The World's History Volume 1

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-12-23
  • Publisher: Pearson
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The past is not simply a list of events. Historical records are the means by which historians develop their interpretations of those events. Because interpretations differ, there is no single historical record, but various narrations of events each told from a different perspective. Therefore the study of history is intimately linked to the study of values, the values of the historical actors, the historians who have written about them, and of the students engaged in learning about them. The Worldrs"s Historylinkschronology,themes, andgeographyin eight units, or Parts, of study. The Parts move progressively along a time line from the emergence of early humans to the present day. Each Part emphasizes a single theme-for example, urbanization or religion or migration-and students learn to use them all to analyze historical events and to develop a grasp of the chronology of human development. The final chapter employs all the themes developed in the first seven Parts as tools for understanding the history of our own times. Geographically, each Part covers the entire globe, although specific topics place greater emphasis on specific regions.

Author Biography

Howard Spodek received his B.A. degree from Columbia University (1963), majoring in history and specializing in Columbia’s newly designed program in Asian Studies.  He received his M.A. (1966) and Ph.D. (1972) from the University of Chicago, majoring in history and specializing in India. His first trip to India was on a Fulbright Fellowship, 1964–66, and he has spent a total of some seven years studying and teaching in India. He has also traveled widely throughout the United States, Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. He has been a faculty member at Temple University since 1972, appointed Full Professor in 1984. He was awarded Temple’s Great
Teacher award in 1993.

Spodek’s work in world history began in 1988 when he became Academic Director of a comprehensive, innovative program working with teachers in the School District of Philadelphia to improve their knowledge base in world history and facilitate a rewriting of the world history program in the schools. Immediately following this program, he became principal investigator of a program that brought college professors and high school teachers together to reconsider, revise, and, in many cases, initiate the teaching of world history in several of the colleges and universities in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Those projects led directly to the writing of the first edition of the current text (1997).

Howard Spodek has published extensively on urbanization in India, including Urban-Rural Integration in Regional Development (1976); Urban Form and Meaning in South-East Asia (editor, with Doris Srinivasan, 1993); and a wide array of articles, including analyses of working women’s organizations. In addition he wrote and produced the documentary film, Ahmedabad (1983). He has written on his experiences with world history faculty at the college and high school levels in articles in The History Teacher (1992, 1995). He has received funding for his research, writing, teaching, and film from Fulbright, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, the American Institute of Indian Studies, and the Smithsonian Institution.

Table of Contents



Building an Interpretive Framework: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It?



The Dry Bones Speak

To 10,000 B.C.E.

Human Origins in Myth and History

Early Myths

The Evolutionary Explanation

    The New Challenges

Fossils and Fossil Hunters

The Puzzling Neanderthals

Homo erectus: A Worldwide Wanderer

The Search Shifts to Africa

    Homo habilis

    Australopithecus afarensis

The Debate over African Origins

Reading the Genetic Record

The Theory of Scientific Revolution

Humans Create Culture

How Did We Survive?

Global Migration

Increased Population and New Settlements

Changes in the Toolkit

Language and Communication

Cave Art and Portable Art

Agriculture: From Hunter-gatherer to Farmer

The Story of Prehistory:What Difference Does It Make?

TURNING POINT: The Agricultural Village



SETTLING DOWN 10,000 B.C.E.—1000 C.E.

The First Cities and Why They Matter: Digs, Texts, and Interpretations



From Village Community to City-state

Food First: The Agricultural Village

10,000 B.C.E.—750 B.C.E.

The Agricultural Village

The First Cities

Sumer : The Birth of the City

The Growth of the City-state

Religion: The Priesthood and the City

Occupational Specialization and Class Structure

    Arts and Invention

    Trade and Markets: Wheeled Cart and Sailboat

Monumental Architecture and Adornment


Achievements in Literature and Law

The First Cities:What Difference Do They Make?


River Valley Civilizations: The Nile and the Indus

7000 B.C.E.—750 B.C.E.

Egypt : The Gift of the Nile

Earliest Egypt: Before the Kings

The Written Record

Unification and the Rule of the Kings

The Gods, the Unification of Egypt, and the Afterlife

Cities of the Dead

The Growth of Cities

Monumental Architecture of the Old Kingdom: Pyramids and Fortresses

The Disintegration of the Old Kingdom

The Rise and Fall of the Middle Kingdom

Akhetaten, Capital City of King Akhenaten

The Indus Valley Civilization and its Mysteries

The Roots of the Indus Valley Civilization

The Design and Construction of Well-planned Cities

    Crafts and the Arts

    Carefully Planned Cities

    Questions of Interpretation

Legacies of the Harappan Civilization

The Cities of the Nile and Indus: What Difference Do They Make?



A Polycentric World

Cities and States in East Asia, the Americas, and West Africa

1700 B.C.E.—1000 C.E.

China : The Xia, Shang, and Zhou Dynasties

The Earliest Villages

The Beginnings of State Formation

    Early Evidence of Writing

    Historical Evidence of the Xia Dynasty

    Similarities Among the Three Dynasties

City and State under the Shang and Zhou

    Early Royal Capitals

    Anyang : The Last Shang Capital

    The Zhou Dynasty

The Western Hemisphere: Mesoamerica and South America

Origins: Migration and Agriculture

Mesoamerican Urbanization: The First Stages

    Olmec Civilization along the Gulf Coast

    Zapotec Civilization in the Oaxaca Valley

The Urban Explosion: Teotihuacán

Successor States in the Valley of Mexico

The Rise and Fall of the Maya

    The Great City of Tikal

    Maya Civilization in Decline

Urbanization in South America

Coastal Settlements and Networks

    The Moche

    The Chimu

Urbanization in the Andes Mountains

    The Chavin

    The Tiwanaku, Huari, and Nazca

    The Inca

Agricultural Towns in North America

West Africa: The Niger River Valley

West Africa Before Urbanization

Jenne-jeno: A New Urban Pattern?

State Formation?

The First Cities:What Difference Do They Make?

TURNING POINT: From City-state to Empire




What are Empires and Why are they Important?



Dawn of the Empires

Empire-building in North Africa,West Asia, and the Mediterranean

2000 B.C.E.—300 B.C.E.

The Meaning of Empire

The Earliest Empires

Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent

    Sargon of Akkad

    Waves of Invaders: The Babylonians and the Hittites

    The Assyrians

Egypt and International Conquest

The Art of Palace and Temple

The End of Empire

The Persian Empire

Persian Expansion

Imperial Policies

    Cyrus II

    Cambyses II

    Darius I

Symbols of Power

The Greek City-states

Early City-states of the Aegean

    The Minoans

    The Mycenaeans

The Greek Polis: Image and Reality

War with Persia

The Golden Age of Athenian Culture




The Limits of City-state Democracy

    From City-state to Small Empire

    The Peloponnesian War

The Empire of Alexander the Great

The Conquests of Philip

The Reign of Alexander the Great

The Legacies of Alexander

Empire-building: What Difference Does It Make?



Rome and the Barbarians: The Rise and Dismemberment of Empire

753 B.C.E.—1453 C.E. 162

From Hill Town to Republic, 753—133 B . C . E .

Patricians and Plebeians in the

Early Republic

    The Struggle of the Orders

The Senate of Rome

Roman Military Power

The Expansion of the Republic

The Punic Wars

    The “New Wisdom”

Further Expansion

    The Eastern Mediterranean

The Politics of Imperial Rule

Citizens of Rome

The Politics of Private Life

The Roman Family

Class Conflict: Urban Splendor and Squalor

Attempts at Reform

    “Bread and Circuses”

Slavery in Roman Life

The End of the Republic

Generals in Politics

The Dictatorship of Julius Caesar

The Roman Principate, 30 B . C . E .—330 C . E .

Family Life in the Age of Augustus

The Military under Augustus

The Roman Empire Expands

Economic and Trade Policies

    Supplying Rome

    Building Cities

    Engineering Triumphs

    Luxury Trades

The Golden Age of Greco-Roman Culture


Religion in Imperial Rome

    Mystery Religions

    Rome and the Jews

    Rome and the Early Christians

The Dismemberment of the Roman Empire

Invaders at the Gates

Decline and Dismemberment

    The Crisis of the Third Century

    The Fragmentation of Authority

Causes of the Decline and Fall

The Eastern Empire, 330—1453 C . E .

Resurgence under Justinian

Religious Struggles

A Millennium of Byzantine Strength

The Legacy of the Roman Empire: What Difference Does It Make?



Fracture and Unification: The Qin, Han, Sui, and Tang Dynasties

200 B.C.E.–900 C.E.

The Qin Dynasty

Military Power and Mobilization

Economic Power

Administrative Power

Competing Ideologies of Empire



    Daoism The Struggle Between Legalism and Confucianism

    The Mandate of Heaven

The Fall of the Qin Dynasty

The Han Dynasty

A Confucian Bureaucracy

Military Power and Diplomacy

Population and Migration

Economic Power

Fluctuations in Administrative Power

    An Interregnum

    A Weakened Han Dynasty

    Peasant Revolt and the Fall of the Han

Disintegration and Reunification

Ecology and Culture

Buddhism Reaches China

Reunification under the Sui and Tang Dynasties

    The Short-lived Sui Dynasty

    Arts and Technology under the Tang Dynasty

Imperial China

The West and Northwest

The South and Southwest




    Immigration and Cultural Influences

Legacies for the Future: What Difference Do They Make?




    Longevity and Persistence

    Policy and Powers of Assimilation

    Language Policy

    Ideology and Cultural Cohesion

    Influence on Neighbors


    Relations with Barbarians

    Religious Policies

    The Role of the Emperor

    Gender Relationships and the Family

    The Significance of Imperial Armies


    Public Works Projects

    The Concentration of Wealth

    Policies for and against Individual Mobility


    Peasant Flight



Indian Empires: Cultural Cohesion in a Divided Subcontinent

1500 B.C.E.—1100 C.E.

New Arrivals in South Asia

Chronicles of the Aryan Immigrants

    The Vedas

    The Mahabharataand the Ramayana

The Establishment of States

The Empires of India

The Maurya Empire

    Government under the Maurya Dynasty

    Asoka , India ’s Buddhist Emperor

    Successor States Divide the Empire

The Gupta Empire

    A Golden Age of Learning

    The Resurgence of Hinduism

Invasions End the Age of Empires

The Hunas and their Legacy

Regional Diversity and Power

Sea Trade and Cultural Influence: From Rome to Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia: “Greater India”

India , China, and Rome: Empires and Intermediate Institutions


International Relations

Invasion of the Hunas

Local Institutions and the State

Indian Empires:What Difference Do They Make?

TURNING POINT: Politics and Religion



Not by Bread Alone: Religion in World History



Hinduism and Buddhism

The Sacred Subcontinent: The Spread of Religion in India and Beyond

1500 B.C.E.—1200 C.E.

Examining Religious Beliefs


The Origins of Hinduism

Sacred Geography and Pilgrimage

The Central Beliefs of Hinduism

    The Rigveda


    The Brahmanasand Upanishads

    The Great Epics

    The Puranas

Temples and Shrines

Religion and Rule

Hinduism in Southeast Asia


The Origins of Buddhism

The Life of the Buddha

The Sangha

The Emergence of Mahayana Buddhism

The Decline of Buddhism in India


Buddhism in China

    Arrival in China: The Silk Route

    Relations with Daoism and Confucianism

    Buddhism under the Tang Dynasty

    Buddhism’s Decline in China

Buddhism in Japan


    Buddhism’s Arrival in Japan

    Buddhism’s Role in Unifying Japan

    Japanese Buddhism Develops New Forms

    Lasting Buddhist Elements in Japanese Society

Comparing Buddhism and Hinduism

Hinduism and Buddhism: What Difference Do They Make?



Judaism and Christianity: Peoples of the Bible: God’s Evolution in West Asia and Europe

1700 B.C.E.–1100 C.E.


The Sacred Scriptures

Essential Beliefs of Judaism in Early Scriptures

The Later Books of Jewish Scripture

    Rule by Judges and by Kings

    The Teachings of the Prophets: Morality and Hope

The Evolution of the Image of God

Patriarchy and Gender Relations

Defeat, Exile, and Redefinition

Minority–Majority Relations in the Diaspora


Christianity Emerges from Judaism

Jesus’ Life, Teachings, and Disciples

    Adapting Rituals to New Purposes

    Overturning the Old Order

    Jesus and the Jewish Establishment

    Miracles and Resurrection

The Growth of the Early Church

    Paul Organizes the Early Church

    The Christian Calendar

    Gender Relations

From Persecution to Triumph

    The Conversion of Constantine

    How had Christianity Succeeded?

Doctrine: Definition and Dispute

    Battles Over Dogma

Christianity in the Wake of Empire

The Conversion of the Barbarians

Decentralized Power and Monastic Life

The Church Divides into East and West

    The Split between Rome and Constantinople

    New Areas Adopt Orthodox Christianity

Christianity in Western Europe

    The Pope Allies with the Franks

    Charlemagne Revives the Idea of Empire

    The Attempt at Empire Fails

Judaism and Early Christianity: What Difference Do They Make?



Islam: Submission to Allah: Muslim Civilization Bridges the World

570 C.E.—1500 C.E.

The Origins of Islam

The Prophet: His Life and Teaching

The Five Pillars of Islam

Responses to Muhammad

    The Hijraand the Islamic Calendar

    Muhammad Extends his Authority

    Connections to Other Monotheistic Faiths

Successors to the Prophet

Civil War: Religious Conflict and the Sunni—Shi’a Division

The Umayyad Caliphs Build an Empire

The Third Civil War and the Abbasid Caliphs

The Weakening of the Caliphate

    The Emergence of Quasi-independent States

    Seljuk Turks and their Sultanate

    The Mongols and the Destruction of the Caliphate

Spiritual, Religious, and Cultural Flowering

Islam Reaches New Peoples


    Southeast Asia

    Sub-Saharan Africa

Law Provides an Institutional Foundation

Sufis Provide Religious Mysticism

    The Role of Mysticism

Intellectual Achievements



    Mathematics, Astronomy, and Medicine

The Extension of Technology

City Design and Architecture

Relations with Non-Muslims

Dhimmi Status

The Crusades

A Golden Age in Spain

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: What Difference Do They Make?

TURNING POINT: Religion and Trade





Trade, Traders, Disease, and Migration



Establishing World Trade Routes: The Geography and Philosophies of Early Economic Systems


World Trade: A Historical Analysis

Trade in the Americas Before 1500

The Inca Empire

Central America and Mexico

Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa

West Africa

East Africa

Asia ’s Complex Trade Patterns

The South Pacific

The South China Sea

The Indian Ocean

    Arab Traders

    Islam Spreads

China : A Magnet for Traders

International Trade

    The Voyages of Zheng He

Internal Trade

Central Asia : The Mongols and the Silk Routes

Intercontinental Trade Flourishes

Chinggis Khan

The End of the Mongol Empire

From Mongol to Ming: Dynastic Transition

World Trade Routes Before Columbus: What Difference Do They Make?



The Opening of the Atlantic and the Pacific: Economic Growth, Religion and Renaissance, Global Connections


Economic and Social Changes in Europe

Workers and the Landed Gentry

Textiles and Social Conflict

Business and the Church

Plague and Social Unrest

The Renaissance

The Roots of the Renaissance

    Christian Scholars



    New Artistic Styles

Developments in Technology

A New World

The Early Explorers, 800–1000

Down Africa’s Atlantic Coast

Crossing the Atlantic

Crossing the Pacific

Legacies to the Future:What Difference Do They Make?


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