379 |
The key challenges in UMTS network optimisation | p. 379 |
Problem definition | p. 379 |
Matching UMTS coverage to GSM | p. 380 |
Supporting high bit rate data services | p. 381 |
Handling dual technology networks | p. 382 |
Engineering case studies for network optimisation | p. 382 |
Example network description | p. 383 |
Pre-launched (unloaded) network optimisation | p. 383 |
Loaded network optimisation | p. 389 |
Case study: optimising base station location and parameters | p. 395 |
Data setting | p. 396 |
Optimisation approach | p. 397 |
Results | p. 399 |
Conclusions | p. 402 |
References | p. 403 |
Auto-tuning of RRM Parameters in UMTS Networks | p. 405 |
Introduction | p. 405 |
Radio resource management for controlling network quality | p. 406 |
Auto-tuning of RRM parameters | p. 408 |
Parameter selection for auto-tuning | p. 408 |
Target selection for auto-tuning | p. 410 |
Fuzzy logic controllers (PLC) | p. 410 |
Case study: Auto-tuning of macrodiversity | p. 412 |
Optimisation strategies of the auto-tuning process | p. 415 |
Off-line optimisation using Particle Swarm approach | p. 416 |
On-line optimisation using reinforcement learning | p. 421 |
Conclusions | p. 425 |
Acknowledgement | p. 425 |
References | p. 425 |
UTRAN Transmission Infrastructure Planning and Optimisation | p. 427 |
Introduction | p. 427 |
Short UTRAN overview | p. 428 |
Requirements for UTRAN transmission infrastructure | p. 428 |
Protocol solutions for UTRAN transmission infrastructure | p. 430 |
Main considerations for ATM layer protocols in current 3G networks | p. 430 |
MPLS-architecture for future 3G transmissions | p. 443 |
The path to direct IP transmission networking | p. 444 |
End-to-end transmission dimensioning approach | p. 446 |
Dimensioning of Node B throughput | p. 446 |
Traffic dimensioning of the ATM network | p. 451 |
Traffic dimensioning of the IP-Network | p. 452 |
Network solutions for UTRAN transmission infrastructure | p. 456 |
Leased lines | p. 456 |
Point-to-point systems | p. 457 |
Point-to-multipoint systems - LMDS | p. 460 |
WiMAX as a potential UTRAN backhaul solution | p. 468 |
Efficient use of WiMAX in UTRAN | p. 472 |
Dimensioning of WiMAX for UTRAN infrastructure | p. 472 |
Current WiMAX limitations | p. 473 |
Cost-effective radio solution for UTRAN infrastructure | p. 474 |
RF planning aspects | p. 474 |
Throughput dimensioning | p. 475 |
Methods of finding optimal LMDS network configurations | p. 476 |
Costs evaluation of UTRAN infrastructure - software example | p. 485 |
Example calculations and comparison of results | p. 487 |
References | p. 493 |
Concluding Remarks | p. 497 |
Index | p. 501 |
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