Unsaturated Soils : A Fundamental Interpretation of Soil Behaviour

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-08-23
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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This book examines the mechanical properties of unsaturated soils. It provides students and researchers in geotechnical engineering with a framework for understanding soil behaviour at a fundamental level and a model for interpreting experimental data. It also offers practitioners a deeper appreciation of the important characteristics of unsaturated soils. Chapter 1 provides a basic introduction to soil variables, the phases, the phase interactions and the relevance of soil structure to subsequent discussions. Particular reference is made to Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) testing in describing the aggregated, bi-modal structure of unsaturated soils.An up-to-date review of laboratory testing techniques is presented in Chapters 2 and 3 including suction measurement and control techniques in laboratory triaxial cell testing. The basis of the testing is important if the ideas subsequently developed are to be properly applied. Chapter 4 introduces the stress state variables, critical state and theoretical models in unsaturated soils. This review of current ideas provides a background to subsequent analyses, which differ principally in the description of unsaturated soils as controlled by a dual stress regime with the relative volumes of the phases playing an essential role in defining the volumes through which the stresses act.Chapters 5 and 6 dive into a detailed description of thermodynamic principles as applied to multi-phase materials under equilibrium conditions. In particular, the significance of the thermodynamic potentials, including enthalpy, is described. It is shown that it is possible to deal with anisotropic stress conditions as the thermodynamic potentials are extensive variables. The significance of the minimisation of the thermodynamic potentials at equilibrium and the meanings of equilibrium and meta-stable equilibrium are outlined.Chapters 7 and 8 use the thermodynamic principles established earlier to develop an alternative theoretical basis for analysing unsaturated soils. Soil structure is broken down into its component parts to develop an equation(s) describing the dual stress regime. The critical state strength and compression characteristics of unsaturated soils are examined and it is shown how the behaviour may be viewed as a three-dimensional model in dimensionless stress-volume space.The analysis is extended in Chapter 9 to the work input into unsaturated soils and the development of conjugate stress, volumetric and strain-increment variables. These are used to examine experimental triaxial shear strength data on kaolin. The formulation for energy dispersion allows not only the anisotropic stress-strain behaviour on a macromechnical level to be appraised, but also the stress-strain behaviour of the aggregated packets of soil particles and water on a micromechanical level to be examined. Analysis of the experimental data highlights phenomena that cannot be explained by other means.Unsaturated Soils draws on analogous behaviour in physics and chemistry to explain important phenomena and the authors have kept the theoretical part of the book interesting but thorough. The behaviour of soils is influenced by many factors but is compliant with

Author Biography

Edward J. Murray is Director of Murray Rix Geotechnical, UK

Vinayagamoothy Sivakumar is Senior Lecturer at Queen's University Belfast, UK

Table of Contents

Prefacep. viii
Acknowledgmentsp. x
Introductionp. xi
Symbolsp. xiii
Properties of Unsaturated Soilsp. 1
Nature and genesis of unsaturated soilsp. 1
Soil variablesp. 3
Particle propertiesp. 7
Phase properties and interactionsp. 9
Soil structurep. 22
Experimental techniques for examining pore size distributionp. 23
Pore size distributionp. 25
Conclusionsp. 32
Suction Measurement and Controlp. 34
Introductionp. 34
Techniques for measurement of suctionp. 35
Control of suction in laboratory testsp. 52
Conclusionsp. 56
Laboratory Techniquesp. 57
Introductionp. 57
Material selection and specimen preparationp. 58
Experimental techniques for volume change and strength measurementsp. 64
Essential measurementsp. 69
Further details of triaxial and stress path testing techniquesp. 71
Conclusionsp. 85
Background to the Stresses, Strains, Strength, Volume Change and Modelling of Unsaturated Soilp. 87
Introductionp. 87
Stresses in soilsp. 88
Strains in soilsp. 90
Constitutive modellingp. 92
Critical state framework for saturated soilsp. 98
The constitutive Barcelona Basic Model for unsaturated soilsp. 107
Extended constitutive and elasto-plastic critical state frameworks for unsaturated soilsp. 112
Concluding remarksp. 123
Thermodynamics of Soil Systemsp. 127
Introductionp. 127
Outline of thermodynamic principles and systemsp. 128
Introduction to equilibrium and meta-stable equilibriump. 129
Variables of statep. 130
Extensive and intensive variablesp. 131
The laws of thermodynamicsp. 131
Thermodynamic potentialsp. 135
Thermodynamic potentials in practicep. 138
Conjugate thermodynamic pairingsp. 142
Influence of a gravitational fieldp. 144
Concluding remarksp. 145
Equilibrium Analysis and Assumptions in Triaxial Testingp. 147
Introductionp. 147
The minimum principles for the potentialsp. 147
Isotropic loading conditionsp. 149
Anisotropic loading conditionsp. 152
Work input and the thermodynamic potentialp. 155
The thermodynamic potential and axis translationp. 156
The thermodynamic potential and an aggregated soil structurep. 157
Conclusionsp. 158
Enthalpy and Equilibrium Stress Conditions in Unsaturated Soilsp. 160
Introductionp. 160
Role of enthalpyp. 160
Enthalpy and Terzaghi's effective stress for saturated soilsp. 162
Enthalpy of unsaturated soilsp. 163
The significance of p. 167
Stress state in unsaturated soilsp. 171
Alternative equilibrium analysisp. 172
Graphical representation of stress state in unsaturated soilsp. 173
Stress state variables and conjugate volumetric variablesp. 174
Hysteresis, collapse and discontinuities in soil behaviourp. 176
Conclusionsp. 179
Shear Strength and Compression Characteristics of Unsaturated Soilsp. 180
Introductionp. 180
Shear strength and critical state characteristics of unsaturated soilsp. 181
Equivalent strength parametersp. 200
Compression and critical state characteristics of unsaturated kaolinp. 200
Modelling of unsaturated kaolinp. 206
Structure, variables and parametersp. 208
Conclusionsp. 210
Work Input, Conjugate Variables and Load-Deformation Behaviour of Unsaturated Soilsp. 213
Introductionp. 213
Work input under triaxial stress conditionsp. 213
Components of the deviator stressp. 218
Work input to unsaturated soilsp. 218
Analysis of the mobilised stress ratiosp. 220
Continuity relationship between strain-incrementsp. 221
Stress state variables and conjugate volumetric and strain-increment variablesp. 223
The meaning and interpretation of stresses and strainsp. 224
Analysis of triaxial experimental data on kaolinp. 232
Conclusionsp. 251
Referencesp. 254
Indexp. 273
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