Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-02-26
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

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All societies must deal with the possibility of violence, and they do so in different ways. This book integrates the problem of violence into a larger social science and historical framework, showing how economic and political behavior are closely linked. Most societies, which we call natural states, limit violence by political manipulation of the economy to create privileged interests. These privileges limit the use of violence by powerful individuals, but doing so hinders both economic and political development. In contrast, modern societies create open access to economic and political organizations, fostering political and economic competition. The book provides a framework for understanding the two types of social orders, why open access societies are both politically and economically more developed, and how some 25 countries have made the transition between the two types.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
The Conceptual Frameworkp. 1
Introductionp. 1
The Concept of Social Orders: Violence, Institutions, and Organizationsp. 13
The Logic of the Natural Statep. 18
The Logic of the Open Access Orderp. 21
The Logic of the Transition from Natural States to Open Access Ordersp. 25
A Note on Beliefsp. 27
The Planp. 29
The Natural Statep. 30
Introductionp. 30
Commonalities: Characteristics of Limited Access Ordersp. 32
Differences: A Typology of Natural Statesp. 41
Privileges, Rights, and Elite Dynamicsp. 49
Origins: The Problem Scale and Violencep. 51
Natural State Dynamics: Fragile to Basic Natural Statesp. 55
Moving to Mature Natural States: Disorder, Organization, and the Medieval Churchp. 62
Mature Natural States: France and England in the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth Centuriesp. 69
Natural Statesp. 72
Appendix: Skeletal Evidence and Empirical Resultsp. 75
The Natural State Applied: English Land Lawp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Chronologyp. 79
The Courts, Legal Concepts, and the Law of Propertyp. 87
Bastard Feudalismp. 91
Bastard Feudalism and the Impersonalization of Propertyp. 98
The Typology of Natural Statesp. 104
Appendixp. 106
Open Access Ordersp. 110
Introductionp. 110
Commonalities: Characteristics of an Open Access Orderp. 112
Institutions, Beliefs, and Incentives Supporting Open Accessp. 117
Incorporation: The Extension of Citizenshipp. 118
Control of Violence in Open Access Ordersp. 121
Growth of Governmentp. 122
Forces of Short-Run Stabilityp. 125
Forces of Long-Run Stability: Adaptive Efficiencyp. 133
Why Institutions Work Differently under Open Access than Limited Accessp. 137
A New "Logic of Collective Action" and Theory of Rent-Seekingp. 140
Democracy and Redistributionp. 142
Adaptive Efficiency and the Seeming Independence of Economics and Politics in Open Access Ordersp. 144
The Transition from Limited to Open Access Orders: The Doorstep Conditionsp. 148
Introductionp. 148
Personality and Impersonality: The Doorstep Conditionsp. 150
Doorstep Condition #1: Rule of Law for Elitesp. 154
Doorstep Condition #2: Perpetually Lived Organizations in the Public and Private Spheresp. 158
Doorstep Condition #3: Consolidated Control of the Militaryp. 169
The British Navy and the British Statep. 181
Time, Order, and Institutional Formsp. 187
The Transition Properp. 190
Institutionalizing Open Accessp. 190
Fear of Factionp. 194
Eventsp. 203
Parties and Corporationsp. 210
The Transition to Open Access in Britainp. 213
The Transition to Open Access in Francep. 219
The Transition to Open Access in the United Statesp. 228
Institutionalizing Open Access: Why the West?p. 240
A New Research Agenda for the Social Sciencesp. 251
The Framing Problemsp. 251
The Conceptual Frameworkp. 254
A New Approach to the Social Sciences: Violence, Institutions, Organizations, and Beliefsp. 257
A New Approach to the Social Sciences: Development and Democracyp. 263
Toward a Theory of the Statep. 268
Violence and Social Orders: The Way Aheadp. 271
Referencesp. 273
Indexp. 295
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