World of Psychology, The, Books a la Carte Plus MyPsychLab Pegasus -- Access Card Package

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  • Edition: 7th
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  • Copyright: 2010-03-26
  • Publisher: Pearson
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.


More than any other full-length text on the market, The World of Psychology #xA0;supports student learning#xA0;while#xA0;helping#xA0;students make#xA0;the connection between scientific principles and everyday life. #xA0; The Seventh Edition of Wood/Wood/Boyd's World of Psychology#xA0;continues to respond to the changing needs of today's diverse student population. Students and instructors will benefit from exciting#xA0;enhancements in content, pedagogy, and design while#xA0;enjoying the accessible and engaging presentation that have made this text so successful over the years.

Author Biography

Samuel E. Wood received his doctorate from the University of Florida. He taught at West Virginia University and the University of Missouri—St. Louis and was a member of the doctoral faculty at both universities. From 1984 to 1996, he served as president of the Higher Education Center, a consortium of 14 colleges and universities in the St. Louis area. He was a cofounder of the Higher Education Cable TV channel (HEC-TV) in St. Louis and served as its president and CEO from its founding in 1987 until 1996. Dr. Wood passed away in 2008.


Ellen Green Wood received her doctorate in educational psychology from St. Louis University and was an adjunct professor of psychology at St. Louis Community College at Meramec. She has also taught in the clinical experiences program in education at Washington University and at the University of Missouri–St. Louis. In addition to her teaching, Dr. Wood has developed and taught seminars on critical thinking. She received the Telecourse Pioneer Award from 1982 through 1988 for her contributions to the field of distance learning.


Denise Boyd received her Ed.D. in educational psychology from the University of Houston and has been a psychology instructor in the Houston Community College system since 1988. From 1995 until 1998, she chaired the psychology, sociology, and anthropology department at Houston Community College—Central. She has coauthored three other Allyn and Bacon texts: with Helen Bee, Lifespan Development (Fourth Edition) and The Developing Child (Eleventh Edition); and with Genevieve Stevens, Current Readings in Lifespan Development. A licensed psychologist, she has presented a number of papers at professional meetings, reporting research in child, adolescent, and adult development. She has also presented workshops for teachers whose students range from preschool to college.


Together, Sam, Evie, and Denise have more than 45 years of experience teaching introductory psychology to thousands of students of all ages, backgrounds, and abilities. The World of Psychology, Seventh Edition is the direct result of their teaching experience.

Table of Contents



CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Psychology

CHAPTER 2: Biology and Behavior

CHAPTER 3: Sensation and Perception

CHAPTER 4: States of Consciousness

CHAPTER 5: Learning

CHAPTER 6: Memory

CHAPTER 7: Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

CHAPTER 8: Child Development

CHAPTER 9: Adolescence and Adulthood

CHAPTER 10: Motivation and Emotion

CHAPTER 11: Human Sexuality and Gender

CHAPTER 12: Health and Stress

CHAPTER 13: Personality Theory and Assessment

CHAPTER 14: Psychological Disorders

CHAPTER 15: Therapies

CHAPTER 16: Social Psychology


APPENDIX A: Statistical Methods

APPENDIX B: Psychology in the Workplace





CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Psychology

An Introduction to the World of Psychology

    APPLY IT: Best Practices for Effective Studying

    The Scientific Method

    The Goals of Psychology

Exploring Psychology's Roots



    The Changing Face of Psychology

Schools of Thought in Psychology



    Humanistic Psychology

    Cognitive Psychology

    Evolutionary Psychology

    Biological (Physiological) Psychology

    The Sociocultural Approach

    Psychological Perspectives and Eclecticism

Thinking about Theories and Research

    Evaluating Theories

    Evaluating Research

Descriptive Research Methods

    Naturalistic and Laboratory Observation

    The Case Study

    Survey Research

    TRY IT: Can Small Samples Really Be Representative?

    The Correlational Method

The Experimental Method

    Experiments and Hypothesis Testsing

    Independent and Dependent Variables

    Experimental and Control Groups

    Sources of Bias in Experimental Research

    Limitations of the Experimental Method

Participants in Psychological Research

    Participant-Related Bias in Psychological Research

    Protecting Research Participants' Rights

    The Use of Animals in Research

Psychologists at Work

    Specialties in Psychology

    Majoring in Psychology    


CHAPTER 2: Biology and Behavior

The Neurons and the Neurotransmitters

    The Structure of the Neuron

    Communication between Neurons

    Neurotransmitters: The Neuron's Messengers

    The Variety of Neurotransmitters

The Human Nervous System

    Central Nervous System: The Spinal Cord

    Central Nervous System: The Hindbrain

    Central Nervous System: The Midbrain

    Central Nervous System: The Forebrain

    The Peripheral Nervous System

A Closer Look at the Brain

    Components of the Cerebrum

    The Cerebral Hemispheres

    TRY IT: A Balancing Act

    The Frontal Lobes

    The Parietal Lobes

    The Occipital Lobes

    The Temporal Lobes

    The Brain across the Life Span

    Gender Differences in the Adult Brain

Discovering the Brain's Mysteries

    The EEG and the Microelectrode

    The CT Scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    The PET Scan, fMRI, and Other Imaging Techniques

The Endocrine System

Genes and Behavioral Genetics

    The Mechanisms of Heredity

    APPLY IT: Should You Consult a Genetic Counselor?

    Behavioral Genetics


CHAPTER 3: Sensation and Perception

The Process of Sensation

    The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

    Transduction and Adaptation

    TRY IT: Sensory Adaptation


    The Eye

    Vision and the Brain

    TRY IT: Vision

    Color Vision

    Theories of Color Vision

    TRY IT: A Negative Afterimage



    The Ear

    Theories of Hearing

    Hearing Loss

The Other Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, and Balance





    Balance and Movement

Principles of Perception

    Perceptual Organization

    Depth Perception

    Motion Perception

    Puzzling Perceptions

Influences on Perception


    Prior Knowledge

    APPLY IT: How Dangerous Is It to Talk on a Cell Phone While Driving?

    TRY IT: Bottom-Up Processing

    Social Perception

    Unusual Perceptual Experiences


CHAPTER 4: States of Consciousness

What is Consciousness?

    Changing Views of Consciousness

    Culture and Altered States of Consciousness

Circadian Rhythms

    The Biology of Circadian Rhythms

    Disruptions in Circadian Rhythms

    Circadian Timing and Neurological Disorders


    Why Do We Sleep?

    Types of Sleep: NREM and REM

    Sleep Cycles

    REM Sleep and Memory

    Variations in Sleep

    Sleep Deprivation

    Sleep Disorders

    APPLY IT: How to Get a Good Night's Sleep


    The Content of Dreams

    Interpreting Dreams

Meditation and Hypnosis


    TRY IT: The Relaxation Response


Psychoactive Drugs

    How Drugs Affect the Brain

    The Behavioral Effects of Stimulants

    The Behavioral Effects of Depressants

    The Behavioral Effects of Hallucinogens

    Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Abuse

    Drug Addiction

    Herbal Remedies and Supplements


CHAPTER 5: Learning

Classical Conditioning: The Original View

    Pavlov and Classical Conditioning

    The Process of Classical Conditioning

    Changing Conditioned Responses

    John Watson and Emotional Conditioning

Classical Conditioning: The Contemporary View

    The Cognitive Perspective

    Biological Predispositions

    Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life

    TRY IT: Cues in Commercials

    Factors Influencing Classical Conditioning

Operant Conditioning

    Thorndike and the Law of Effect

    The Process of Operant Conditioning


    Schedules of Reinforcement

    Factors Influencing Operant Conditioning


    Escape and Avoidance Learning

    APPLY IT: How to Win the Battle Against Procrastination

    Applications of Operant Conditioning

    TRY IT: Using Behavior Modification

Cognitive Learning

    Learning by Insight

    Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps

    Observational Learning

    Learning from Media


CHAPTER 6: Memory

The Structure of Human Memory

    The Information-Processing Approach

    Sensory Memory

    Short-Term Memory

    Long-Term Memory

    APPLY IT: Improving Memory with Mnemonic Devices

The Nature of Remembering

    Three Types of Memory Tasks

    The Serial Position Effect

    Context and Memory    

    Memory as Reconstruction

Memory in Everyday Life

    Flashbulb and Photographic Memories

    Memory and Culture

    Eyewitness Testimony

    The Repressed Memory Controversy

Biology and Memory

    The Hippocampus and Hippocampal Region

    Neuronal Changes and Memory

    Hormones and Memory

    Memory Loss


    Ebbinghaus and the First Experimental Studies on Forgetting

    The Causes of Forgetting

    TRY IT: A Penny for Your Thoughts

Improving Memory

    TRY IT: Organizing for Memory Improvement   


CHAPTER 7: Cognition, Language, and Intelligence





    Decision Making

    Problem Solving

    TRY IT: Water Lily Problem

    TRY IT: Duncker's Candle Problem

    Artificial Intelligence


    The Structure of Language

    Language and Thinking

    Learning a Second Language

    Animal Communication


    The Nature of Intelligence

    Measuring Intelligence

    Requirements of Good Tests

    APPLY IT: How to Build a Powerful Vocabulary

    The Bell Curve


    Mental Retardation

    Learning Disabilities

Explaining Difference in Cognitive Abilities

    The Heritability of Intelligence

    Intelligence: Fixed or Changeable?

    Race and IQ

    Culture, IQ, and Achievement

Beyond Intelligence

    Emotional Intelligence

    TRY IT: Find Your EQ


    Savant Syndrome


CHAPTER 8: Child Development

Developmental Psychology: Basic Issues and Methodology

    Controversial Issues in Developmental Psychology

    Approaches to Studying Developmental Change

Prenatal Development

    The Milestones of Prenatal Development

    Fetal Behavior

    Negative Influences on Prenatal Development


    Reflexes and Motor Development

    Sensory and Perceptual Development




    The Father-Child Relationship

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

    Schemes: The Foundation of Cognitive Development

    Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

    TRY IT: Conservation of Volume

    An Evaluation of Piaget's Contribution

Other Approaches to Cognitive Development

    Vygotsky's Sociocultural View

    The Information-Processing Approach

Language Development

    The Sequence of Language Development

    Theories of Language Development

    Learning to Read

Social Development

    The Parents' Role in the Socialization Process

    Peer Relationships

    Television as a Socializing Agent

    Culture and Child Development

    APPLY IT: Choosing a Nonparental Care Arrangement   


CHAPTER 9: Adolescence and Adulthood

 The Lifespan Perspective

    Erikson's Psychosocial Theory

    The Identity Crisis




    Cognitive Development

    Moral Development

    Parental Relationships

    The Peer Group

    Emerging Adulthood

    TRY IT: Emerging Adulthood

Early and Middle Adulthood

    Physical Changes

    Intellectual Abilities

    The Impact of College Attendance

    Lifestyle Patterns in Adulthood

    APPLY IT: Where Are You in the Career Development Process?

Later Adulthood

    Physical Changes in Later Adulthood

    TRY IT: Stereotypes about Later Adulthood

    Cognitive Changes in Later Adulthood

    Alzheimer's Disease-The Most Common Dementia

    Social Development and Adjustment in Later Adulthood

    Cultural Differences in Care for the Elderly

    Death and Dying


CHAPTER 10: Motivation and Emotion

 Foundations of Motivation

    The Components of Motivation

    Types of Motivation

    Biological Approaches to Motivation

    Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Approaches to Motivation

    TRY IT:  What is Your N Ach?

    Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Two Primary Drives: Thirst and Hunger


    Internal and External Hunger Cues

    Explaining Variations in Body Weight

    Weight Loss Strategies

    Eating Disorders

Understanding Emotion

    Explainin the Components of Emotions

    Theories of Emotion

    Emotion and the Brain

Expressing Emotion

    The Range of Emotion

    The Development of Facial Expressions

    The Universality of Facial Expressions

    TRY IT: Recognizing Basic Emotions

    Cultural Rules for Displaying Emotion

    Emotion as a Form of Communication

    The Art and Science of Lie Detection

Experiencing Emotion

    The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis

    APPLY IT: The Quest for Happiness

    Gender Differences in Experiencing Emotion

    Emotion and Cognition



CHAPTER 11: Human Sexuality and Gender

Sex, Gender, and Gender Roles

    Biological Sex

    Psychological Gender

    Early Theories of Gender Role Development

    The Multidimensional Approach to Gender Roles

    Gender Schema Theory

    Evolutionary Theory

    TRY IT:  Waist-Hip Ratios

Gender Differences

    Thinking about Gender Differences

    Cognitive Abilities

    Gender Differences in Social Behavior and Personality

Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    Influences on Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    APPLY IT: Rules for Internet Dating

    Sexual Desire and Arousal

Sexual Orientation

    Determinants of Sexual Orientation

    Social Attitudes toward Gays and Lesbians

    Gay and Lesbian Relationships

Sexual Dysfunctions

    Sexual Desire Disorders

    Sexual Arousal Disorders

    Orgasmic and Sexual Pain Disorders

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    TRY IT: Mayo Clinic STD Quiz: What You Don't Know Can Hurt You

    Bacterial STDs

    Viral STDs

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

    TRY IT:  Knowledge About AIDS


CHAPTER 12: Health and Stress

 Sources of Stress

    Life Events: Big and Small

    Daily Hassles and Uplifts

    TRY IT: Finding a Life Stress Score

    Conflicts and Controllability

    Stress in the Workplace

    TRY IT: Sources of Stress in Your Life

    Catastrophic Events

    Racism and Stress

    Socioeconomic Status and Stress

Responding to Stress

    Selye and the General Adaptation Syndrome

    Lazarus's Cognitive Theory of Stress

    Coping Strategies

Health and Illness

    Two Approaches to Health and Illness

    Coronary Heart Disease


    The Immune System and Stress

    Personal Factors Reducing the Impact of Stress and Illness

    Gender and Health

    Race and Health

Lifestyle and Health

    Smoking and Health

    APPLY IT: Interpreting Health Information on the Internet

    Alcohol Abuse



    Alternative Medicine


CHAPTER 13: Personality Theory and Assessment

Psychoanalytic Theories

    The Conscious, the Preconscious, and the Unconscious

    The Id, the Ego, and the Superego

    The Psychosexual Stages of Development

    Evaluating Freud's Contribution

    The Neo-Freudians

Humanistic Theories

    Two Humanistic Theories


    TRY IT: Gauging Your Self-Esteem

Trait Theories

    Early Trait Theories

    TRY IT: Allport's Trait Theory

    The Five-Factor Model

    Origins and Stability of the Five Factors

    Culture and Personality Traits

Social-Cognitive Theories

    The Situation-Trait Debate

    Reciprocal Determinism

    Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control

Personality Assessment

    Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales

    Personality Inventories

    APPLY IT: Put Your Best Foot Forward

Projective Tests


CHAPTER 14: Psychological Disorders

 Defining Psychological Disorders

    What is Abnormal?

    Classifying Psychological Disorders

    Explaining Psychological Disorders

    Prevalence of Psychological Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

    Panic Attacks, Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia.

    Generalized Anxiety Disorders and Phobias

    APPLY IT: Overcoming the Fear of Public Speaking

    TRY IT: Phobia Names

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Mood Disorders

    Major Depressive Disorder

    Culture, Gender, and Depression

    Bipolar Disorder

    Explaining Mood Disorders

    Suicide and Race, Gender, and Age


    Age, Gender, and Schizophrenia

    Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia

    Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

    Types of Schizophrenia

    Explaining Schizophrenia

Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders

    Somatoform Disorders

    Dissociative Disorders

Personality Disorders

    Characteristics of Personality Disorders

    Types of Personality Disorders

Disorders Diagnosed in Childhood

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder   


CHAPTER 15: Therapies

Insight Therapies

    Psychodynamic Therapies

    Interpersonal Therapy

    Humanistic Therapies

    Gestalt Therapy

Relationship Therapies

    Couple Therapy

    Family Therapy

    Group Therapy

Behavior Therapies

    Behavior Modification Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning

    Behavior Therapies Based on Other Learning Theories

    TRY IT: A Possible Hierarchy of Fears

Cognitive Therapies

    Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

    Beck's Cognitive Therapy

Biomedical Therapies

    Drug Therapy

    Psychiatric Drugs for Children and Adolescents

    Electroconvulsive Therapy


Evaluating the Therapies

The Therapeutic Relationship

    Choosing a Therapist

    APPLY IT:  Is E-Therapy Right for You?

    Culturally-Sensitive and Gender-Sensitive Therapy


CHAPTER 16: Social Psychology

 Social Perception

    Impression Formation



    Factors Influencing Attraction

    Physical Attractiveness

    Romantic Attraction and Mating

    TRY IT: Choosing a Life Partner

Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance




Group Influence

    Social Facilitation

    Social Loafing

    Social Roles

Attitudes and Attitude Change


    Cognitive Dissonance


Prosocial Behavior

    Reasons for Helping

    The Bystander Effect


    Biological Factors in Aggression

    Other Influences on Aggression

    The Social Learning Theory of Aggression

    Sexual Aggression

Prejudice and Aggression

    The Roots of Prejudice and Discrimination

    Is Prejudice Decreasing?

    APPLY IT: "Unlearning" Prejudice


Answer Key

Appendix A

Appendix B



Name Index

Subject Index

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