Wireless LAN Radios System Definition to Transistor Design

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: eBook
  • Copyright: 2007-05-14
  • Publisher: Wiley-IEEE Press

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Wireless LAN Radios presents a sophisticated overview of the subject, covering theory while also emphasizing the practical aspects of this promising technology. Coverage includes 802.11 flavors and system requirements; receiver and transmitter radio architectures; analog impairments and issues; key radio building blocks; calibration techniques; case studies; and a brief discussion of 802.11n. It offers a meaningful presentation of real-world issues facing designers, engineers, theorists, and researchers working in this industry.

Author Biography

Arya Behzad is currently a Broadcom Distinguished Engineer, where he is the Director of Engineering working on radios for current and future generation wireless products and Product Line Manager for all wireless LAN radio products. This book and his IEEE Expert Now course on wireless LAN radio design are both derived from his popular course on this topic at the IEEE ISSCC.

Table of Contents



CHAPTER 1 802.11 Flavors and System Requirements.

1.1 Definition.

1.2 WLAN Market Trends.

1.3 History of 802.11.

1.4 802.11: b, a, or g?

1.5 802.11b Standard.

1.6 802.11a Channel Allocation.

1.7 802.11a and 802.11g: OFDM Mapping.

1.7.1 Multipath Fading.

1.8 802.11a/g: Data Rates.

1.9 802.11a/g OFDM Packet Construction.

1.10 802.11 System Requirements.

1.10.1 Receiver Sensitivity.

1.10.2 Transmitter Error Vector Magnitude.

1.10.3 Transmitter Spectral Mask.

1.11 Vector Signal Analysis.

CHAPTER 2 Radio Receiver and Transmitter Architectures.

2.1 Architectures.

2.1.1 Superheterodyne Receiver. Choice of Intermediate Frequency in Superheterodyne Receiver.

2.1.2 Low IF Receiver.

2.1.3 Direct-Conversion Receiver.

2.1.4 Receiver Architectures: Summary.

2.1.5 Superheterodyne Transmitter.

2.1.6 Low IF Transmitter.

2.1.7 Direct-Conversion Transmitter.

2.1.8 Polar Modulators.

2.2 Process Choices: CMOS versus SiGe BiCMOS.

CHAPTER 3 Analog Impairments and Issues.

3.1 Receiver Sensitivity and Noise Figure.

3.2 Receiver DC Offsets and LO Leakage.

3.3 Receiver Flicker Noise.

3.4 Receiver Interferers and Intermodulation Distortion.

3.4.1 IP3, IP2, and P1dB.

3.4.2 Tools for Analyzing Modulated Signal Distortion.

3.5 Receiver Image Rejection.

3.5.1 Superheterodyne Receiver.

3.5.2 Low IF Architecture.

3.5.3 Direct-Conversion Receiver.

3.6 Quadrature Balance and Relation to Image Rejection.

3.7 Quadrature Balance and Relation to EVM.

3.8 Other Transmitter (Modulator) Impairments.

3.9 Peak-to-Average Ratio and Relation to Linearity and Efficiency.

3.10 Local Oscillator Pulling in PLL.

3.11 Phase Noise in PLL.

3.12 Far-Out Phase Noise.

3.13 Effect of Phase Noise on OFDM Systems.

3.14 Effect of Frequency Errors on OFDM.

3.15 Summary of Analog/RF Impairments.

CHAPTER 4 Some Key Radio Building Blocks.

4.1 Low Noise Amplifier.

4.2 Mixer and its Local Oscillator Buffers.

4.3 Power Amplifier.

4.4 Fully Integrated VCO.

4.5 Multifrequency (Stacked) Mixer.

4.6 Open-Loop Transconductance Linearization Circuit.

CHAPTER 5 Calibration Techniques.

5.1 VCO Calibration.

5.2 Automatic Frequency Control.

5.3 Quadrature Error and Local Oscillator Feedthrough Calibration.

5.4 Bias Current Calibrations (R Calibration).

5.5 Filter Time-Constant Calibration (RC Calibration).

5.6 Other Calibrations.

CHAPTER 6 Case Studies.

6.1 Case Study 1: A CMOS 802.11a Transceiver.

6.1.1 Architecture and Circuit Implementation.

6.1.2 Receiver.

6.1.3 Transmitter.

6.1.4 Phase-Locked Loop.

6.2 Case Study 2: High Performance WLAN Transmitter Utilizing Quadrature and LOFT Calibration.

CHAPTER 7 Brief Discussion Of 802.11n and Concluding Remarks.

7.1 Need for 802.11n.

7.2 802.11a/b/g/n MIMO Transceiver.

7.2.1 Architecture and Circuit Implementation. Receiver. Transmitter. PLL and LO Generation. Calibration Techniques.

7.2.2 Packaging Issues.

7.2.3 Measurement Results.

7.2.4 MIMO Case Study Conclusion.

7.3 Concluding Remarks.


Annotated Bibliography.


About the Author.

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