Wireless Sensor Networks : Technology, Protocols, and Applications

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-04-06
  • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience
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Infrastructure for Homeland Security Environments Wireless Sensor Networks helps readers discover the emerging field of low-cost standards-based sensors that promise a high order of spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy in an ever-increasing universe of applications. It shares the latest advances in science and engineering paving the way towards a large plethora of new applications in such areas as infrastructure protection and security, healthcare, energy, food safety, RFID, ZigBee, and processing. Unlike other books on wireless sensor networks that focus on limited topics in the field, this book is a broad introduction that covers all the major technology, standards, and application topics. It contains everything readers need to know to enter this burgeoning field, including current applications and promising research and development; communication and networking protocols; middleware architecture for wireless sensor networks; and security and management. The straightforward and engaging writing style of this book makes even complex concepts and processes easy to follow and understand. In addition, it offers several features that help readers grasp the material and then apply their knowledge in designing their own wireless sensor network systems: Examples illustrate how concepts are applied to the development and application of wireless sensor networks Detailed case studies set forth all the steps of design and implementation needed to solve real-world problems Chapter conclusions that serve as an excellent review by stressing the chapter's key concepts References in each chapter guide readers to in-depth discussions of individual topics This book is ideal for networking designers and engineers who want to fully exploit this new technology and for government employees who are concerned about homeland security. With its examples, it is appropriate for use as a coursebook for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students.

Author Biography

Kazem Sohraby, PhD, is Professor of Electrical Engineering in the College of Engineering at the University of Arkansas. Dr. Sohraby has also served as head of the university's Department of Computer Science and Computer Engineering, and as Director of Telecommunications Management Department at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey. Prior to his university appointment, Dr. Sohraby spent much of his career at Bell Labs Advanced Communication Technologies Center. His work resulted in more than twenty new patents for Bell Labs.

Daniel Minoli has worked and published extensively in the field of IT security, with more than thirty years of hands-on experience in IT, telecommunications, wireless, and networking. He has helped develop systems and solutions for such organizations as Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) think tanks, Bell Telephone Laboratories, ITT, Prudential Securities, Telcordia (Bell Communications Research), AT&T, Leading Edge Networks, Capital One Financial, SES Americom, New York University, Rutgers University, Stevens Institute of Technology, and Société Générale de Financement du Québec. His columns have been published in Computerworld, Network World, and Network Computing.

Taieb Znati, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Znati's recent work focuses on the design and analysis of network protocols for wired and wireless communications, sensor networks, network security, agent-based technology with collaborative environments, and middleware.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
About the Authorsp. xiii
Introduction and Overview of Wireless Sensor Networksp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Background of Sensor Network Technologyp. 2
Applications of Sensor Networksp. 10
Focus of This Bookp. 12
Basic Overview of the Technologyp. 13
Basic Sensor Network Architectural Elementsp. 15
Brief Historical Survey of Sensor Networksp. 26
Challenges and Hurdlesp. 29
Conclusionp. 31
Referencesp. 31
Applications of Wireless Sensor Networksp. 38
Introductionp. 38
Backgroundp. 38
Range of Applicationsp. 42
Examples of Category 2 WSN Applicationsp. 50
Home Controlp. 51
Building Automationp. 53
Industrial Automationp. 56
Medical Applicationsp. 57
Examples of Category 1 WSN Applicationsp. 59
Sensor and Robotsp. 60
Reconfigurable Sensor Networksp. 62
Highway Monitoringp. 63
Military Applicationsp. 64
Civil and Environmental Engineering Applicationsp. 67
Wildfire Instrumentationp. 68
Habitat Monitoringp. 68
Nanoscopic Sensor Applicationsp. 69
Another Taxonomy of WSN Technologyp. 69
Conclusionp. 71
Referencesp. 71
Basic Wireless Sensor Technologyp. 75
Introductionp. 75
Sensor Node Technologyp. 76
Overviewp. 76
Hardware and Softwarep. 78
Sensor Taxonomyp. 80
WN Operating Environmentp. 84
WN Trendsp. 87
Conclusionp. 91
Referencesp. 91
Wireless Transmission Technology and Systemsp. 93
Introductionp. 93
Radio Technology Primerp. 94
Propagation and Propagation Impairmentsp. 94
Modulationp. 101
Available Wireless Technologiesp. 103
Campus Applicationsp. 105
MAN/WAN Applicationsp. 120
Conclusionp. 131
Modulation Basicsp. 131
Referencesp. 139
Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networksp. 142
Introductionp. 142
Backgroundp. 143
Fundamentals of MAC Protocolsp. 144
Performance Requirementsp. 145
Common Protocolsp. 148
MAC Protocols for WSNsp. 158
Schedule-Based Protocolsp. 161
Random Access-Based Protocolsp. 165
Sensor-MAC Case Studyp. 167
Protocol Overviewp. 167
Periodic Listen and Sleep Operationsp. 168
Schedule Selection and Coordinationp. 169
Schedule Synchronizationp. 170
Adaptive Listeningp. 171
Access Control and Data Exchangep. 171
Message Passingp. 172
IEEE 802.15.4 LR-WPANs Standard Case Studyp. 173
PHY Layerp. 176
MAC Layerp. 178
Conclusionp. 192
Referencesp. 193
Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networksp. 197
Introductionp. 197
Backgroundp. 198
Data Dissemination and Gatheringp. 199
Routing Challenges and Design Issues in Wireless Sensor Networksp. 200
Network Scale and Time-Varying Characteristicsp. 200
Resource Constraintsp. 201
Sensor Applications Data Modelsp. 201
Routing Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networksp. 202
WSN Routing Techniquesp. 203
Flooding and Its Variantsp. 203
Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiationp. 206
Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchyp. 210
Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systemsp. 213
Directed Diffusionp. 215
Geographical Routingp. 219
Conclusionp. 225
Referencesp. 225
Transport Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networksp. 229
Traditional Transport Control Protocolsp. 229
TCP (RFC 793)p. 231
UDP (RFC 768)p. 233
Mobile IPp. 233
Feasibility of Using TCP or UDP for WSNsp. 234
Transport Protocol Design Issuesp. 235
Examples of Existing Transport Control Protocolsp. 237
CODA (Congestion Detection and Avoidance)p. 237
ESRT (Event-to-Sink Reliable Transport)p. 237
RMST (Reliable Multisegment Transport)p. 239
PSFQ (Pump Slowly, Fetch Quickly)p. 239
GARUDAp. 239
ATP (Ad Hoc Transport Protocol)p. 240
Problems with Transport Control Protocolsp. 240
Performance of Transport Control Protocolsp. 241
Congestionp. 241
Packet Loss Recoveryp. 242
Conclusionp. 244
Referencesp. 244
Middleware for Wireless Sensor Networksp. 246
Introductionp. 246
WSN Middleware Principlesp. 247
Middleware Architecturep. 248
Data-Related Functionsp. 249
Architecturesp. 252
Existing Middlewarep. 253
MiLAN (Middleware Linking Applications and Networks)p. 253
IrisNet (Internet-Scale Resource-Intensive Sensor Networks Services)p. 254
AMF (Adaptive Middleware Framework)p. 255
DSWare (Data Service Middleware)p. 255
CLMF (Cluster-Based Lightweight Middleware Framework)p. 256
MSM (Middleware Service for Monitoring)p. 256
Emp. 256
Impalap. 257
DFusep. 257
DDS (Device Database System)p. 258
SensorWarep. 258
Conclusionp. 259
Referencesp. 259
Network Management for Wireless Sensor Networksp. 262
Introductionp. 262
Network Management Requirementsp. 262
Traditional Network Management Modelsp. 263
Simple Network Management Protocolp. 263
Telecom Operation Mapp. 264
Network Management Design Issuesp. 264
Example of Management Architecture: MANNAp. 267
Other Issues Related to Network Managementp. 268
Namingp. 269
Localizationp. 269
Conclusionp. 270
Referencesp. 270
Operating Systems for Wireless Sensor Networksp. 273
Introductionp. 273
Operating System Design Issuesp. 274
Examples of Operating Systemsp. 276
TinyOSp. 276
Matep. 277
MagnetOSp. 278
MANTISp. 278
OSPMp. 279
EYES OSp. 279
SenOSp. 280
PicOSp. 281
Conclusionp. 281
Referencesp. 281
Performance and Traffic Managementp. 283
Introductionp. 283
Backgroundp. 283
WSN Design Issuesp. 286
MAC Protocolsp. 286
Routing Protocolsp. 286
Transport Protocolsp. 287
Performance Modeling of WSNsp. 288
Performance Metricsp. 288
Basic Modelsp. 289
Network Modelsp. 292
Case Study: Simple Computation of the System Life Spanp. 294
Analysisp. 296
Discussionp. 298
Conclusionp. 300
Referencesp. 300
Indexp. 303
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