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9781583605233

Victimology

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781583605233

  • ISBN10:

    1583605231

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2002-05-01
  • Publisher: Lexis Nexis Matthew Bender

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Supplemental Materials

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Table of Contents

List of Figures
xiii
List of Tables
xvii
The Scope of Victimology
1(24)
Introduction
1(1)
The Victim Throughout History
1(2)
The Reemergence of the Victim
3(6)
The Work of Hans von Hentig: The Criminal and His Victim
4(2)
The Work of Beniamin Mendelsohn: Further Reflections
6(2)
The Work of Stephen Schafer: The Victim and His Criminal
8(1)
Other Scholarly Efforts
9(1)
Empirical Studies of Victim Precipitation
9(4)
The Work of Marvin E. Wolfgang: Patterns in Criminal Homicide
9(1)
The Work of Menachem Amir: Patterns in Forcible Rape
10(1)
Criticisms and Reactions
11(2)
A New Approach: General Victimology
13(3)
Critical Victimology
16(1)
The Victim Movement
17(4)
The Women's Movement
17(1)
Children's Rights
18(1)
The Growing Crime Problem
18(1)
Victim Compensation
19(1)
Legal Reforms
19(1)
Other Factors
20(1)
Summary and Overview of This Book
21(2)
Key Terms
23(2)
Gauging the Extent of Criminal Victimization
25(28)
Introduction
25(1)
The Uniform Crime Reports
26(1)
Statistics from the UCR
27(3)
Victimization Surveys
30(13)
First-Generation Victim Surveys
31(1)
The NORC Survey
31(1)
Some Methodological Considerations
32(2)
Second-Generation Victim Surveys
34(1)
Recall Problems
34(1)
The San Jose-Dayton Surveys
35(1)
Third-Generation Victim Surveys
36(1)
The National Crime Survey
36(1)
The Business Victimization Survey
37(1)
City Surveys
38(1)
Fourth-Generation Victim Surveys
38(5)
Statistics from the NCVS
43(5)
Repeat Victimization
48(3)
Summary
51(1)
Key Terms
51(2)
The Costs of Being a Victim
53(28)
Introduction
53(1)
The Consequences of Victimization
54(9)
The First Insult: Criminal Victimization
56(4)
The Second Insult: System Participation
60(3)
Prosecutorial-Based Victim-Witness Projects
63(9)
Project Development
65(4)
Project Performance
69(1)
Project Evaluation
70(2)
Beyond the Prosecutor's Office
72(4)
Dissenting Voices
76(3)
Summary
79(1)
Key Terms
79(2)
Remedying the Plight of Victims
81(28)
Introduction
81(1)
Offender Restitution
82(7)
The Rationale for Restitution
83(1)
Types of Restitution
84(1)
Evaluating the Impact of Restitution
85(2)
Problems and Concerns with Restitution
87(2)
Civil Litigation
89(4)
Private Insurance
93(1)
Victim Compensation
93(8)
Philosophical Bases
95(1)
Compensable Acts
96(1)
Eligibility Restrictions
97(1)
Awards
98(1)
Funding
99(1)
Reporting Crime and Applying for Compensation
100(1)
Does Victim Compensation Work?
101(5)
Macro-Level Effects
102(1)
Micro-Level Effects
103(1)
Problems and Concerns with Compensation
104(2)
Summary
106(1)
Key Terms
106(3)
Sexual Assault
109(40)
Introduction
109(1)
Defining Sexual Assault
110(3)
Spousal Rape
111(1)
Date or Acquaintance Rape
112(1)
Measuring the Extent of Rape
113(8)
UCR Information
113(1)
NCVS Information
113(1)
Comparing the UCR with the NCVS Over Time
114(4)
Other Information on Sexual Assault Levels
118(1)
More Recent Efforts
119(1)
The National College Women Sexual Victimization Study
119(1)
The National Violence Against Women Survey
120(1)
Theories of Sexual Assault
121(5)
Intraindividual Explanations
121(1)
Sociocultural Explanations
122(1)
Typological Efforts
123(1)
A Model of Sexual Assault
124(1)
Summary
125(1)
The Aftermath of Rape
126(4)
Crisis Reaction
126(1)
The Crisis Reaction Repair Cycle
127(1)
Impact
127(1)
Recoil
128(1)
Reorganization
129(1)
Legal Reforms
130(8)
Compulsory AIDS Testing
130(2)
Consent and Corroboration
132(2)
Shield Provisions
134(1)
Sex Offender Registration
135(3)
The Impact of Legal Reform
138(2)
Macro-Level Effects
138(1)
Micro-Level Effects
139(1)
Summary
140(1)
Responding to Sexual Assault Victims
140(7)
The Police
141(1)
The Hospital
142(1)
Medical Examination
142(2)
Forensic Examination
144(1)
The Prosecutor
145(2)
Summary
147(1)
Key Terms
147(2)
Spouse Abuse
149(50)
Introduction
149(1)
A Brief History of Spousal Violence
150(2)
The Extent of Spousal Violence
152(4)
Theories of Spouse Abuse
156(5)
Intraindividual Explanations
156(2)
Sociocultural Explanations (Patriarchy)
158(1)
The Social Learning Approach: Learned Helplessness
159(1)
The Cycle of Violence
159(2)
Police Intervention
161(4)
The Arrest Option
162(2)
Nonarrest Options
164(1)
The Minneapolis Experiment
165(2)
Reaction to the Minneapolis Experiment
167(6)
Agency Directives
167(3)
Legislative Reform
170(1)
Academic Concerns
171(2)
The Minneapolis Experiment Replications
173(2)
Prosecutorial and Judicial Action
175(6)
Coordinating System Approaches
181(2)
More Recent Responses
183(12)
Stalking Laws
183(3)
The Lautenberg Amendment
186(1)
Court-Ordered Mandatory Counseling
187(3)
Executive Clemency
190(2)
National Telephone Hotline
192(2)
Fatality Review Systems
194(1)
Summary
195(1)
Key Terms
196(3)
Child Maltreatment
199(34)
Introduction
199(1)
The Discovery of Child Maltreatment
199(2)
Understanding the Discovery of Child Maltreatment
201(1)
A Survey of Child Maltreatment Laws
202(8)
Statutory Definitions
203(2)
The Reporter
205(1)
The Report
206(2)
The Central Register
208(1)
Some Trouble Spots
209(1)
The Incidence of Child Maltreatment
210(3)
Some Characteristics of Maltreated Children
213(1)
Theories of Child Maltreatment
214(4)
Intraindividual Explanations
214(1)
Sociocultural Explanations
215(1)
The Social Learning Approach
216(2)
Some Coping Strategies
218(13)
Health Screening
218(2)
Education
220(1)
Parents Anonymous
220(2)
Counseling
222(1)
Sex Offender Laws
222(2)
Law Enforcement
224(3)
Legal Reform
227(4)
Summary
231(1)
Key Terms
231(2)
Elder Abuse
233(30)
Introduction
233(1)
Defining the Elderly
234(1)
Criminal Victimization of the Elderly
234(2)
Fear of Crime
236(5)
Explaining the Fear-Crime Paradox
237(1)
Measuring Fear
237(1)
Risk
238(1)
Vulnerability
239(2)
Elder Abuse and Neglect
241(5)
The Re-Emergence of Interest in Elder Abuse
241(1)
Demographic Change
241(1)
Vicarious Victimization
242(1)
Political Action
243(1)
Social Consciousness
243(1)
Defining the Problem
244(2)
The Incidence of Elder Maltreatment
246(3)
Some Characteristics of Victims and Offenders
249(2)
Institutional Abuse
251(2)
Theories of Elder Abuse and Neglect
253(4)
Intraindividual Explanations
253(1)
Situational Aspects
254(1)
Symbolic Interactionism
255(1)
Social Exchange
255(1)
Social Attitudes
256(1)
Responding to Elder Abuse and Neglect
257(3)
Mandatory Reporting
257(2)
Social Service Provision
259(1)
Summary
260(1)
Key Terms
261(2)
Homicide
263(30)
Introduction
263(1)
The Extent of Homicide Victimization
264(7)
Theories of Homicide Victimization
271(14)
Social Interactionism
271(1)
Homicide as a Situated Transaction
272(1)
The Routine Activities/Lifestyle Model
273(2)
Mass Media Influences
275(2)
The ``Regional Culture of Violence'' Thesis
277(1)
Challenges to the ``Regional Culture of Violence'' Thesis
278(1)
Cultural Challenges
279(1)
Regional Challenges
279(1)
Medical Resources as an Emerging Theoretical Dimension
280(1)
Conceptual Obstacles
280(1)
The Impact of Medical Resources
281(1)
Empirical Evidence
282(1)
Some Remaining Issues
283(2)
Survivors of Homicide Victimization
285(5)
Death Notification
285(2)
The Bereavement Process
287(3)
Summary
290(1)
Key Terms
291(2)
Victimization at Work and School
293(34)
Introduction
293(1)
Victimization at Work
294(13)
Defining Workplace Victimization
294(1)
The Extent of Workplace Victimization
295(5)
Explanations and Causes of Workplace Victimization
300(2)
Intervention and Prevention
302(3)
Responses to Workplace Victimization
305(2)
Victimization at School
307(11)
Defining School Victimization
307(1)
The Extent of School Victimization
308(1)
Individual-Level Victimization
308(2)
School-Level Victimization
310(2)
Responses to School Victimization
312(2)
Explanations and Causes of School Victimization
314(2)
Addressing School Victimization
316(2)
Sexual Harassment
318(6)
The Extent of Sexual Harassment
320(1)
Responses to Sexual Harassment
321(3)
Summary
324(1)
Key Terms
325(2)
Victim Rights
327(32)
Introduction
327(1)
Victim Rights Amendment
328(8)
Federal Constitutional Reform
328(3)
State Constitutional Reform
331(2)
Rekindling Federal Constitutional Reform
333(3)
Victim Rights Legislation
336(10)
Federal Legislative Reform
337(5)
State Legislative Reform
342(4)
The Effect of Victim Rights Legislation
346(1)
Victim Impact Statements
346(4)
The Effect of Victim Impact Statements
347(1)
Federal Supreme Court Rulings
348(2)
Informal Victim Participation
350(5)
Background
350(1)
Dispute Resolution Programs
351(2)
Restorative Justice
353(2)
Some Closing Thoughts
355(2)
Summary
357(1)
Key Terms
358(1)
References 359(48)
Subject Index 407(8)
Author Index 415

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