What English Language Teachers Need to Know Volume I: Understanding Learning

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2010-08-24
  • Publisher: Routledge

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Designed for pre-service teachers and teachers new to the field of ELT, What English Language Teachers Need to Know I and IIre companion volumes organized around the key question: what do teachers need to know and be able to do in order for their students to learn English? Volume I covers the characteristics of the context in which teachers work, how English works and how it is learned, and the teacher's role in the larger professional sphere of English language education. Volume II covers the three main facets of teaching: planning, instructing, and assessing. The focus throughout is on outcomes, that is, student learning.The texts work for teachers across different contexts (countries where English is the dominant language, one of the official languages, or taught as a foreign language); different levels (elementary/primary, secondary, college or university, or adult education), and different learning purposes (general English, workplace English, English for academic purposes, or English for specific purposes.

Author Biography

Denise E. Murray is Professor Emerita, Macquarie University, Australia, and Professor Emerita, San Jos? State University, US. MaryAnn Christison is Professor, University of Utah, Department of Linguistics and the Urban Institute for Teacher Education, US.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xii
Acknowledgementsp. xv
Identity and Contextp. 1
Learner Identitiesp. 3
Introductionp. 4
What is Identity?p. 5
The Classroom as a Site of Identity Formationp. 10
Conclusionp. 13
Questions for Discussionp. 13
Notep. 14
Referencesp. 14
The World of Englishp. 16
Introductionp. 16
Language Variationp. 17
Who is a Native Speaker?p. 20
The Legacy of Colonialismp. 22
Nonnative English-speaking Teachers (NNESTs)p. 23
Conclusionp. 26
Questions for Discussionp. 26
Notesp. 26
Referencesp. 27
English Language Learning Around the Worldp. 29
Introductionp. 30
The Inner Circlep. 30
The Outer and Expanding Circlesp. 36
Conclusionp. 40
Questions for Discussionp. 40
Notesp. 40
Referencesp. 40
The Cultural Contextp. 43
Introductionp. 44
What is Culture?p. 44
Roles of Teachers and Learnersp. 49
Conclusionp. 51
Questions for Discussionp. 52
Notesp. 52
Referencesp. 52
Learning about Identity and Settingp. 54
Introductionp. 55
Getting to Know the Institutionp. 56
Getting to Know the Communityp. 59
The Classroom as a Resourcep. 63
Conclusionp. 66
Questions for Discussionp. 67
Notesp. 67
Referencesp. 67
Language Awarenessp. 69
The Sound Systemp. 71
Introductionp. 72
The International Phonetic Alphabetp. 73
Articulatory Phoneticsp. 75
Describing Consonantsp. 75
Describing Vowelsp. 81
Suprasegmental Featuresp. 83
Phonologyp. 86
Conclusionp. 88
Questions for Discussionp. 88
Notep. 89
Referencesp. 89
The System of Wordsp. 90
Introductionp. 91
Language Familiesp. 92
The History of Englishp. 93
Classifying Morphemes and Wordsp. 97
Morphology and English Spellingp. 100
Morphological Typologyp. 101
How New Words are Createdp. 101
Conclusionp. 103
Questions for Discussionp. 103
Notesp. 103
Referencesp. 104
The Sentence Systemp. 105
Introductionp. 105
Subconscious Knowledgep. 107
Sentence Classification and Constructionp. 108
The Meaning of Sentencesp. 110
Voicep. 112
Parts of Speech or Lexical Categoriesp. 112
Phrasesp. 117
Other Types of Clausesp. 119
Conclusionp. 119
Questions for Discussionp. 120
Referencesp. 120
Beyond the Sentence: Spoken and Written Languagep. 121
Introductionp. 122
Spoken and Written Language - Differences and Similaritiesp. 123
Spoken Languagep. 127
Written Languagep. 132
Conclusionp. 134
Notep. 134
Referencesp. 134
Learningp. 137
Theories of Learningp. 139
Introductionp. 140
Transfer of Learningp. 142
Modelingp. 144
Chunkingp. 145
Principles of Learningp. 146
Conclusionp. 149
Questions for Discussionp. 150
Notesp. 150
Referencesp. 150
An Introduction to Second Language Acquisitionp. 153
Introductionp. 153
Key Historical Developments in SLAp. 155
First Language (LI) Acquisitionp. 161
Universal Grammarp. 162
Conclusionp. 165
Questions for Discussionp. 166
Notesp. 166
Referencesp. 166
Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Pedagogyp. 169
Introductionp. 169
Methods of Researching Language Learning in Classroomsp. 170
Areas of Investigation in Pedagogical Researchp. 171
Attitudep. 175
Motivationp. 176
Conclusionp. 177
Questions for Discussionp. 178
Notesp. 178
Referencesp. 178
Learning Theories in the Classroomp. 182
Introductionp. 183
Learning Strategiesp. 183
Preferred Ways of Learningp. 184
Learning and Intelligencep. 188
Cooperative Learningp. 190
Conclusionp. 192
Questions for Discussionp. 192
Notesp. 192
Referencesp. 193
Professionalismp. 195
Sustaining Professionalismp. 197
Introductionp. 198
Issues in Sustaining Professional Developmentp. 199
Traditional Approaches to Professional Developmentp. 200
Reflective Approaches to Professional Developmentp. 202
Volunteerismp. 206
Advocacyp. 208
Learning About Leadershipp. 209
Conclusionp. 210
Questions for Discussionp. 213
Notep. 214
Referencesp. 214
Indexp. 217
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