9780824754587

Wound Healing

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780824754587

  • ISBN10:

    0824754581

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-08-09
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

Univ. of Miami, FL. Offers a comprehensive summary of wound healing from basic scientific concepts to assessment and treatment strategies. Covers common factors that may complicate wound healing and repair. Includes recent developments pertaining to pediatric wounds and skin grafts. Includes abundant halftone images.

Table of Contents

Series Introduction iii
Alan R. Shalita
Preface v
Contributors xxi
Historical Aspects of Wound Healing
1(8)
William H. Eaglstein
Acute Wounds
1(4)
Ulcers
5(2)
Conclusion
7(2)
Fetal Wound Repair
9(8)
Amy Colwell
Michael T. Longaker
H. Peter Lorenz
Introduction
9(1)
Development
9(1)
Scarless Fetal Wound Repair Specificity
10(1)
Mechanisms of Scarless Repair
11(2)
Summary
13(4)
References
14(3)
Cellular and Molecular Regulation of Wound Healing
17(22)
Gloria A. Chin
Robert F. Diegelmann
Gregory S. Schultz
Introduction
17(1)
Phases of Acute Wound Healing
17(9)
Comparison of Acute and Chronic Wounds
26(4)
From Bench to Bedside
30(4)
Conclusion
34(5)
References
34(5)
Extracellular Matrix and Wound Healing
39(10)
Jie Li
Robert S. Kirsner
Introduction
39(1)
Collagen
40(2)
Laminin
42(2)
Basement Membrane in Wound Healing
44(1)
Fibronectin
44(1)
Vitronectin
44(1)
Matricellular Proteins
45(4)
References
46(3)
Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs)
49(10)
Ganary Dabiri
C. Michael DiPersio
Proteolytic Remodeling of the Extracellular Matrix During Cutaneous Wound Healing
49(1)
Structure and Function of MMPs
50(1)
Regulation of MMP Expression and Function
50(1)
Roles for Specific MMPs in Cutaneous Wound Healing
51(4)
Imbalances Between MMPs and TIMPs Contribute to Pathological Wound Healing
55(4)
References
56(3)
Comprehensive Wound Assessment and Treatment System
59(10)
William J. Ennis
Introduction
59(1)
CWATS
60(6)
Summary
66(3)
References
66(3)
Approach to Diagnosis of a Patient with a Lower Extremity Ulcer
69(14)
Peggy Lin
Tania J. Phillips
Introduction
69(1)
Basic Assessment of the Lower Extremity Ulcer
69(1)
Common Causes of Leg Ulcers
70(2)
Various Atypical Causes of Leg Ulcers
72(2)
Physical Exam and Ancillary Investigations as Tools to Aid Diagnosis
74(4)
Other Important Considerations
78(1)
Conclusion
79(4)
References
80(3)
Wound Microbiology and the Use of Antibacterial Agents
83(20)
Lucy K. Martin
Anna Drosou
Robert S. Kirsner
Introduction
83(1)
Biofilms and Planktonic Bacteria
84(1)
The Importance of Bacteria Within Wounds
85(1)
Microbiology of Wounds
85(1)
Sampling Techniques
86(2)
When to Culture a Wound
88(1)
Management of Bacteria in Wounds
88(1)
Antiseptics
89(1)
Iodine Compounds
90(2)
Silver Compounds
92(1)
Old and Emerging Anti-microbials
93(1)
Conclusion
94(9)
References
94(9)
Venous Ulcers: Pathophysiology and Epidemiology
103(8)
Allen Holloway
Introduction
103(1)
Definition
103(1)
Normal Venous Anatomy
104(1)
Normal Venous Physiology
104(1)
Pathophysiology of Venous Ulcers
105(2)
Epidemiology of Venous Ulcers
107(2)
Summary
109(2)
References
109(2)
Venous Leg Ulcer Clinical Presentation and Differential Diagnosis
111(12)
R. Gary Sibbald
R. N. Heather Orsted
Peter A. Noseworthy
Introduction
111(1)
Etiology
111(1)
Pathogenesis
112(2)
Clinical Presentation
114(3)
Differential Diagnosis
117(4)
Conclusion
121(2)
References
121(2)
Peripheral Vascular Disease
123(8)
Daniel G. Federman
Chris B. Ruser
Jeffrey D. Kravetz
Introduction
123(1)
Epidemiology
123(8)
References
128(3)
Ulceration Due to Arterial Occlusion
131(8)
Morris D. Kerstein
References
136(3)
Pressure Ulcers: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology
139(14)
Carlos A. Charles
Anna F. Falabella
Introduction
139(1)
Epidemiology
140(5)
Pathophysiology
145(1)
Risk Factors
146(1)
Complications
147(2)
Summary
149(4)
References
150(3)
Treatment and Prevention of Pressure Ulcers
153(18)
Lia van Rijswijk
Janice M. Beitz
Introduction
153(1)
The Elements of Prevention
153(1)
Risk Factors, Risk Assessment, and Prevention Strategies
154(4)
The Elements of Treatment
158(5)
Summary
163(8)
References
164(4)
Additional Readings
168(3)
Diabetic Foot and Ulceration: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology
171(12)
Andrew J. M. Boulton
David G. Armstrong
Introduction
171(1)
Epidemiology of the Diabetic Foot
172(2)
Economic Aspects of Diabetic Foot Problems
174(1)
Pathogenesis of Diabetic Foot Ulceration
174(4)
The Pathway to Ulceration
178(1)
Charcot Neuroarthropathy
179(4)
References
179(4)
Practical Local Treatment of the Diabetic Foot Wound
183(10)
David G. Armstrong
Lawrence A. Lavery
Andrew J. M. Boulton
Introduction
183(1)
Pathways to Ulceration: Current Concepts
183(1)
Offloading: Current Concepts
184(2)
Activity Monitoring
186(3)
Conclusion
189(4)
References
190(3)
Skin Changes and Wound Care After Radiation Injury
193(12)
Stefanie Schluender
Felicia A. Mendelsohn
Celia M. Divino
Introduction
193(1)
Radiation Therapy
194(1)
Effects of Radiation Therapy
194(3)
Treatment of Radiation-Induced Wounds
197(3)
Experimental Treatment Strategies
200(5)
References
202(3)
Factitial Ulcers
205(4)
Georgette Rodriguez
Epidemiology
205(1)
Clinical Features
205(1)
``Hollow History''
206(1)
Diagnosis
206(1)
Treatment
207(1)
Conclusion
208(1)
References
208(1)
Calciphylaxis
209(16)
Paolo Romanelli
Shasa Hu
Introduction
209(1)
Clinical Features
210(4)
Pathogenesis
214(3)
Clinical Course/Prognosis
217(1)
Management
218(2)
Wound Care
220(1)
Conclusion
220(5)
References
221(4)
Burn Wounds: Pathophysiology and Treatment
225(14)
Nicholas Namias
Types of Burn Wounds
225(4)
Pathophysiology
229(4)
Nonoperative and Preoperative Wound Management
233(1)
Operative Management
234(5)
References
237(2)
Pyoderma Gangrenosum
239(14)
Mark D. Hoffman
Introduction
239(1)
Epidemiology
239(1)
Cutaneous Lesions of Pyoderma Gangrenosum
240(2)
Extracutaneous Lesions of Pyoderma Gangrenosum
242(1)
Disease Associations
242(1)
Histopathology
243(1)
Etiology/Pathogenesis
243(2)
Diagnosis and Evaluation
245(1)
Management
246(2)
Prognosis
248(5)
References
248(5)
Cutaneous Vasculitis
253(18)
Lawrence E. Gibson
Introduction
253(1)
Classification
253(1)
Pathogenesis
254(1)
Illustrative Examples of CV
255(10)
Evaluation
265(2)
Summary and Conclusion
267(1)
References
267(4)
Vasculopathy
271(22)
Esperanza Welsh
Jennifer T. Trent
Francisco A. Kerdel
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
271(2)
Purpura Fulminans
273(1)
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
274(1)
Factor V Leiden Mutation
275(1)
Protein S Deficiency
276(1)
Protein C Deficiency
276(1)
Coumadin Necrosis
276(1)
Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
277(3)
Cryoglobulinemia I
280(3)
Cryofibrinogenemia
283(1)
Calciphylaxis
284(1)
Cholesterol Emboli Syndrome
285(1)
Atrophie Blanche
286(7)
References
287(6)
Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome
293(14)
Sarah L. Jensen
George T. Nahass
Introduction
293(1)
Definition
293(1)
Physiology
294(3)
Clinical Manifestations
297(2)
Prevalence
299(2)
Diagnosis
301(1)
Treatment
302(5)
References
303(4)
Lymphedema and Wounds
307(14)
John M. MacDonald
Introduction
307(1)
Anatomy of the Lymphatic System
307(1)
Physiology of the Lymphatic System
308(1)
Lymphedema vs. Edema
309(2)
Lymphedema Classification
311(1)
Diagnoses of Lymphedema
311(2)
Lymphedema Staging
313(1)
Non-Operative Lymphedema Therapy
313(3)
Operative Treatment of Lymphedema
316(1)
Lymphedema and Wound Healing
317(1)
Pathophysiology of Wound-Related Lymphedema
317(1)
Lymphedema Therapy and the Open Wound
318(3)
References
319(2)
Malignancy and Wounds
321(14)
Jennifer T. Trent
Robert S. Kirsner
Introduction
321(1)
Malignant Degeneration of Wounds
321(3)
Malignancies which Present as Chronic Wounds
324(1)
Ulcers that Develop Secondary to Treatment of a Malignancy
325(3)
Cutaneous Metastases Presenting as Ulcers
328(1)
Wounds with Etiologies Associated with Malignancies
329(1)
Diagnosis
330(5)
References
330(5)
Pathology of Skin Ulcers
335(16)
George W. Elgart
How Many Ulcers Are Present?
336(1)
What Is the Distribution of the Ulcers?
336(1)
How Long Have the Ulcers Been Evident?
336(1)
Do the Ulcers Arise De Nova, or Is There Some Initiating or Pre-existing Lesion which Ulcerates?
336(1)
What Are the Shape and Character of the Ulcers?
336(1)
How Have the Ulcers Responded to Conservative Therapy?
337(1)
What Is the Nature of the Patient's General Health? Are There Known Conditions which Might Yield Ulcers?
337(1)
Is the Patient Taking Medications? If So, for what Period of Time?
337(1)
Ulcers with Diagnostic Features
337(1)
Infectious Ulcers
337(5)
Ulcers Due to Vascular Abnormalities and Inflammatory Diseases
342(4)
Ulcers Due to Fibrotic Conditions
346(5)
References
350(1)
Immunosuppression and Wound Healing
351(10)
Tory P. Sullivan
Introduction
351(1)
Epidemiology
351(1)
The Acute Wound
352(1)
The Neutropenic Patient
352(1)
The HIV + Patient
353(1)
The Iatrogenically Immunosuppressed Patient
353(2)
The Chronic Wounds
355(1)
Wound Infection
356(1)
Conclusion
357(4)
References
357(4)
Wounds in Children
361(14)
Isabel C. Valencia
Lawrence A. Schachner
Introduction
361(1)
Aplasia Cutis Congenita
361(1)
Epidermolysis Bullosa
362(1)
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
363(1)
Ulcerated Hemangiomas
364(1)
Traumatic Wounds
365(2)
Extravasation Injuries
367(1)
Burns
368(1)
Leg Ulcers in Sickle Cell Disease
368(1)
Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars
369(1)
Tissue Expansion as a Surgical Alternative in Children
370(5)
References
371(4)
Ulcers of Infectious Etiology
375(8)
Ysabel M. Bello
Anna F. Falabella
Bacterial
375(4)
Fungal
379(1)
Protozoal
380(1)
Viral
381(1)
Conclusion
381(2)
References
381(2)
Genetic Diseases Associated with Ulceration of the Skin
383(14)
Sharam Samson Yashar
Lauren Grasso
David Fivenson
Introduction
383(1)
Acro-Osteolysis
383(3)
Aplasia Cutis Congenita
386(1)
Chediak--Higashi Syndrome
386(1)
Congenital Hemolytic Anemias
386(1)
Congenital Indifference to Pain Syndrome
387(1)
Congenital Localized Absence of Skin
387(1)
Cutis Marmorata Telangiectatica Congenita
387(1)
Epidermolysis Bullosa
388(1)
Familial Dysautonomia
388(1)
Flynn--Aird Syndrome
388(2)
Focal Dermal Hypoplasia
390(1)
Hailey--Hailey Disease
390(1)
Homocystinuria
390(1)
Ichthyosis
390(1)
Klinefelter Syndrome
390(1)
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis
391(1)
Lesch--Nyhan Syndrome
391(1)
Porphyria
391(1)
Werner Syndrome
391(2)
Xeroderma Pigmentosum
393(4)
References
393(4)
Wound Bed Preparation and Debridement
397(12)
Meggan R. Banta
Anna F. Falabella
Introduction
397(1)
History
397(1)
Debridement
398(5)
Bacterial Wound Colonization
403(2)
Edema and Wound Exudate Control
405(1)
Cellular Senescence
405(1)
Conclusion
405(4)
References
405(4)
Compression Therapy
409(14)
Harvey N. Mayrovitz
Nancy Sims
Compression Bandaging
409(6)
Pneumatic Compression
415(1)
Compression Garments
416(1)
Arterial and Microcirculatory Blood-Flow Considerations
416(2)
Assessing Outcomes
418(5)
References
418(5)
Pearls of Compression
423(16)
Dot Weir
Making the Diagnosis
423(1)
Options for Compression
424(7)
Choice of Compression Management---Consider the Patient
431(1)
Hypothetical Scenarios
431(1)
Who Should Compress?
432(1)
Assessing Efficacy
433(1)
Compressing the Infected Leg
433(1)
Patient Education
433(4)
Summary
437(2)
References
437(2)
Electrical Stimulation
439(42)
Luther C. Kloth
Introduction
439(1)
Electrical Stimulation Terminology and Types of Therapeutic Currents
440(4)
Research Review---The Evidence
444(26)
Wound Treatment Methods with HVPC: Precautions and Contraindications
470(3)
Summary
473(8)
References
474(7)
Lasers and Wound Healing
481(10)
James Spencer
Introduction
481(1)
Laser Principles
481(2)
Wound Healing
483(1)
Proposed Mechanisms of Action
484(1)
Laser Irradiation on the Cellular Mediators in the Healing Process
485(2)
Clinical Studies
487(1)
Conclusion
487(4)
References
488(3)
Growth Factor Therapy to Aid Wound Healing
491(12)
Martin C. Robson
Wyatt G. Payne
Rationale for the Use of Growth Factors to Manipulate Wound Healing Trajectories
491(1)
Topical Application of Growth Factors to Manipulate Healing of Chronic Wounds
492(5)
Attempts to Manipulate Healing of Acute Wounds with Growth Factors
497(2)
Explanation for Limited Success of Wound Manipulation by Growth Factors
499(1)
Conclusion
500(3)
References
500(3)
Vacuum-Assisted Closure of Wounds
503(14)
Michael J. Morykwas
Introduction
503(1)
Animal Studies
503(2)
Mechanisms of Action
505(2)
Chronic Wounds
507(1)
Subacute Wounds
508(2)
Acute Wounds
510(1)
Summary
511(6)
References
513(4)
Pressure Off-Loading Devices in the Treatment of Pressure Ulcers
517(8)
Cathy Thomas Hess
Introduction
517(1)
Managing Tissue Loads
518(1)
Types of Support Surfaces
519(1)
Description of Tissue Load Management
519(1)
Tissue Load Management Surfaces
519(4)
Conclusion
523(2)
References
524(1)
Pressure Off-Loading in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers
525(10)
George Tye Liu
John S. Steinberg
Study Showing Decrease in Pressure
529(6)
References
532(3)
Skin Grafting: Surgical Techniques
535(10)
Yuji Yamaguchi
Satoshi Itami
Kunihiko Yoshikawa
Introduction
535(1)
History
535(1)
Classification and Indications
536(1)
Mechanism of Take
537(1)
Procedures
538(7)
References
542(3)
Cultured Skin Substitutes
545(16)
Marketa Limova
Introduction
545(1)
Cultured Epidermal Grafts
546(4)
Dermal Skin Substitutes
550(2)
Full Thickness Skin Substitutes
552(2)
Future Directions
554(7)
References
554(7)
Oxygen and Wound Healing
561(12)
Noah A. Rosen
Harriet W. Hopf
Thomas K. Hunt
Introduction
561(1)
Wound Infection
562(2)
Collagen Synthesis
564(2)
Angiogenesis
566(1)
Epithelization
566(1)
Clinical Implications
567(2)
Summary
569(4)
References
569(4)
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
573(14)
Caroline E. Fife
Introduction
573(1)
How HBO2T Increases Tissue Oxygen Levels
573(4)
The Physiological Effects of Oxygen in Wound Healing
577(1)
An Evidence-Based Review of the Effects of HBO2T in Wound Healing
578(1)
Hyperbaric Treatment Protocols
578(1)
Patient Selection for Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
579(5)
Medicare Coverage Guidelines
584(3)
References
585(2)
The Art and Science of Wound Dressings in the Twenty-First Century
587(12)
Liza Ovington
A Brief History of Wound Dressings
587(2)
Wound Dressing Choices in the 21st Century
589(1)
Passive Dressing Categories
589(4)
Active Dressing Categories
593(1)
Reducing Proteases in the Wound Environment
593(2)
Reducing Bacteria and Bacterial Chemicals in the Wound Environment
595(1)
Active Antimicrobial Dressings
596(1)
Summary
597(2)
References
597(2)
Topical Treatment of Wound Infection
599(18)
Heather Orsted
R. Gary Sibbald
Case Study
599(1)
Introduction
599(1)
Wound Bioburden Assessment
600(3)
Bioburden Management
603(9)
Conclusion
612(5)
References
612(2)
Suggested Reading
614(3)
Systemic Therapies in Wound Healing
617(6)
Ysabel M. Bello
Anna F. Falabella
Introduction
617(1)
Pentoxifylline
617(1)
Cilostazol
618(1)
Stanozolol
618(1)
Oxandrolone
619(1)
Prednisone and Methylprednisolone
619(1)
Infliximab
619(1)
Antimicrobials
619(1)
Horse Chestnut Seed Extract
620(1)
Growth Factors
620(1)
Aspirin
620(1)
Estrogen
620(1)
Conclusion
621(2)
References
621(2)
Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars
623(14)
Adriana Villa
Varee Poochareon
Brian Berman
Definition
623(1)
Clinical and Diagnostic Background
623(1)
Pathogenesis
623(4)
Treatment
627(5)
Conclusions
632(5)
References
632(5)
Pain Management
637(10)
Diane L. Krasner
Introduction
637(1)
Chronic Wound Pain
638(1)
Classification of Chronic Wound Pain
638(2)
Resources
640(1)
Chronic Wound Pain Assessment
641(1)
Pain Tools and Scales
641(1)
Management Tactics at the Time of Dressing Change
642(1)
Device Application and Removal
643(1)
Other Strategies for Reducing Procedural Pain
643(1)
Strategies for Managing Nonprocedural Pain
643(1)
Special Considerations
644(1)
Conclusion
644(3)
References
644(3)
Nutrition and Wound Healing
647(14)
Robert H. Demling
Introduction
647(1)
Nutritional Assessment
648(1)
General Nutritional Support
649(1)
Specific Nutrient Needs
650(4)
Use of Anabolic Agents
654(7)
References
655(6)
Physical Agents in Wound Repair
661(10)
Joseph McCulloch
Introduction
661(1)
Electromagnetic Radiation
661(3)
Ultrasound
664(2)
Intermittent Pneumatic Compression
666(1)
Whirlpool
667(1)
Summary
668(3)
References
668(3)
Objective Assessment in Wound Healing
671(10)
Marco Romanelli
Antonio Magliaro
Introduction
671(1)
Wound Photography
672(1)
Ultrasonography
672(2)
Laser Doppler Systems
674(1)
Transcutaneous Oxymetry
675(1)
pH Measurement
675(1)
Confocal Microscopy
676(1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
677(1)
Conclusions
678(3)
References
678(3)
Tissue Adhesives: Advances in Wound Therapies
681(8)
S. C. Davis
A. L. Cazzaniga
Introduction
681(1)
Tissue Adhesives: Graft Take
682(1)
Tissue Adhesives: Liquid Dressings
683(2)
Conclusion
685(4)
References
686(3)
Cutaneous Wound Healing Models in Swine
689(16)
Anna Drosou
Patricia M. Mertz
Models of Normal Wound Healing
691(7)
Evaluation of the Wound Healing Process
698(4)
Summary
702(3)
References
702(3)
Human Models in Wound Healing Research
705(8)
Jonathan Kantor
David J. Margolis
Introduction
705(1)
Prognostic Models
705(4)
Surrogate Endpoints
709(4)
References
711(2)
Index 713

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