9780824707231

Upper and Lower Respiratory Disease

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780824707231

  • ISBN10:

    0824707230

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2003-08-29
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Focusing specifically on the inter-relationship between the nose and the lungs, this reference examines the structural connections between the upper and lower airways and explores the microscopic and gross anatomy of the respiratory tract. Considering functional relationships, as well as human and animal models of disease, this source delivers articles on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of allergic airway dysfunction and other illnesses affecting the entire respiratory tract.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Claude Lenfant
iii
Preface v
Contributors vii
Part One ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE UPPER AND LOWER AIRWAYS
1. Comparative Anatomy of the Nasal and Tracheal/Bronchial Airways
1(52)
Fuad M. Baroody and Brendan J. Canning
I. Gross Anatomy of the Airways
1(6)
II. Histology of the Airways
7(15)
III. Vascular and Lymphatic Supplies
22(5)
IV. Neural Supply to the Airways
27(9)
V. Mucociliary Transport
36(4)
VI. Specialized Functions of the Nasal Airways
40(3)
VII. Conclusion
43(10)
2. The Impact of Nasal Function and Dysfunction on the Lower Airways
53(34)
Alkis Togias and Hugh Windom
I. Conditioning of Inhaled Air
55(12)
II. Neural Responses of the Nose
67(2)
III. The Nose and Nitric Oxide
69(2)
IV. Impact of Nasal Stimulation on the Lower Airways
71(16)
3. Upper Airway Reflexes and Involvement of the Lower Airway
87(18)
Ronald Eccles
I. Sensory Nerve Supply to the Upper Airways
88(2)
II. Sensory Receptors and Modalities of Sensation
90(3)
III. Upper Airway Reflexes
93(5)
IV. Interactions Between the Upper and Lower Airways
98(2)
V. Conclusions
100(5)
Part Two EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF UPPER AND LOWER AIRWAY DISEASE
4. Epidemiological Evidence for the Relationship Between Upper and Lower Airway Diseases
105(34)
Isabella Annesi-Maesano
I. Direct Evidence
106(15)
II. Indirect Evidence
121(7)
III. Conclusions
128(11)
5. Comparative Pathogenesis of Upper and Lower Airway Allergic Disease
139(36)
K. Rajakulasingam and Stephen R. Durham
I. Role of Atopy, IgE, and Its Receptors
140(1)
II. Early and Late Phase Responses to Allergen
141(2)
III. Bronchial and Nasal Hyperresponsiveness
143(1)
IV. The Role of Inflammatory Cells in Asthma and Rhinitis
144(8)
V. Role of Epithelium in Asthma and Rhinitis
152(2)
VI. Mechanisms of Cellular Infiltration
154(1)
VII. Microvascular Leakage and Plasma Protein Exudation
155(2)
VIII. Comparative Effects of Therapeutic Agents
157(1)
IX. Conclusions
158(17)
6. Pathogenetic Links Between Rhinitis and Asthma
175(12)
Jean Bousquet, A. Maurizo Vignola, and Pascal Demoly
I. Rhinitis and Nonspecific Bronchial Hyperreactivity
175(1)
II. Common Causative Agents in Rhinitis and Asthma
176(1)
III. Nasal Inflammation in Patients with Asthma
176(1)
IV. Bronchial Inflammation and Asthma in Patients with Rhinitis
177(1)
V. "Bidirectional" Relationship Between Nasal and Bronchial Inflammation
178(1)
VI. Systematic Nature of Allergic Inflammation
179(1)
VII. Rhinitis and Asthma: A Continuum of Disease?
180(7)
7. Viral Infections: Effects on Nasal and Lower Airway Functions
187(36)
Inuran R. Hussain and Sebastian L. Johnston
I. Identification of Respiratory Viruses in Samples
188(1)
II. Viral Infection and the Upper Airways
189(2)
III. Studies Investigating Immune Responses to Respiratory Virus Infection of the Upper Airway
191(5)
IV. Studies Investigating Immune Responses to Respiratory Virus Infection of the Lower Airway
196(4)
V. Physiological Response of the Upper Respiratory Tract to Infection
200(1)
VI. Physiological Response of the Lower Respiratory Tract to Infection
200(1)
VII. Virus Infection of the Upper Airways: Lower Airway Functional Changes
201(4)
VIII. Methodology for Eliminating URT Contamination
205(2)
IX. Linking of the Upper and Lower Airways
207(2)
X. Timing of Symptoms in Upper Airway Infection
209(2)
XI. Conclusion
211(12)
8. Experimental Animal Models of Upper-Lower Airways Interactions
223(28)
Charles G. Irvin
I. Creating a Relevant Model: The Problems
224(2)
II. Asthma and Sinusitis
226(1)
III. Rabbit Model of Asthma and Sinusitis
227(10)
IV. Rat Model of Asthma and Sinusitis
237(3)
V. Mouse Models of Asthma/Sinusitis
240(2)
VI. Conclusions
242(9)
Part Three DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF RHINO-SINUSITIS AND ASTHMA
9. Diagnostic Evaluation of Sinusitis in Patients with Asthma
251(24)
Sheldon Speclor, Michael Diament, and Dale Rice
I. Symptoms and Signs of Sinusitis
251(1)
II. Nasal Cytology
252(2)
III. Sinus Ultrasound
254(2)
IV. Radiographic Imaging of the Paranasal Sinuses
256(7)
V. Endoscopy of the Nose and Sinuses
263(12)
10. Management of Allergic Rhinitis in Patients with Asthma
275(22)
Jonathan Corren and Jean Bousquet
I. Allergen Avoidance Measures
275(3)
II. Pharmacological Therapy
278(6)
III. Allergen Immunotherapy
284(1)
IV. Treatment Considerations in Special Groups
284(2)
V. Future Therapies
286(1)
VI. Effects of Rhinitis Therapy on Asthma
287(3)
VII. Summary
290(7)
11. Medical Management of Sinusitis in Patients with Asthma
297(24)
Larry Borish, James A. Wilde, William K. Dolen, Chester Stafford, and Raymond Slavin
I. Definitions and Pathophysiology
297(2)
II. Approach to Treatment
299(13)
III. Allergy Evaluation
312(1)
IV. Medical Treatment of Sinusitis: Effects on Concomitant Asthma
313(1)
V. Conclusions
314(7)
12. Surgical Management of Rhinitis, Sinusitis, and Nasal Polyposis in Patients with Asthma
321(14)
R. Jankowski
I. Definition and Preliminary Remarks
322(1)
II. Surgical Management of Nasal Polyposis in Patients with Asthma
322(4)
III. Surgical Management of Sinusitis in Patients with Asthma
326(4)
IV. Surgical Management of Rhinitis in Patients with Asthma
330(1)
V. Conclusion
331(4)
13. Manifestations of Aspirin Sensitivity in the Upper and Lower Airways
335(34)
Donald D. Stevenson
I. Clinical Entity
336(1)
II. Sinusitis and Asthma in ASA-Sensitive Asmathics
337(1)
III. Identification of ASA Sensitivity
338(4)
IV. ASA Desensitization Procedures
342(2)
V. ASA Cross-Sensitivity and Cross-Desensitization
344(4)
VI. Pathogenesis
348(7)
VII. Treatment
355(14)
14. Effects of Sleep on Upper and Lower Airways
369(20)
Robert D. Ballard
I. Sleep and Upper Airway Function
370(1)
II. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Airway Function in Patients Without Other Airways Disease
371(1)
III. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Asthma
372(3)
IV. Sleep, Lung Volumes, and Intrapulmonary Blood Volume in Asthmatics with Nocturnal Worsening: A Potential Role for the Upper Airway
375(3)
V. The Effect of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms on Manifestations of Viral and Allergic Rhinitis: Potential Implications for Asthmatic Patients
378(2)
VI. Inflammatory Changes Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Potential Implications for Asthma
380(2)
VII. Conclusion
382(7)
15. Vocal Cord Dysfunction
389(12)
Kenneth B. Newman
I. Demographics
390(1)
II. Clinical History and Physical Examination
390(1)
III. Laboratory Evaluation
391(2)
IV. Laryngoscopy
393(1)
V. Prevalence
394(1)
VI. Psychological Factor
394(1)
VII. Therapy
395(1)
VIII. Conclusion
396(5)
Part Four SYSTEMIC DISEASES AFFECTING UPPER AND LOWER AIRWAYS
16. Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis in the Upper and Lower Airways
401(20)
Peter Macguire, Robert Bocian, Judy Palmer, and Dale T. Umetsu
I. Pathophysiology of Cystic Fibrosis
402(1)
II. Lower-Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis
403(1)
III. Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis
404(2)
IV. Symptoms and Signs of Sinusitis in Cystic Fibrosis
406(1)
V. Sinusitis and Reactive Airways Disease in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis
407(2)
VI. Interaction of Upper- and Lower-Respiratory Airways
409(1)
VII. Bacteriology of Sinusitis, Bronchitis, and Pneumonia in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis
410(1)
VIII. Diagnostic Evaluation for Sinusitis in Cystic Fibrosis
410(1)
IX. Treatment of Lower-Respiratory-Tract Disease
411(1)
X. Experimental Therapies for CF
412(3)
XI. Conclusions
415(6)
17. The Sinobronchial Syndrome and Diffuse Panbronchiolitis
421(22)
Yukihiko Sugiyama and Shoji Kudoh
I. Sinobronchial Syndrome
421(2)
II. Diffuse Panbronchiolitis
423(12)
III. Mechanisms of Erythromycin Therapy
435(8)
18. Manifestations of Wegener's Granulomatosis in the Upper and Lower Airways
443(18)
David B. Hellman
I. Upper Respiratory Tract Manifestations
444(3)
II. Lower Respiratory Tract Manifestations
447(3)
III. Pathology
450(2)
IV. Etiology and Pathogenesis
452(1)
V. Diagnosis
452(1)
VI. Differential Diagnosis
453(1)
VII. Treatment
453(8)
19. Manifestation of Sarcoidosis in the Upper and Lower Airways
461(32)
David R. Moller and Irina Petrache
I. General Features
461(4)
II. Sarcoidosis of the Upper Respiratory Tract (SURT)
465(2)
III. Pulmonary Sarcoidosis and Intrathoracic Airway Disease
467(4)
IV. Diagnosis
471(2)
V. Immunopathogenesis
473(3)
VI. Clinical Course and Treatment
476(17)
20. Manifestations of Immune Deficiency Syndromes in the Upper and Lower Airways
493(18)
Jeffrey L. Kishiyama and Daniel C. Adelman
I. Host Defense
494(2)
II. Humoral Immunodeficiency
496(5)
III. Common Variable Immunodeficiency
501(3)
IV. X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia
504(1)
V. Laboratory Evaluation
505(1)
VI. Treatment
506(1)
VII. Summary
507(4)
Index 511

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