Understanding UMTS Radio Network Modelling, Planning and Automated Optimisation: Theory and Practice

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  • Format: eBook
  • Copyright: 2006-09-01
  • Publisher: WILEY
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This book sets out to provide the theoretical foundations that will enable radio network planners to plan model and optimize radio networks using state-of-the-art findings from around the globe. It adopts a logical approach, beginning with the background to the present status of UMTS radio network technology, before devoting equal coverage to planning, modelling and optimization issues. All key planning areas are covered, including the technical and legal implications of network infrastructure sharing, hierarchical cell structure (HCS) deployment, ultra-high-site deployment and the benefits and limitations of using computer-aided design (CAD) software. Theoretical models for UMTS technology are explained as generic system models, stand-alone services and mixed services. Business modelling theory and methods are put forward, taking in propagation calculations, link-level, UMTS static and UMTS dynamic simulations. The challenges and goals of the automated optimization process are explored in depth using cutting-edge cost function and optimization algorithms. This theory-based resource containing prolific illustrative case studies explains the reasons for UMTS radio networks performance issues and how to use this foundational knowledge to model, plan and optimize present and future systems.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentp. xvii
List of Acronymsp. xix
Notes on Editors and Contributorsp. xxix
Introductionp. 1
Modern Approaches to Radio Network Modelling and Planningp. 3
Historical aspects of radio network planningp. 3
Importance and limitations of modelling approachesp. 5
Manual versus automated planningp. 7
Referencesp. 9
Introduction to the UTRA FDD Radio Interfacep. 11
Introduction to CDMA-based networksp. 11
The UTRA FDD air interfacep. 15
Spreading codesp. 15
Common physical channelsp. 20
Dedicated physical channelsp. 27
UTRA FDD key mechanismsp. 29
Cell breathing and soft capacityp. 29
Interference and power controlp. 31
Soft handover and compressed modep. 32
Parameters that require planningp. 34
Signal path parametersp. 34
Power allocationp. 35
System settingsp. 35
Referencesp. 35
Spectrum and Service Aspectsp. 37
Spectrum aspectsp. 37
Spectrum requirements for UMTSp. 38
Spectrum identified for UMTSp. 39
Frequency arrangements for the UMTS terrestrial componentp. 39
Operator spectrum demandsp. 45
Service features and characteristicsp. 46
Referencesp. 52
Trends for the Near Futurep. 55
Introductionp. 55
Systems yet to be deployedp. 56
Satellite segmentp. 58
Enhanced coveragep. 60
Ultra High Sites (UHS)p. 61
High Altitude Platform System (HAPS)p. 61
Enhanced capacityp. 61
Hierarchical Cell Structures (HCS)p. 61
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)p. 62
High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA)p. 63
Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (OFDM)p. 64
Heterogeneous approachesp. 64
Wireless LANsp. 64
Wireless MANs (WiMAX)p. 65
Concluding Remarksp. 65
Referencesp. 65
Modellingp. 67
Propagation Modellingp. 69
Radio channels in wideband CDMA systemsp. 69
Electromagnetic wave propagationp. 69
Wideband radio channel characterisationp. 73
Introduction to deterministic methods in modelling WCDMA systemsp. 75
Deterministic methods: comparison of performancep. 79
Application of empirical and deterministic models in picocell planningp. 80
Techniques for indoor modellingp. 80
Techniques for outdoor-to-indoor modellingp. 82
Application of empirical and deterministic models in microcell planningp. 84
Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami modelp. 85
Manhattan modelp. 87
Other microcellular propagation modelsp. 88
Application of empirical and deterministic models in macrocell planningp. 90
Modified Hatap. 90
Other modelsp. 91
Propagation models of interfering signalsp. 94
ITU-R 1546 modelp. 94
ITU-R 452 modelp. 100
Statistics in the Modified Hata modelp. 104
Radio propagation model calibrationp. 105
Tuning algorithmsp. 106
Single and multiple slope approachesp. 108
Calculation of inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution functionp. 110
Referencesp. 111
Theoretical Models for UMTS Radio Networksp. 115
Antenna modellingp. 115
Mobile terminal antenna modellingp. 117
Base station antenna modellingp. 118
Link level modelp. 122
Relation to other modelsp. 123
Link level simulation chainp. 124
Link level receiver componentsp. 126
Link level receiver detectorsp. 128
Capacity considerationsp. 134
Capacity of a single cell systemp. 134
Downlink power-limited capacityp. 134
Uplink power-limited capacityp. 137
Static system level modelp. 139
Link level aspectsp. 140
Propagation datap. 141
Equipment modellingp. 142
Transmit powers and power controlp. 144
Services and user-specific propertiesp. 146
Soft handoverp. 147
Complete modelp. 148
Applications of a static system-level network modelp. 149
Power control at cell levelp. 152
Equation system solvingp. 157
Dynamic system level modelp. 161
Similarities and differences between static and dynamic modelsp. 161
Generic system modelp. 162
Input/output parametersp. 164
Mobility modelsp. 164
Traffic modelsp. 165
Path loss modelsp. 167
Shadowing modelsp. 168
Modelling of small scale fadingp. 169
SIR calculalionp. 170
Referencesp. 172
Business Modelling Goals and Methodsp. 177
Business modelling goalsp. 177
New business planningp. 177
Infrastructure developmentp. 178
Budgetingp. 179
Business modelling methodsp. 179
Trends and statistical approachp. 180
Benchmarking and driversp. 181
Detailed quantitative modelsp. 181
Other non-quantitative methodsp. 182
Referencesp. 183
Planninp. 185
Fundamentals of Business Planning for Mobile Networksp. 187
Process descriptionp. 187
Market analysis and forecastingp. 187
Modelling the systemp. 189
Financial issuesp. 190
Recommendationsp. 190
Technical investment calculationp. 191
CAPEX calculation methodsp. 191
OPEX calculation methodsp. 196
The role of drivers: Sanity checkingp. 197
Revenue and non-technical related investment calculationp. 198
Input parameters and assumptionsp. 198
Revenue calculation methodsp. 199
Non-technical related investmentsp. 199
Business planning resultsp. 199
Business plan output parametersp. 200
Business plan assessment methodsp. 200
Referencesp. 201
Fundamentals of Network Characteristicsp. 203
Power characteristics estimationp. 203
Distance to home base station dependencyp. 203
Traffic load dependencyp. 207
Network capacity considerationsp. 210
Irregular base station distribution gridp. 210
Improper antenna azimuth arrangementp. 212
Required minimum network size for calculationsp. 214
Referencesp. 218
Fundamentals of Practical Radio Access Network Designp. 219
Introductionp. 219
Input parametersp. 222
Base station classificationp. 222
Hardware parametersp. 222
Environmental specificsp. 229
Technology essentialsp. 231
Network dimensioningp. 238
Coverage versus capacityp. 238
Cell coveragep. 239
Cell Erlang capacityp. 249
Detailed network planningp. 251
Site-to-sile distance and antenna heightp. 252
Site locationp. 254
Sectorisationp. 256
Antenna and sector directionp. 259
Electrical and mechanical tiltp. 260
Temporal aspects in HCSp. 263
Referencesp. 268
Compatibility of UMTS Systemsp. 271
Scenarios of interferencep. 272
Interference between UMTS and other systemsp. 272
Intra-system interferencep. 274
Approaches to compatibility calculationsp. 275
Principles of compatibility calculationsp. 275
Minimum Coupling Loss (MCL) methodp. 280
Monte Carlo (MC) methodp. 283
Propagation models for compatibility calculationsp. 284
Characteristics of UTRA stations for the compatibility calculationsp. 286
Internal electromagnetic compatibilityp. 286
External electromagnetic compatibilityp. 292
UMTS TDD versus DECT WLLp. 292
Compatibility between UMTS and Radio Astronomy Servicep. 294
Compatibility between UMTS and MMDSp. 295
Intemational cross-border coordinationp. 296
Principles of coordinationp. 296
Propagation models for coordination calculationsp. 297
Application of preferential frequenciesp. 298
Use of preferential codesp. 300
Examples of coordination agreementsp. 301
Referencesp. 305
Network Design - Specialised Aspectsp. 309
Network infrastructure sharingp. 309
Network sharing methodsp. 309
Legal aspectsp. 313
Drivers for sharingp. 314
Adjacent channel interference controlp. 315
Fundamentals of Ultra High Site deploymentp. 318
Referencesp. 320
Optimisationp. 321
Introduction to Optimisation of the UMTS Radio Networkp. 323
Automation of radio network optimisationp. 324
What should be optimised and why?p. 325
How do we benchmark the optimisation results?p. 326
Location based informationp. 327
Sectors and network statistical datap. 328
Cost and optimisation effortsp. 330
Referencesp. 331
Theory of Automated Network Optimisationp. 333
Introductionp. 333
From practice to optimisation modelsp. 334
Optimisation techniquesp. 335
Optimisation parameters for static modelsp. 339
Site location and configurationp. 340
Antenna related parameterp. 340
CPICH powerp. 344
Optimisation targets and objective functionp. 345
Coveragep. 345
Capacityp. 346
Soft handover areas and pilot pollutionp. 247
Cost of implementationp. 348
Combination and further possibilitiesp. 348
Additional practical and technical constraintsp. 348
Example of objective function propertiesp. 349
Network optimisation with evolutionary algorithmsp. 354
Genetic algorithmsp. 355
Evolution strategiesp. 357
Practical implementation of GA for tilt and CPICHp. 361
Optimisation without simulationp. 366
Geometry-based configuration methodsp. 355
Coverage-driven approachesp. 368
Advanced modelsp. 369
Expected coupling matricesp. 372
Comparison and suitability of algorithmsp. 373
General strategiesp. 374
Discussion of methodsp. 374
Combination of methodsp. 375
Referencesp. 375
Automatic Network Designp. 379
The key challenges in UMTS network optimisationp. 379
Problem definitionp. 379
Matching UMTS coverage to GSMp. 380
Supporting high bit rate data servicesp. 381
Handling dual technology networksp. 382
Engineering case studies for network optimisationp. 382
Example network descriptionp. 383
Pre-launched (unloaded) network optimisationp. 383
Loaded network optimisationp. 389
Case study: optimising base station location and parametersp. 395
Data settingp. 396
Optimisation approachp. 397
Resultsp. 399
Conclusionsp. 402
Referencesp. 403
Auto-tuning of RRM Parameters in UMTS Networksp. 405
Introductionp. 405
Radio resource management for controlling network qualityp. 406
Auto-tuning of RRM parametersp. 408
Parameter selection for auto-tuningp. 408
Target selection for auto-tuningp. 410
Fuzzy logic controllers (PLC)p. 410
Case study: Auto-tuning of macrodiversityp. 412
Optimisation strategies of the auto-tuning processp. 415
Off-line optimisation using Particle Swarm approachp. 416
On-line optimisation using reinforcement learningp. 421
Conclusionsp. 425
Acknowledgementp. 425
Referencesp. 425
UTRAN Transmission Infrastructure Planning and Optimisationp. 427
Introductionp. 427
Short UTRAN overviewp. 428
Requirements for UTRAN transmission infrastructurep. 428
Protocol solutions for UTRAN transmission infrastructurep. 430
Main considerations for ATM layer protocols in current 3G networksp. 430
MPLS-architecture for future 3G transmissionsp. 443
The path to direct IP transmission networkingp. 444
End-to-end transmission dimensioning approachp. 446
Dimensioning of Node B throughputp. 446
Traffic dimensioning of the ATM networkp. 451
Traffic dimensioning of the IP-Networkp. 452
Network solutions for UTRAN transmission infrastructurep. 456
Leased linesp. 456
Point-to-point systemsp. 457
Point-to-multipoint systems - LMDSp. 460
WiMAX as a potential UTRAN backhaul solutionp. 468
Efficient use of WiMAX in UTRANp. 472
Dimensioning of WiMAX for UTRAN infrastructurep. 472
Current WiMAX limitationsp. 473
Cost-effective radio solution for UTRAN infrastructurep. 474
RF planning aspectsp. 474
Throughput dimensioningp. 475
Methods of finding optimal LMDS network configurationsp. 476
Costs evaluation of UTRAN infrastructure - software examplep. 485
Example calculations and comparison of resultsp. 487
Referencesp. 493
Concluding Remarksp. 497
Indexp. 501
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