World Politics: Interests, Interactions, Institutions (Second Edition)

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Textbook Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-09-17
  • Publisher: W W NORTON
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Why are there wars? Why do countries struggle to cooperate to prevent genocides or global environmental problems? Why are some countries rich while others are poor? Organized around the puzzles that draw scholars and students alike to the study of world politics, this book gives students the tools they need to think analytically about compelling questions like these. In the Second Edition, two new chapters-one on civil war and terrorism and one on international law-bring the book's successful approach to additional topics. Added features stress real-world applications and provide extensive study and review help, making the authors' analytical approach even more accessible and engaging.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiv
Introductionp. xix
What Is World Politics and Why Do We Study It?p. xxi
Twelve Puzzles in Search of Explanationsp. xxiii
The Framework: Interests, Interactions, and Institutionsp. xxv
Levels of Analysisp. xxvii
Integrating Insights from Realism, Liberalism, and Constructivismp. xxviii
The Plan of the Bookp. xxxiii
What Shaped Our World? A Historical Introductionp. 2
The Emergence of International Relations: The Mercantilist Erap. 5
How Do We Know? Mercantilism and the Thirteen Coloniesp. 7
The Pax Britannicap. 8
What Shaped Our World? Colonists and the Colonizedp. 9
The Hundred Years' Peacep. 10
Free Tradep. 11
The Gold Standardp. 13
Colonial Imperialismp. 13
The Thirty Years' Crisisp. 14
Tension in Europep. 15
World War I and Its Effectsp. 15
Interwar Instabilityp. 20
World War IIp. 21
The Cold Warp. 22
The Superpowers Emergep. 23
The Blocs Consolidatep. 23
Decolonizationp. 27
The Rise of the Third Worldp. 28
The Cold War Thawsp. 29
After the Cold Warp. 29
The Cold War fendsp. 29
Worldwide Economic Developmentsp. 30
New Diplomatic Challengesp. 32
What Will Shape Our World in the Future?p. 33
American Predominance and Challenges to Itp. 34
Globalizationp. 35
Looking Aheadp. 36
Understanding Interests, Interactions, and Institutionsp. 38
Interests: What Do Actors Want from Politics?p. 42
Actors and Interestsp. 44
What Shaped Our World? The Rise of the Statep. 45
Interactions: Why Can't Actors Always Get What They Want?p. 47
Cooperation and Bargainingp. 49
When Can Actors Cooperate?p. 52
Who Wins and Who Loses in Bargaining?p. 58
Institutions: Do Rules Matter in World Politics?p. 62
How Do Institutions Affect Cooperation?p. 62
How Do We Know? The International Diffusion of Election Monitoringp. 65
Whom Do Institutions Benefit?p. 68
Why Follow the Rules?p. 69
Conclusion: Thinking Analytically about World Politicsp. 71
Special Topic: A Primer on Game Theoryp. 74
War and Peace
Why Are There Wars?p. 80
What Is the Purpose of War?p. 84
What Do States Fight Over?p. 86
Bargaining and Warp. 88
Compellence and Deterrence: Varieties of Coercive Bargainingp. 92
Do Wars Happen by Mistake? War from Incomplete Informationp. 93
Incentives to Misrepresent and the Problem of Credibilityp. 96
Communicating Resolve: The Language of Coercionp. 99
Can an Adversary Be Trusted to Honor a Deal? War from Commitment Problemsp. 105
Bargaining over Goods That Are a Source of Future Bargaining Powerp. 106
How Do We Know?. Bargaining and Conflict over Territoryp. 107
Controversy: Should We Negotiate with Rogue Regimes?p. 108
Prevention: War in Response to Changing Powerp. 110
Preemption: War in Response to First-Strike Advantagesp. 112
What Shaped Our World'? Prevention and Preemption in World War Ip. 114
Is Compromise Always Possible? War from Indivisibilityp. 115
How Can We Make War Less Likely?p. 118
Raising the Costs of Warp. 118
Increasing Transparencyp. 118
Providing Outside Enforcement of Commitmentsp. 119
Dividing Apparently Indivisible Goodsp. 120
Conclusion: Why War?p. 121
Domestic Politics and Warp. 124
Whose Interests Count in Matters of War and Peace?p. 128
National versus Particularistic Interestsp. 128
Interactions, Institutions, and Influencep. 130
Do Politicians Spark Wars Abroad in Order to Hold On to Power at Home?p. 132
What Do Leaders Want?p. 133
Controversy: Should We Assassinate Leaders Rather Than Fight Their Armies?p. 134
The Rally Effect and the Diversionary Incentivep. 136
Do Leaders "Wag the Dog"?p. 138
The Political Costs of Warp. 140
How Do We Know? War and the Fate of Political Leadersp. 142
Do Countries Fight Wars to Satisfy the Military or Special Interest Groups?p. 143
Bureaucratic Politics and the Militaryp. 143
What Shaped Our World? The Kargil War and Military Influence in Warp. 146
Interest Groups: Economic and Ethnic Lobbiesp. 147
How Can Small Groups Have a Big Influence on Policy?p. 149
How Do Domestic Interests Affect International Bargaining?p. 152
Why Don't Democracies Fight One Another?p. 154
What Is Democracy?p. 155
Representation, Accountability, and Interests in War and Peacep. 156
Democracy and the Bargaining Interactionp. 161
Domestic Institutions or Strategic Interests?p. 163
Conclusion: What If All the World Were Democratic?p. 164
International Institutions and Warp. 168
Alliances: Why Promise to Fight Someone Else's War?p. 172
Alliances and Alignmentsp. 173
Alliances and the Likelihood of Warp. 176
How Alliances Establish Credibilityp. 179
Why Aren't Alliance Commitments Ironclad?p. 180
The Success and Failure of Alliances in Europe, 1879-1990p. 181
What Shaped Our World? NATO after the Cold Warp. 186
Collective Security: Why Can't the United Nations Keep the Peace?p. 188
How Does Collective Security Work?p. 189
The Dilemmas of Collective Securityp. 192
Institutional Responses to the Challenges of Collective Securityp. 193
The Experience of Collective Security: The United Nationsp. 195
Controversy: Should the International Community Intervene Militarily in Civil Conflicts?p. 206
How Do We Know? Does Peacekeeping Keep the Peace?p. 209
Conclusion: Are Poor Police Better Than None?p. 211
Violence by Nonstate Actors: Civil War and Terrorismp. 214
Why Does War Occur within States?p. 219
Why Rebel?p. 220
Controversy: Should Every Group Have a State of Its Own?p. 222
When Does Dissatisfaction Lead to Armed Opposition?p. 224
How Do We Know? Why Civil Wars Cluster Togetherp. 230
Civil War As a Bargaining Failurep. 233
The Strategies of Civil Warp. 237
What Can Be Done about Civil War?p. 240
Terrorism: Why Kill Civilians?p. 242
Are Terrorists Rational?p. 243
Why Terrorism?p. 245
What Shaped Our World? The Rise of Al Qaedap. 247
Terrorism As a Bargaining Failurep. 248
How Can Terrorists Hope to Win? Strategies of Violencep. 252
Can Terrorism Be Prevented?p. 256
Conclusion: A Challenge to States?p. 261
International Political Economy
International Tradep. 264
What's So Good about Trade?p. 268
Why Do Countries Trade What They Do?p. 270
Trade Restrictions Are the Rule, Not the Exceptionp. 273
Why Do Governments Restrict Trade? The Domestic Political Economy of Protectionp. 276
Winners and Losers in International Tradep. 278
Economic Interests and Trade Policyp. 278
Domestic Institutions and Trade Policyp. 281
How Do We Know? The Political Economy of American Sugar Protectionp. 283
Costs, Benefits, and Compensation in National Trade Policiesp. 285
How Do Countries Get What They Want? The International Political Economy of Tradep. 287
Strategic Interaction in International Trade Relationsp. 288
What Shaped Our World? The Creation of a Single European Marketp. 289
International Institutions in International Tradep. 293
Explaining Trends and Patterns in International Tradep. 298
Why, within a Country, Are Some Industries Protected and Some Not?p. 298
Controversy: Does the WTO Hurt the Global Poor?p. 300
Why Have National Trade Policies Varied over Time?p. 302
Why Do Some Countries Have Higher Trade Barriers Than Others?p. 302
Why Has the World Trading Order Been More or Less Open at Different Times?p. 303
Conclusion: Trade and Politicsp. 303
Special Topic: Comparative Advantage and the Political Economy of Tradep. 306
International Financial Relationsp. 312
How and Why Do People Invest Overseas?p. 316
Why Invest Abroad? Why Borrow Abroad?p. 317
What's the Problem with Foreign Investment?p. 319
Concessional Financep. 320
Why Is International Finance Controversial?p. 322
Who Wants to Borrow? Who Wants to Lend?p. 322
Debtor-Creditor Interactionsp. 325
Institutions of International Financep. 327
Controversy: Is the IMF Unfair?p. 330
Recent Borrowing and Debt Crisesp. 332
What Shaped Our World? The Latin American Debt Crisisp. 333
A New Crisis Hits the United States-and the Worldp. 334
Foreign Direct Investment: What Role Do Multinational Corporations Play?p. 337
Why Do Corporations Go Multinational?p. 337
Why Do Countries Let Foreign Multinationals In?p. 339
How Do We Know? Who's Afraid of MNCs, and Who Likes Them?p. 340
Host-Country Interactions with MNCsp. 341
Why Aren't There International Institutions Related to FDI?p. 343
International Migration: What Happens When People-Rather Than Capital-Move across Borders?p. 344
Conclusion: The Politics of International Investmentp. 347
International Monetary Relationsp. 350
What Are Exchange Rates, and Why Do They Matter?p. 354
How Are Currency Values Determined?p. 355
Allowing the Exchange Rate to Changep. 356
Who Cares about Exchange Rates, and Why?p. 357
Governmentsp. 357
Consumers and Businessesp. 361
Can There Be World Money without World Government?p. 363
When and Why Do Governments Agree on the Monetary Order?p. 364
International Monetary Cooperation and Conflictp. 365
International Monetary Regimesp. 366
A Short History of International Monetary Systemsp. 367
What Shaped Our World? The Wizard of Oz and the Gold Standardp. 369
Regional Monetary Arrangements: The Europ. 371
How Do We Know? Who Wanted the Euro?p. 372
What Happens When Currencies Collapse?p. 375
Effects on Governmentp. 376
International Repercussionsp. 377
Containing Currency Crisesp. 381
Conclusion: Currencies, Conflict, and Cooperationp. 381
Controversy: Should Currency Traders Be Permitted to "Attack" Weak Currencies?p. 382
Development: Causes of the Wealth and Poverty of Nationsp. 386
If Everyone Wants Development, Why Is It So Hard to Achieve?p. 390
Geographic Locationp. 390
What Shaped Our World? Paths to Developmentp. 391
Domestic Factorsp. 392
Domestic Institutionsp. 397
How Do We Know? Explaining Developmental Differences: North and South Americap. 398
Are Rich Countries Responsible for the Problems of the Developing World?p. 400
Did Colonialism Hamper Development?p. 401
Is the International Economy Biased against LDCs?p. 403
Are International Institutions Biased against LDCs?p. 404
Development Policies and Development Politicsp. 406
Import Substituting Industrializationp. 407
Export-Oriented Industrializationp. 409
The Turn toward Globalizationp. 410
Attempts to Remedy the Bias of International Institutionsp. 411
Is Foreign Aid an Answer?p. 413
Controversy: What Responsibilities Do Rich Countries Have to the Global Poor?p. 414
Globalization and Its Discontentsp. 416
Conclusion: Toward Global Developmentp. 417
Addressing International Factorsp. 417
Addressing Domestic Factorsp. 418
Transnational Politics
International Law and Normsp. 420
What Is International Law?p. 425
How Does International Law Get Made?p. 426
What Shaped Our World? Crimes against Humanityp. 427
Is All International Law the Same?p. 428
How Do We Know? The European Court of Justice and the Integration of Europep. 430
Does International Law Matter?p. 431
What Are International Norms?p. 434
How Are International Norms Created?p. 437
Controversy: Toys Made for Children, by Childrenp. 440
Do Norms Matter?p. 443
Beyond Norms: TANs and International Cooperationp. 446
Conclusion: Is the State Obsolete?p. 448
Human Rightsp. 452
What Are International Human Rights?p. 456
What Shaped Our World? The Universal Declaration of Human Rightsp. 457
Why Are Human Rights Controversial?p. 459
Are Some Rights More Important Than Others?p. 462
Why Do Individuals and States Care about the Human Rights of Others?p. 463
Controversy: Should Economic Sanctions Be Imposed on Governments That Violate Human Rights?p. 464
Why Do States Violate Human Rights?p. 466
Why Do States Sign Human Rights Agreements?p. 468
Why Don't States Observe International Human Rights Law?p. 473
Does International Human Rights Law Make a Difference?p. 476
How Do We Know? Human Rights Abuses around the Globep. 477
What Can Lead to Better Protection of International Human Rights?p. 480
When Do States Take Action on Human Rights?p. 482
Will Protection of Human Rights Improve in the Future?p. 483
Conclusion: Why Protect Human Rights?p. 489
The Global Environmentp. 492
Why Are Good Intentions Not Good Enough?p. 496
Collective Action and the Environmentp. 497
Solving Collective Action Problemsp. 500
What Shaped Our World? The Campaign to Save the Whalesp. 501
Why Do Polluters Usually Win?p. 505
Domestic Winners and Losersp. 505
International Winners and Losersp. 507
Controversy: Who Should Bear the Costs of Addressing Global Climate Change?p. 508
How Do We Know? Patterns of Environmental Performancep. 514
Bargaining over the Future Environmentp. 515
How Can Institutions Promote International Environmental Cooperation?p. 517
Setting Standards and Verifying Compliancep. 518
Facilitating Decision Makingp. 520
Resolving Disputesp. 521
Conclusion: Can Global Environmental Cooperation Succeed?p. 522
Special Topic: The Science of Ozone Depletion and Global Climate Changep. 526
Looking Ahead
The Future of International Politicsp. 534
Can the Spread of WMD Be Stopped?p. 538
What Do Theory and History Tell Us?p. 539
What Shaped Our World? The Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponsp. 540
Preventing the Spread of WMDp. 543
Will China and the United States Fight for Global Leadership?p. 548
What Do Theory and History Tell Us?p. 551
A Coming Showdown or Peaceful Engagement?p. 554
What Will the United States Do?p. 556
Will Economic Globalization Continue?p. 557
What Do Theory and History Tell Us?p. 559
Resistance to Globalization in the Developed Worldp. 562
How Do We Know? Is Globalization Increasing Inequality?p. 564
Resistance to Globalization in the Developing Worldp. 565
Backlash and the International Trading Systemp. 566
Will Globalization Lead to Global Government?p. 568
What Do Theory and History Tell Us?p. 569
Coming Conflicts over Global Governancep. 571
Who Will Set the Rules?p. 573
Conclusion: Can Our Common Interests Prevail?p. 577
Glossaryp. A-1
Creditsp. A-8
Indexp. A-9
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