9780190940515

Vold's Theoretical Criminology

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780190940515

  • ISBN10:

    0190940514

  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2019-11-15
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

The standard text in the field, Vold's Theoretical Criminology is universally known by scholars in the discipline. Taking a largely historical approach, it discusses both classic and contemporary theories, presenting historical context, empirical research, and policy implications for each one. The book concludes with a critical assessment of the state of theory in criminology.

Author Biography


Jeffrey B. Snipes is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice Studies at San Francisco State University.

The late Thomas J. Bernard was Professor of Criminal Justice and Sociology at Pennsylvania State University.

Alexander L. Gerould lectures at De Anza College.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1. Theory and Crime
Spiritual Explanations
Natural Explanations
Scientific Theories
Causation in Scientific Theories
Three Categories of Criminological Theories
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 2. Theory and Policy in Context: The Great American Crime Decline
Crime in the United States: The Past Half-Century
Two Opposing Narratives of the Crime Wave
Explaining the 1990s Decline
The City That Became Safe
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 3. Classical Criminology
The Social and Intellectual Background of Classical Criminology
Beccaria and the Classical School
The Neoclassical School
From Classical Theory to Deterrence Research
Nagin's Review of Deterrence Research
Rational Choice and Offending
Routine Activities and Victimization
Focused Deterrence: Operation Ceasefire
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 4. Biological Factors and Criminal Behavior
Background: Physical Appearance and Defectiveness
Lombroso, the "Born Criminal," and Positivist Criminology
Goring's Refutation of the "Born Criminal"
Body Type Theories
Family Studies
Early Twin and Adoption Studies
MAOA: The "Warrior" Gene
Hormones
The Central Nervous System
The Autonomic Nervous System
Environmentally Induced Biological Components of Behavior
Epigenetics and the Role of Heritability Studies in Biosocial Criminology
Implications and Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 5. Psychological Factors and Criminal Behavior
Intelligence and Crime: Background Ideas and Concepts
IQ Tests and Criminal Behavior
Delinquency, Race, and IQ
Interpreting the Association Between Delinquency and IQ
Personality and Criminal Behavior-Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis
Research Using Personality Tests
Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder
Clinical Prediction of Future Dangerousness
Actuarial Prediction of Later Crime and Delinquency
Depression and Delinquency
Impulsivity and Crime
Moffitt's Life-Course-Persistent Offenders
Policy Implications of Personality Research
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 6. Durkheim, Anomie, and Modernization
Emile Durkheim
Crime as Normal in Mechanical Societies
Anomie as a Pathological State in Organic Societies
Durkheim's Theory of Crime
Conclusion
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 7. Strain Theories
Robert K. Merton and Anomie in American Society
Cohen's Middle Class "Measuring Rod"
Cloward and Ohlin's Typology of Gangs
1960s Strain-Based Policies
The Decline and Resurgence of Strain Theories
Agnew's General Strain Theory
Messner and Rosenfeld's Institutional Anomie Theory
Conclusion
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 8. Neighborhoods and Crime
The Theory of Human Ecology
Research in the "Delinquency Areas" of Chicago
Policy Implications
Residential Succession, Social Disorganization, and Crime
Sampson's Theory of Collective Efficacy
Crime in Public Housing
Social Disorganization and Crime in Rural Areas
Expanding Interest in Neighborhood Social Processes
Implications and Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 9. Learning Theories
Basic Psychological Approaches to Learning
Tarde's Laws of Imitation and Bandura's Social Learning Theory
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
Research Testing Sutherland's Theory
The Content of Learning: Cultural and Subcultural Theories
The Learning Process: Akers's Social Learning Theory
Assessing Social Learning Theory
Athens's Theory of "Violentization"
Katz's Seductions of Crime
Labeling Theories
Implications
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 10. Control Theories
Early Control Theories: Reiss to Nye
Matza's Delinquency and Drift
Hirschi's Social Control Theory
Assessing Social Control Theory
Gottfredson and Hirschi's A General Theory of Crime
Assessing Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory
Implications and Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions
Chapter 11. CONflict CrIminology
Early Conflict Theories: Sellin and Vold
Conflict Theories in a Time of Conflict: Turk, Quinney, and Chambliss and Seidman
Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law
A Unified Conflict Theory of Crime
Testing Conflict Criminology
Minority Threat Theory
The Processing of Individuals Through the Justice System
Implications and Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 12. Marxist, Postmodern, and Green Criminology
Overview of Marx's Theory
Marx on Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminal Justice
The Emergence of Marxist Criminology
Marxist Theory and Research on Crime
Overview of Postmodernism
Postmodern Criminology
Green Criminology
Conclusion
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 13. Gender and Crime
The Development of Feminist Criminology
Schools of Feminist Criminology
Gender in Criminology
Why Are Women's Crime Rates So Low?
Why Are Men's Crime Rates So High?
The Narrowing of the Gender Gap in Violence
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 14. Developmental and Life-Course Theories
The Great Debate: Criminal Careers, Longitudinal Research, and the Relationship Between Age and Crime
Criminal Propensity Versus Criminal Career
The Transition to Developmental Criminology
Three Developmental Directions
Thornberry's Interactional Theory
Sampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control
Tremblay's Developmental Origins of Physical Aggression
Future Directions in Developmental and Life-Course Criminology
Conclusions
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Chapter 15. Integrated Theories
Elliott's Integrated Theory of Delinquency and Drug Use
The Falsification Versus Integration Debate
Braithwaite's Theory of Reintegrative Shaming
Tittle's Control Balance Theory
Differential Social Support and Coercion Theory
Bernard and Snipes's Approach to Integrating Criminology Theories
Agnew's General Theory
Robinson's Integrated Systems Theory
Conclusion
Key Terms
Discussion Questions

Conclusion
Index

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