Willis's Practice and Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor

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  • Edition: 13th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2013-06-10
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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Historically employed to estimate and measure the likely material requirements for any building project, the role of the modern quantity surveyor is diverse, with a wide range of employers and geographical locations to match. Change continues to be a feature in quantity surveying practice, with the New Rules of Measurement, the RICS Black Book and Building Information Modelling (BIM) all adding to the already dynamic environment in which the Quantity Surveyor operates.  This new edition of Practice and Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor reflects that dynamic environment, addressing changing practices and procedures in the profession, whilst focussing on the core skills which are essential to success.

The 13th edition of this classic text, originally written by three generations of the Willis family (all quantity surveyors) continues to provide a thorough introduction to the work of the quantity surveyor in private practice, in public service and in contracting organisations.

Author Biography

Allan Ashworth DUniv (Hon), MSc, MRICS is a Visiting Professor at the University of Salford and the Adjunct Professor in Quantity Surveying at UTAR in Malaysia. He is a former HMI (Her Majesty’s Inspector) in the Department for Education and Employment and the Senior Academic Advisor to the Centre for Education in the Built Environment based at the University of Salford.

Keith Hogg BSc, PGCE was, until his recent retirement, Associate Dean (Development) in the School of the Built Environment at Northumbria University. He worked in private practice in the UK and overseas and engaged in research and practise in areas of risk management and value management. Throughout much of his career he was closely involved with the RICS in areas of Quantity Surveying Practice and Surveying Education.

Catherine Higgs MSc, MRICS is a Senior Lecturer in Quantity Surveying and Associate Head of the Department of Construction and Property at the University of the West of England, Bristol. She is also a UWE Teaching Fellow with a strong interest in the pedagogy of quantity surveying practice.

Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 The Work of the Quantity Surveyor 1

Introduction 1

A changing industry 3

Construction sectors 6

The role of the quantity surveyor 8

Skills, knowledge and understanding 15

What’s in a name?18

Discussion topic20

References and bibliography 23

2 Education, Training and Employment 24


Chronology of quantity surveying education 1960–201224

Quantity surveyors in education 27

Partnership and accreditation 28

Non-cognate disciplines 30

National vocational qualifications (NVQs) Vocational experience and qualifications 30

Assessment of professional competence (APC) 31

Continuing professional development (CPD) 32

Construction Industry Council (CIC) 33

Changing work patterns 34

The professions 44

Role of the RICS 48

Discussion topic 50

References and bibliography 52

3 Organisation and Management 53

Introduction 53

Staffing 53

Office organisation 55

Employer’s responsibilities 57

Public relations and marketing 61

Quality management 63

Time and cost management 65

Education and training Developing staff 66

Finance and accounts 68

Discussion topic 73

References and bibliography 77

4 The Quantity Surveyor and the Law 78

Introduction 78

The quantity surveyor and the client 78

Collateral warranties 85

Performance bonds 87

Professional indemnity insurance 88

Contracts of employment 88

The Disability Discrimination Act 2004 Equality Act 2010 90

Discussion topic 91

References and bibliography 93

5 Research and Innovation 95

Introduction 95


Classification of research and development 97

Research and development in the construction and property   industries 98

Rethinking construction innovation and research 99

Changing role of the quantity surveyor 102

Research and development in quantity surveying practice 103

Academic research 106

Research dissemination 107

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) 107

Quantity surveying practice 108

Major ICT issues 110

The future of ICT 112

The importance of change 112

Innovation 114

Conclusions 116

Discussion topic 117

References and bibliography 119

6 Cost Control 121

Introduction 121

Project cost control 121

Cost advice 122

Precontract methods 123

General considerations 127

Accuracy of approximate estimates 130

Preparing the approximate estimate 130

Whole life costing 131

Value management 132

Risk analysis 132

Best value 132

Taxation 133

Financial assistance for development 136

Post-contract methods 138

Discussion topic 141

References and bibliography 144

7 Whole Life Costing 146

Introduction 146

Brief history 147

Government policy 147

Whole life value 148

Whole life costing applications 149

Whole life costs 151

Main factors to consider 152

Targeting the major elements of costs-in-use 154

Depreciation and obsolescence in buildings 154

Long life, loose fit and low energy 155

Calculations 155

Forecasting the future 157

Whole life cost forum (WLCF) 160

Conclusions 161

Discussion topic 161

References and bibliography 164

8 Value Management 166

Introduction 166

Background 167

Terminology 167

When should surveyors use value management? 168

The application of value management 171

Functional analysis 178

Supporting the case for value management 183

Professional development and accreditation 185

Discussion topic 186

References and bibliography 189

 9  Risk Management 190

Introduction 190

When should surveyors use risk management? 191

The application of risk management 194

Risk analysis 195

Risk registers 197

Expected monetary value (EMV) 200

Simulation (quantitative risk analysis) 200

Risk management 203

Appraisal of risk management options 206

Considerations in risk allocation 207

Merging risk management and value management opportunity? 208

Discussion topic 209

References and bibliography 213

10 Procurement 215

Introduction 215

General matters 216

Standards forms of contract 218

Methods of price determination 219

Contractor selection and appointment 221

Procurement options 226

Contract strategy 232

Client procurement needs 233

Partnering 234

The Private Finance Initiative (PFI) 237

The role of the quantity surveyor 237

Discussion topic 238

References and bibliography 241

11 Contract Documentation 243

Contract documents 243

Coordinated project information 244

Form of contract 245

Contract drawings 247

Schedules 247

Contract bills 248

Methods of measurement 251

Contract specification 252

Schedules of work rates 253

Master programme 254

Information release schedule 254

Discrepancies in documents 254

Discussion topic 254

References and bibliography 257

12 Preparation of Contract Bills 258

Appointment of the quantity surveyor 258

Receipt of drawings 259

Taking-off 261

Contract bills 265

Invitation to tender Preliminary enquiry 269

Receipt of tenders 274

E-tendering 280

Discussion topic 281

References and bibliography 283

13 Cost Management 285

Introduction 285

Valuations 286

Valuation on insolvency 302

Cost control and reporting 302

Discussion topic 306

References and bibliography 309

14  Final Accounts 310

Introduction 310

Variations 311

Procedure for measurement and evaluation 313

Pricing variations 316

Provisional sums 321

Fluctuations 323

Completing the account 327

Audit 328

Timing and resources 330

Discussion topic 331

References and bibliography 334

15  Insolvency 335

Introduction 335

The role of the quantity surveyor 337

Scenario 338

The role of the liquidator 339

The law 340

Determination of contract (contractor insolvency) 340

Provision in the forms of contract 341

Factors to consider at insolvency 342

Completion of the contract 344

The employer’s loss 345

Expenditure involved 345

Termination of contract (employer insolvency) 346

Insolvency of the quantity surveyor or architect 348

Performance bonds 348

Discussion topic 349

References and bibliography 352

16  Contractual Disputes 353

Introduction 353

Why disputes arise 353

Litigation 355

Arbitration 356

Adjudication 358

Alternative dispute resolution 358

Expert witness 361

Lay advocacy 362

Claims 363

Discussion topic 370

References and bibliography 373

17  Project Management 375

Introduction 375

Justifying project management by adding value 376

Terminology 377

Attributes of the project manager 378

Duties and responsibilities of the project manager 385

Quantity surveying skills and expertise 391

Fees 391

Education and training for the project manager 392

Discussion topic 393

References and bibliography 396

18  Facilities Management 398

Introduction 398

The work of the facilities manager 399

Sustainability 413

Facilities management opportunities for the quantity surveyor 415

Education and training for the facilities manager 417

Discussion topic 417

References and bibliography 420

19 Emergent Themes: Sustainability and BIM



Measures of sustainability

Quantity surveying and sustainability

Zero carbon

Building Information Modeling (BIM)

BIM use within the industry

Discussion topic

References and Bibliography

Index 423

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