Writing Arguments A Rhetoric with Readings, Concise Edition, with NEW MyCompLab with eText -- Access Card Package

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-05-04
  • Publisher: Longman
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The market leader in argumentative rhetorics, Writing Argumentshas proven highly successful in teaching students to read arguments critically and to produce effective arguments of their own. With its student-friendly tone, clear explanations, high-interest readings and examples, and well-sequenced critical thinking and writing assignments, Writing Argumentsoffers a time-tested approach to argument that is interesting and accessible to students and eminently teachable for instructors.

Table of Contents



Part One    Overview of Argument    


Chapter 1        Argument: An Introduction    

What Do We Mean by Argument?    

        Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel    

        Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate    

        Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit   

Louis W. Sullivan, M.D., Let the Facts Decide, Not Fear    

The Defining Features of Argument    

        Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims    

        Argument Is Both a Process and a Product    

        Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion    

Argument and the Problem of Truth    


Chapter 2 Argument as Inquiry: Reading and Exploring

Finding Issues to Explore

        Do Some Initial Brainstorming

        Be Open to the Issues All Around You

        Explore Ideas by Freewriting

        Explore Ideas by Idea-Mapping

        Explore Ideas by Playing the Believing and Doubting Game

Placing Texts in a Rhetorical Context

        Genres of Argument

        Cultural Contexts: Who Writes Arguments and Why?

        Analyzing Rhetorical Context and Genre

Reading to Believe an Argument’s Claims

John Kavanaugh, Amnesty?

            Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe

            Practicing Believing: Willing Your Own Belief in the Writer’s Views

Reading to Doubt

Thinking Dialectically

            Questions to Stimulate Dialectic Thinking

Fred Reed, Why Blame Mexico?

            Three Ways to Foster Dialectic Thinking

Writing Assignment: An Argument Summary or Formal Exploratory Essay


Michael Banks, Should the United States Grant Legal Status to Undocumented Immigrant Workers?


Part Two    Writing Arguments


Chapter 3        The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons    

The Classical Structure of Argument  

Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle    

Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument    

        Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question    

        How to Identify an Issue Question  

        Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument    

        Pseudo-Arguments: Fanatical Believers and Fanatical Skeptics    

        Another Source of Pseudo-Arguments: Lack of Shared Assumptions    

Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons    

        What Is a Reason?    

        Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses    

Writing Assignment: An Issue Question and Working Thesis Statements    


Chapter 4        The Logical Structure of Arguments    

An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the “Logical Structure” of an Argument?    

        Formal Logic Versus Real World Logic   

        The Role of Assumptions  

        The Core of an Argument: The Enthymeme  

Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System    

Using Toulmin’s Schema to Determine a Strategy of Support    

The Power of Audience-Based Reasons    

Writing Assignment: Plan for the Details of an Argument     


Chapter 5           Using Evidence Effectively    

The Persuasive Use of Evidence    

        Apply the STAR Criteria to Evidence    

        Use Sources That Your Reader Trusts    

Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence    

        Kinds of Evidence    

        Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence    

Examining Visual Arguments: Angle of Vision  

        Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence    

        Special Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence    

Gathering Evidence    

        Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence    

        Gathering Data from Interviews    

        Gathering Data from Surveys or Questionnaires    

Writing Assignment:  A Microtheme or “Supporting Reasons” Argument    

Carmen Tieu (student),“Why Violent Video Games Are Good for Girls” 


Chapter 6        Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos    

Ethos and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview    

How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility    

How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Belief and Emotions    

        Use Concrete Language    

        Use Specific Examples and Illustrations    

        Use Narratives    

        Choose Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations    

        Use Images for Emotional Appeal    

Examining Visual Arguments: Appeals to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos  

Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments    

How Audience-Based Reasons Enhance Logos, Ethos, and Pathos  

Writing Assignment: Revising a Draft for Ethos, Pathos, and Audience-Based Reasons     


Chapter 7           Responding to Objections and Alternative Views    

One-Sided, Multisided, and Dialogic Arguments    

Determining Your Audience’s Resistance to Your Views    

Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument    

Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument    

        Summarizing Opposing Views    

        Refuting Opposing Views    

        Strategies for Rebutting Evidence    

        Conceding to Opposing Views

Example of a Classical Argument

    David Langley (student), ”Half-Criminals” or Urban Athletes: A Plea for Fair Treatment of Skateboarders

Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Dialogic Argument    

        Delayed-Thesis Argument as Both Exploration and Persuasion

Example of a Delay-Thesis Argument

Ross Douthat, “Islam in Two Americas”    

A More Open-Ended Approach: Rogerian Argument

        Rogerian Argument as Growth for the Writer

        Rogerian Argument as Collaborative Negotiation

        Example of a Rogerian Argument

Colleen Fontana (student), “An Open Letter to Robert Levy in Response to His Article ‘They Never Learn’”    

Writing Assignment: A Classical Argument or a Rogerian Argument    


Part 3  Analyzing Arguments  


Chapter 8 Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically  

Questions for Rhetorical Analysis  

An Illustration of Rhetorical Analysis   

Kathryn Jean Lopez, Egg Heads  

            A Rhetorical Analysis of “Egg Heads”  

Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis  

            Generating Ideas for Your Rhetorical Analysis  

            Organizing Your Rhetorical Analysis  


Ellen Goodman, Womb for Rent—for a Price  

Zachary Stumps (student), A Rhetorical Analysis of Ellen Goodman’s “Wombs for Rent—for a Price”   


Chapter 9        Analyzing Visual Arguments    

Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument    

        The Components of Visual Design    

        An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Type and Spatial Elements    

The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings    

        An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Images    

The Genres of Visual Argument    

        Posters and Fliers    

        Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements    


        Web Pages    

Constructing Your Own Visual Argument   

Using Information Graphics in Arguments    

        How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories    

        Using a Graph to Tell a Story    

        Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument    

Writing Assignment: A Visual Argument Rhetorical Analysis, a Poster Argument, or a Microtheme Using Quantitative Graphics    


Part 4 Arguments in Depth: Types of Claims 


Chapter 10        An Introduction to the Types of Claims    

An Overview of the Types of Claims    000

Using Claim Types to Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas: An Example    

        Making the Lasik Argument to Parents  

        Making the Lasik Argument to Insurance Companies 

Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments    

        Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments    

        An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument   

Aaron Friedman, “All That Noise for Nothing”    


Chapter 11        Definition and Resemblance Arguments  

An Overview of Definition or Resemblance Arguments

Consequences of Categorical Claims     

The Rule of Justice: Things in the Same Category Should Be Treated the Same Way   

Types of Definition Arguments   

            Simple Categorical Arguments

            Definition Arguments  

Examining Visual Arguments: A Definition Claim   

The Criteria–Match Structure of Definition Arguments   

            Developing the Criteria-Match Structure for a Definition Argument    

            Toulmin Framework for a Definition Argument   

Kinds of Definitions   

            Aristotelian Definitions   

            Operational Definitions   

Conducting the Criteria Part of a Definitional Argument   

            Approach 1: Research How Others Have Defined the Term   

            Approach 2: Create Your Own Extended Definition   

Conducting the Match Part of a Definitional Argument   

Types of  Resemblance Arguments

            Toulmin Framework for a Resemblance Argument   

            Arguments by Analogy  

            Arguments by Precedent 

Writing Assignment: A Definition Argument   

            Exploring Ideas   

            Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake   

            Organizing a Definition Argument   

            Questioning and Critiquing a Definition Argument   

*Arthur Knopf (Student), “Is Milk a Health Food?” 

Clay Bennett, “Just Emancipated” (editorial cartoon)   

Beth Reis, “Toon Offensive”   



Chapter 12      Causal Arguments  

An Overview of Causal Arguments    

        Kinds of Causal Arguments 

        Toulmin Framework for a Causal Argument    

Examining Visual Arguments: A Causal Claim   

Two Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another    

        First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly    

        Second Method: Infer Causal Links Using Inductive Reasoning    

Glossary of Terms Encountered in Causal Arguments    

Writing Assignment: A Causal Argument    

        Exploring Ideas    

        Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake   

        Organizing a Causal Argument    

        Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument    


Julee Christianson (student), “Why Lawrence Summers Was Wrong” (APA-Format Research Paper)    


Chapter 13      Evaluation and Ethical Arguments  

An Overview of Evaluation Arguments    

        Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations    

        Toulmin Framework for an Evaluation Argument  

Conducting a Categorical Evaluation Argument    

        Developing Your Criteria    

        Making Your Match Argument    

Examining Visual Arguments: An Evaluation Claim   

An Overview of Ethical Arguments    

Major Ethical Systems    

        Consequences as the Base of Ethics 

        Principles as the Base of Ethics    

Conducting an Ethical Argument    

        Constructing a Principles-Based Argument    

        Constructing a Consequences-Based Argument    

Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments    

Writing Assignment: An Evaluation or Ethical Argument    

        Exploring Ideas    

        Organizing an Evaluation Argument    

        Revising Your Draft    

        Questioning and Critiquing an Evaluation Argument    

        Critiquing an Ethical Argument    


*Christopher Moore (student), “Information Plus Satire”   

*Christian Longo, “Giving Life after Death Row”   


Chapter 14      Proposal Arguments   

An Overview of Proposal Arguments    

        The Structure of Proposal Arguments    

        Toulmin Framework for a Proposal Argument  

        Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments    

Developing a Proposal Argument    

        Convincing Your Readers That a Problem Exists    

        Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal    

The Justification: Convincing Your Readers That Your Proposal Should Be Enacted    

Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements    

Examining Visual Arguments: A Proposal Claim  

Using the Claim-Type Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument    

Using the “Stock Issues” Strategy to Develop a Proposal Argument    

Writing Assignment: A Proposal Argument     

        Exploring Ideas    

        Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake  

        Organizing a Proposal Argument    

        Designing a One-Page Advocacy Advertisement    

        Designing PowerPoint Slides or Other Visual Aids for a Speech   

Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument    


Juan Vazquez (student), “Why the United States Should Adopt Nuclear Power” (MLA-format research paper) 

*Sandy Wainscott (student), “Why MacDonalds Should Sell Meat and Veggie Pies” (speech with PowerPoint slides)   



Appendix One            Informal Fallacies   

Fallacies of Pathos   

Fallacies of Ethos   

Fallacies of Logos   


Appendix Two            A Concise Guide to Finding, Evaluating, and Documenting Sources   

Finding Print Articles: Searching a Licensed Database   

        What Is a Licensed Database?   

        Illustration of a Database Search   

Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web   

Evaluating Your Sources by Reading Rhetorically 

            Reading with Your Own Goals in Mind 

            Reading with Rhetorical Awareness 

            Taking Purposeful Notes 

            Evaluating Sources 

Using Sources   

        Using Sources for Your Own Purposes   

        Using Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation   

Avoiding Plagiarism   

Citing Sources in Your Text in MLA Style   

Documenting Sources in a “Works Cited” List (MLA)   

MLA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations   

Formatting an Academic Paper in MLA Style  

Student Example of an MLA-Style Research Paper   

Citing Sources in Your Text in APA Style   

Documenting Sources in a “References” List (APA)  

APA Quick Reference Guide for the Most Common Citations   

Student Example of an APA-Style Research Paper   





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