The World's History Volume 2

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-12-23
  • Publisher: Pearson
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The past is not simply a list of events. Historical records are the means by which historians develop their interpretations of those events. Because interpretations differ, there is no single historical record, but various narrations of events each told from a different perspective. Therefore the study of history is intimately linked to the study of values, the values of the historical actors, the historians who have written about them, and of the students engaged in learning about them. The Worldrs"s Historylinkschronology,themes, andgeographyin eight units, or Parts, of study. The Parts move progressively along a time line from the emergence of early humans to the present day. Each Part emphasizes a single theme-for example, urbanization or religion or migration-and students learn to use them all to analyze historical events and to develop a grasp of the chronology of human development. The final chapter employs all the themes developed in the first seven Parts as tools for understanding the history of our own times. Geographically, each Part covers the entire globe, although specific topics place greater emphasis on specific regions.

Author Biography

Howard Spodek received his B.A. degree from Columbia University (1963), majoring in history and specializing in Columbia’s newly designed program in Asian Studies.  He received his M.A. (1966) and Ph.D. (1972) from the University of Chicago, majoring in history and specializing in India. His first trip to India was on a Fulbright Fellowship, 1964—66, and he has spent a total of some seven years studying and teaching in India. He has also traveled widely throughout the United States, Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. He has been a faculty member at Temple University since 1972, appointed Full Professor in 1984. He was awarded Temple’s Great
Teacher award in 1993.

Spodek’s work in world history began in 1988 when he became Academic Director of a comprehensive, innovative program working with teachers in the School District of Philadelphia to improve their knowledge base in world history and facilitate a rewriting of the world history program in the schools. Immediately following this program, he became principal investigator of a program that brought college professors and high school teachers together to reconsider, revise, and, in many cases, initiate the teaching of world history in several of the colleges and universities in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Those projects led directly to the writing of the first edition of the current text (1997).

Howard Spodek has published extensively on urbanization in India, including Urban-Rural Integration in Regional Development (1976); Urban Form and Meaning in South-East Asia (editor, with Doris Srinivasan, 1993); and a wide array of articles, including analyses of working women’s organizations. In addition he wrote and produced the documentary film, Ahmedabad (1983). He has written on his experiences with world history faculty at the college and high school levels in articles in The History Teacher (1992, 1995). He has received funding for his research, writing, teaching, and film from Fulbright, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, the American Institute of Indian Studies, and the Smithsonian Institution.

Table of Contents



Trade, Traders, Disease, and Migration



Establishing World Trade Routes: The Geography and Philosophies of Early Economic Systems


World Trade: A Historical Analysis

Trade in the Americas Before 1500

The Inca Empire

Central America and Mexico

Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa

West Africa

East Africa

Asia ’s Complex Trade Patterns

The South Pacific

The South China Sea

The Indian Ocean

    Arab Traders

    Islam Spreads

China : A Magnet for Traders

International Trade

    The Voyages of Zheng He

Internal Trade

Central Asia : The Mongols and the Silk Routes

Intercontinental Trade Flourishes

Chinggis Khan

The End of the Mongol Empire

From Mongol to Ming: Dynastic Transition

World Trade Routes Before Columbus: What Difference Do They Make?



The Opening of the Atlantic and the Pacific: Economic Growth, Religion and Renaissance, Global Connections


Economic and Social Changes in Europe

Workers and the Landed Gentry

Textiles and Social Conflict

Business and the Church

Plague and Social Unrest

The Renaissance

The Roots of the Renaissance

    Christian Scholars



    New Artistic Styles

Developments in Technology

A New World

The Early Explorers, 800—1000

Down Africa’s Atlantic Coast

Crossing the Atlantic

Crossing the Pacific

Legacies to the Future:What Difference Do They Make?



The Unification of World Trade: New Philosophies for New Trade Patterns


The Birth of Capitalism

The Empires of Spain and Portugal

Spain’s New World Conquests

    Why the Inca and Aztec Empires Fell

    Making the Conquests Pay

    Merchant Profits

    Warfare and Bankruptcy

Portugal’s Empire

    The Portuguese in Africa

    The Portuguese in Brazil

    The Portuguese in the Indian Ocean

The Spanish and the Portuguese Empires: An Evaluation

Trade and Religion in Western Europe

The Protestant Reformation

    The Counter-Reformation

Spanish Defeats

The Dutch Republic: Seaborne Merchant Enterprise

France: A Nation Consolidated

Britain: Establishing Commercial Supremacy

The Nation-state

Diverse Cultures, Diverse Trade Systems

Russia’s Empire under Peter the Great

Ottomans and Mughals

Ming and Qing Dynasties in China

Tokugawa Japan

Southeast Asia

The Influence of World Trade: What Difference Does It Make?



Migration: Demographic Changes in a New Global World


The “New Europes”

The Columbian Exchange

    The Devastation of the Amerindian Population

    Benefits of the Columbian Exchanges

North America

The Antipodes: Australia and New Zealand, 1600—1900

South Africa, 1652—1820

Russian Expansion

Slavery: Enforced Migration, 1500—1750

The Plantation Economy

The Slave Trade Reinterpreted

Asian Migrations, 1300—1750

The Ottoman Empire, 1300—1700

India: The Mughal Empire, 1526—1707

    Akbar, Emperor of India

Safavid Persia, 1400—1700

China: The Ming and Manchu Dynasties, 1368—1750

Global Population Growth and Movement

Cities and Demographics



Constantinople (Istanbul)


Migration and Demography:What Difference Do They Make?

TURNING POINT: Comparisons Across Time



SOCIAL CHANGE (1640—1914)

Western Revolutions and their Influence



Political Revolutions in Europe and the Americas: The Birth of Political Rights in the Age of Enlightenment


The Scientific Revolution

Advancements in Science

A Community of Scientists

    Nicholas Copernicus

    Johannes Kepler

    Galileo Galilei

    Isaac Newton

    William Harvey, Anthony van Leeuwenhoek, Carolus Linnaeus

Human Rights: Philosophical Rationales

Hobbes and Limits on Power

    The “State of Nature”

Locke and the Right of Revolution

Locke, Hobbes, and Property

Civil War and Revolution in England, 1642–51

Civil War, 1642–51

The Glorious Revolution, 1688

    The Bill of Rights

The Enlightenment

The Philosophes

    Charles de Secordat, baron de Montesquieu

    Denis Diderot’s Encyclopedia


“Enlightened Despotism”

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Adam Smith

Revolution in North America, 1776

The Constitution and the Bill of Rights, 1789

The First Anti-imperial Revolution

The “Other”

The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1812

From Protests to Revolution, 1789–91

    The Revolt of the Poor

International war, the “Second” Revolution, and the Terror, 1791–99

Napoleon in Power, 1799–1812

The Napoleonic Wars and the Spread of Revolution, 1799–1812

Haiti : Slave Revolution and the Overthrow of Colonialism, 1791–1804

The Slave Revolt

The Anti-imperial Revolt, 1804

Britain Abolishes the Slave Trade, 1807

Independence and Disillusionment in Latin America, 1810–30

Independence Movements

    Simón Bolívar



After Independence: Religious and Economic Issues

Political Revolutions:What Difference Do They Make?



The Industrial Revolution: A Global Process


The Industrial Revolution in Britain,1700—1860

A Revolution in Agriculture

A Revolution in Textile Manufacture

The Iron Industry

Industrialization–Stage Two, 1860—1914

The Steel and Chemical Industries

Electrical Inventions

New Products and New Producers

Worldwide Effects of the Second Stage

Industrial Society

Population Growth and the Industrial Revolution

Winners and Losers in the Industrial Revolution

Redefining Gender

Economic and Political Reform

Women’s Suffrage

Labor Movements and Socialism

Karl Marx and the Workers’ Revolution

Labor Organizations

    Austria and Germany


    The United States

Workers in the Nonindustrialized World

    Indentured Labor

New Patterns of Urban Life

The Nature of the City

Living in the City

Urban Planning

The Industrial Revolution: What Difference Does It Make?



Nationalism, Imperialism, and Resistance: Competition among Industrial Powers



Nationalism in the Ottoman Empire American Nationalism

The New Nations of Italy and Germany

The Rise of Zionism in Europe

Failed Nationalisms and Delayed Nationalisms

The Disappearance of Poland

Africa, West and East: The Rise and Fall of States

Egyptian Loss of Independence

The European Quest for Empire

The British in India

    The Company in Charge

    Indian Industry

    British Imperial Rule

The British in Burma, Malaya, and Singapore

Europeans in China, 1800–1914

    The Opium Wars

    The Taiping Rebellion

    The Boxer Rebellion

The French in Algeria and Southeast Asia

The Dutch in Indonesia

European Competition and Cooperation: Empire-building in Africa

The Competition for South Africa

Sierra Leone and Liberia: Havens for Former Slaves

Cooperation among Africans and Europeans

The Scramble for Africa

    The Berlin Conference

Europeans and Labor Relations in Africa

Gender Relationships in Colonization

Anticolonial Revolts

Japan : From Isolation to Equality

The End of the Shogunate

The Meiji Restoration

    Restructuring Government

    Restructuring the Economy

    Cultural and Educational Changes

    Gender Relations

    Equality in the Family of Nations

Nationalism and Imperialism:What Difference Do They Make?

TURNING POINT: The Olympics and International Politics



Contested Visions of a New International Order



Methods of Mass Production and Destruction: Technological Systems


Technology in the Twentieth Century

Transportation and Communication

Urban Life

Technology and Gender Relations

Scientific Research and Development

    Albert Einstein

The Downside of Progress

    Fritz Haber

International Role Reversals



Latin America

    The Mexican Revolution, 1910–20

The Ottoman Empire

World War I

War: A Stalemate from the Start

Postwar Expectations and Results

The Paris Peace Settlements

The League of Nations

    Colonies Disappointed

The Russian Revolution

The Build-up to Revolution

Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution

State Planning in Soviet Russia

Women in the Soviet Union

Postwar America

Worldwide Depression

Methods of Production and Destruction: What Difference Do They Make?



World War II: To Hell and Back


The Rise of Fascism

Fascism in Italy

Hitler Rises in Germany

Japan Between the Wars

Optimism Revives, Temporarily The Descent Toward War

The Steps to War

    The Spanish Civil War

    Japan Invades China

Hitler’s Early Conquests

World War II, 1939—45

The War in Europe

The War in the Pacific, 1937—42

Turning the Tide

The War in the Pacific, 1942—45

Assessing the War

War and Technology

The Mobilization of Women

The War’s Horrors

    The Holocaust

    The A-Bomb

The Tortured Image of Humanity

Out of the Rubble: The United Nations and Resettlement

The United Nations

Postwar Resettlement

Remembering the War

The Nuremberg Trials

Memorial Museums and Exhibitions

    The Terror House

    Memorials to Hiroshima

    Remembering the Holocaust

Two World Wars: What Difference Do They Make?


Cold War, New Nations, and Revolt Against Authority

Remaking the Post-World War II World:1945–1991

The Cold War: U.S. vs. USSR

The Cold War in Europe

The Tail Wags the Dog: Client States Draw the Superpowers to War

    The Korean War, 1950–53

The Cold War and U.S. Domestic Politics

    McCarthyism and the Red Scare

    The Military–Industrial Complex

The Soviet Union and the Cold War

    Alexander Solzhenitsyn: Reporting on the Gulag

    The USSR under Khrushchev

    The “kitchen debate”

    Confrontations in Cuba, 1961–62

    The Brezhnev Doctrine

The Mice that Roared: Debacles in Vietnam and Afghanistan

    The United States and the Vietnam War

    The USSR in Afghanistan

1968: Revolt Against Authority

The Cold War and the Emergence of New Nations

The Middle East Breaks Free

Asian Nations Declare Independence

African Struggles for Independence




    Mozambique , Angola, and Guinea-Bissau

The Emergence of the Third World

Third-World Countries Organize

Client States and Proxy Wars




The End of the Cold War: The Soviet Union


The Soviet Union’s Alternative Model

Gorbachev’s Reforms, 1985–91

    Yeltsin Crushes the Coup

Pursuing Peace through Negotiation

Toward a Unified Europe

Japan’s Recovery

The UN: Growth and New Missions

NGOs and Transnational Organizations

1968: Revolt against Authority

Legacies of the Cold War, Decolonization,

Economic and Social Development:What Difference Do They Make?



China and India: Into the Twenty-First Century

China and India: A Comparison

China ’s Revolutions

Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang

Mao Zedong and Peasant Revolt

Gender Issues in the Revolution

The Long March and the Communist Triumph

    The Yan’an Soviet

    Cooperation with the GMD

    The GMD Retreats to Taiwan

The People’s Republic of China

Revolutionary Policies

    “Let a Hundred Flowers Bloom”

    The Great Leap Forward

    The Cultural Revolution


Women in the People’s Republic of China

China’s International Relations

    The United States

    China ’s Neighbors


Postrevolutionary China

India ’s Struggle for Independence

First Steps Toward Self Rule

Mohandas Gandhi and Civil Disobedience

    Gandi Develops Satyagraha in South Africa

Gandhi and the Independence Movement

    Cultural Policies

    Congress Campaigns for Independence

    Gandhi’s Leadership

    Independence and Muslim Interests

Independence and Partition

Hindu—Muslim Separation/Partition

Unifying the Nation

Democracy and its Challenges

Indian Politics

    Indira Gandhi

Gender Issues

    Legal Changes

    Social Changes

    Economic Changes

Economic and Technological Development

    Revolutions in Agriculture

    Challenges of Population and Poverty

    Industrialization and its Consequences

International Relations

Comparing China and India:What Difference

Does It Make?

TURNING POINT: From Past to Present to Future




Understanding the Present in the Light of the Past

Chapter 23


On Evolution

The DNA Code and its Discoveries

    Cloning and Genetic Engineering

The Evolution of Diseases

Gender Relationships

    Gay Rights

On Settlements

The Growth of Cities

A Single Global System

Systems of Cities

Cities as Systems

    The Impact of Immigration

    The Rise of the Urban Slum

Global Research and Planning

On Politics and Empire

The Former Soviet Union

The United States Stands Alone


The Unification of Europe

China: An Emerging Superpower?


    The Environment


    The Road to Democracy

On Religion

Theocracy in Iran

Islamic Militants in Afghanistan

Islam, Secularism, and Christianity

Religious Strife in Yugoslavia

Hinduism and Islam in India

Buddhists in Tibet



    Roman Catholicism

    Evangelical Christianity

Religion in the United States

The Thematic Approach: What Difference

Does It Make?




On Trade

The Institutions of Globalization

    The Internet, the World Wide Web, and Containerization

Evaluating Globalization

Setting Goals for Globalization

Hazards in the Trade System

On Social Revolution


    The Palestinian–Israeli Conflict

    Commerce, Business, and National Borders

Gender Issues

Racial Equality

Apartheid in South Africa

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    India ’s Social Revolution: The Mandal Commission

    America Elects an African-American President


    United States



    Rural–Urban Migration Cultural Expression

On Technology


Ecological Technology

On Identity: What Difference Does It Make?

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