9781259693557

Writing Matters: A Handbook for Writing and Research (Comprehensive Edition with Exercises)

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781259693557

  • ISBN10:

    1259693554

  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2017-01-12
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

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Table of Contents

    Part One: Writing Matters 1

    Tutorial Documentation Matters   
    1    Writing Responsibly in the Information Age 2   
    a. Writing Today 2   
    b. The Writer’s Responsibilities 3

    2    Planning 9   
    a. Analyzing Your Writing Situation 9   
    b. Analyzing an Assignment 17   
    c. Generating Ideas 20   
    d. Narrowing or Broadening a Topic 25   
    e. Planning a Collaborative Project 26   
    Student Models Freewrite    21; Brainstorm 22;Journalists’ Questions 24

    3    Organizing and Drafting 29   
    a. Thesis 29   
    b. Organization 33   
    c. Preparing to Draft 38   
    d. Drafting 40   
    e. Collaborating 45   
    Student Models Informal (or Scratch) Outline    36; Topic Outline and Sentence Outline 36; First Draft 42

    4    Crafting and Connecting   
    Paragraphs 46   
    a. Relevance 47   
    b. Unity 47   
    c. Coherence 52   
    d. Development with Patterns 59   
    e. Introductions 63   
    f. Conclusions 65   
    g. Connecting Paragraphs 69   
    Professional Model    Speech 69

    5    Drafting and Revising Visuals 73   
    a. Illustrating College Projects 73   
    b. Visuals as Evidence 74   
    c. Copying vs. Creating Visuals 78   
    d. Revising Visuals 78

    6    Revising, Editing, Proofreading, and Formatting 82   
    Revising Globally   
    a. Gaining Perspective 82   
    b. Revising 83   
    c. Reconsidering Your Title 86   
    Revising Locally   
    d. Choosing Words 87   
    e. Editing Sentences 88   
    Revising with Others   
    f. Peer Revising 90   
    g. Working with a Tutor, Instructor 92   
    Proofreading and Formatting   
    h. Proofreading 93   
    i. Formatting an Academic Text 95   
    j. Portfolio 99   
    Student Models Final Draft    95; Personal Statement 101

    Part Two: Reasoning Matters 107

    7    Thinking and Reading Critically 108   
    a. Comprehending 108   
    b. Reflecting 114   
    c. Preparing to Write 119   
    Student Models Summary    111;Double-Entry Reading Journal 118; Claims and Evidence Analysis 121;Advertisement Critique 121;        Prewrite 123; Critical Response Essay 127        Professional Models Essay    112; Editorial 115

    8    Analyzing and Crafting Arguments 134   
    a. Persuading and Exploring 134   
    b. Claims 138   
    c. Rhetorical Evidence 142   
    d. Alternative Viewpoints 145   
    e. Assumptions, Common Ground 147   
    f. Classical, Rogerian, Toulmin Models 154   
    g. Logical Fallacies 156   
    Student Model Exploratory Argument    147

    Part Three: Media Matters 161

   
    9    Designing Documents 162   
    a. Design Principles 162   
    b. Planning 163   
    c. Applying the Principles 164   
   

    10    Writing for Multiple Media 171   
    a. Writing, Answering E-mail 172   
    b. Creating Websites, Web Pages 176   
    c. Writing in Interactive Media 181

    11    Presenting with Multiple Media 183   
    a. Purpose, Audience, Context, Genre 183   
    b. Topic and Thesis 184   
    c. Organization 185   
    d. Preparing and Rehearsing 186   
    e. Delivering the Presentation 189   
    f. Speaking Responsibly 189

    Part Four: Research Matters 191

   
    12    Planning a Research Project 192   
    a. Analyzing the Assignment 192   
    b. Setting a Schedule 194   
    c. Choosing, Narrowing a Topic 195   
    d. Research Questions, Hypotheses 195   
    e. Choosing Sources Strategically 197   
    f. Research Log 198   
    g. Working Bibliography 200   
   

    13    Finding Information 206   
    a. Reference Works 206   
    b. Information on the Web 210   
    c. Interactive Media 214   
    d. Articles in Journals, Periodicals 215   
    e. Books 220   
    f. Government Information 224   
    g. Multimedia Sources 225   
    h. Field Research 226

    14    Evaluating Information 230   
    a. Relevance and Reliability 230   
    b. Online Texts 236   
    c. Visual Sources 239

    15    Using Information Responsibly:Taking Notes and AvoidingPlagiarism 246   
    a. Valuing Research 248   
    b. Acknowledging 248   
    c. Notes to Avoid Plagiarizing 250   
    d. Notes That Help You Research 251   
    e. Paraphrasing, Not Patchwriting 252   
    f. Summarizing 256   
    g. Quoting 259   
    h. Analyzing, Interpreting, Synthesizing,and Critiquing 262   
    Student Models Summary    257; Reading Note 261;Summary Note with Writer’s Assessment 263

    16    Writing the Research Project 264   
    a. Thesis Statement 264   
    b. Organization 266   
    c. Drafting 270   
    d. Revising, Proofreading, Formatting,and Publishing 273   
    Student Models Thesis Statement    265;Outline 268

    17    Citing Expertly 274   
    a. Source Material 275   
    b. Source Boundaries 276   
    c. Your Voice 278   
    d. Context 280   
    e. Altered Quotations 284

    Part Five: Citation Tutorials Writing Responsibly 287

   
    Tutorial Documentation Matters   
   

    18    Documenting Sources: MLA Style 288   
    a. MLA In-Text Citations 288   
    b. MLA Works-Cited List 305   
    c. MLA Style Notes 331   
    d. MLA Format 332   
    Student Model Research Project: MLA Style 336

    Foldout Documenting Sources: APA Style19    Documenting Sources: APA Style 347   
    a. APA In-Text Citations 347   
    b. APA Reference List 358   
    c. APA Style Notes 376   
    d. APA Format 377   
    Student Model Research Project: APA Style    381

    20    Documenting Sources: Chicago Style 389   
    a. Chicago-Style Notes and Bibliography 390   
    b. Chicago Style Tables and Figures 407   
    c. Chicago-Style Research Project 407   
    Student Model Research Project: Chicago Style    408

    21    Documenting Sources: CSE Style 416   
    a. CSE In-Text Citations 416   
    b. CSE Reference List 418   
    c. CSE Format 428   
    Student Model Research Project: CSE-Style Reference List    429

    Part Six: Genre Matters 431

   
    22    Writing in Literature and the Other Humanities 432   
    a. Approach 432   
    b. Resources 435   
    c. Citing, Documenting Sources 437   
    d. Language 437   
    e. Writing about Fiction 440   
    f. Writing about Poetry 446   
    g. Writing about Drama 451   
    Student Models Textual Analysis            434; Writing about Fiction: Interpretive Analysis 442; Writing about Poetry: Explication 446       
        Professional Model Writing about Drama: Review of a Play        451   
   
   

    23    Writing in the Sciences and Social Sciences 455   
    a. Approach 455   
    b. Research Methods 456   
    c. Citing, Documenting Sources 457   
    d. Language 457   
    e. Writing Assignments 459   
    Student Model Research Report    461

    24    Preparing for and Takingan Essay Exam 469   
    a. Preparing for an Exam 469   
    b. Previewing the Exam 471   
    c. Writing an Effective Answer 472   
    Student Model Effective Essay Exam: Response    474

    25    Professional and Civic Writing 476   
    a. Business Letter Formats 476   
    b. Business Letters 479   
    c. Business Memos 481   
    d. Job Application Letters 482   
    e. Résumés 486   
    f. Reports and Proposals 490   
    g. Press Releases 492   
    Student Models Job Application    485; Traditional Résumé 487; Scannable Résumé 489;    Professional Models Business Letter: Apology     480; Business Memo 482; Press Release 49; Brochure 494

    Part Seven Style Matters 495

   
    26    Writing Concisely 496   
    a. Wordy Expressions 497   
    b. Unnecessary Repetition 499   
    c. Indirect Constructions 500   
    d. Consolidation 502   
    27 Using Coordination andSubordination 505   
    a. Coordinating Terms, Phrases, Clauses 506   
    b. Effective Coordination 507   
    c. Main Ideas, Supporting Information 510   
    d. Coordination and Subordination 515   
   

    28    Using Parallelism 518   
    a. Pairs and Series 520   
    b. Comparisons 522   
    c. Function 522   
    d. Lists and Outlines 523   
    e. Emphasis 525

    29    Variety and Emphasis 527   
    a. Varying Sentence Length 528   
    b. Varying Sentence Openings 529   
    c. Emphasis with Rhythm 531   
    d. Emphasis with Punctuation 533   
    e. Questions, Commands, Exclamations 534   
    f. Strategic Repetition 534   
    g. Emphatic Verbs 535   
    h. Active or Passive Voice 535   
   

    30    Appropriate Language 540   
    a. Language in Context 540   
    b. Biased or Hurtful Language 544   
    31 Effective Word Choice 548   
    a. Diction 548   
    b. Compelling Words and Figures 550   
    c. Idioms 554   
    d. Clichés 555   
    32 Dictionary and Spelling 558   
    a. Choosing a Dictionary 558   
    b. Using a Dictionary 560   
    c. Common Spelling Problems 562   
    d. Spelling Rules 564   
    e. Plurals 569   
    f. Improving Your Spelling 571

    Part Eight: Grammar Matters 573

   
    Tutorial Grammar Matters   
    33    Grammar 574   
    THE PARTS OF SPEECH   
    a. Nouns 575   
    b. Pronouns 577   
    c. Verbs 577   
    d. Adjectives 580   
    e. Adverbs 581   
    f. Prepositions 582   
    g. Conjunctions 583   
    h. Interjections 584   
   
    SENTENCE STRUCTURE   
    i. Subjects 585   
    j. Predicates 587   
    k. Verb Types, Sentence Patterns 588   
    l. Phrases 591   
    m. Clauses 594   
    n. Sentence Types 597   
    34 Sentence Fragments 600   
    a. Recognizing Fragments 600   
    b. Correcting Fragments 604   
    c. Intentional Fragments 609

   
    35 Comma Splices and Fused Sentences 611   
    a. Joining Independent Clauses 611   
    b. Identifying Comma Splices, Fused Sentences 612   
    c. Avoiding Spliced, Fused Sentences 613   
    d. Correcting Spliced, Fused Sentences 615   
   

    36 Agreement 620   
    SUBJECT -VERB AGREEMENT   
    a. Subjects and Verbs Agree 620   
    b. Intervening Words 622   
    c. Compound Subjects 623   
    d. Indefinite Pronouns 625   
    e. Collective Noun 625   
    f. Measurements, Numbers 626   
    g. Singular Nouns with –s 627   
    h. Titles, Words as Words, Gerund 627   
    i. Who, Which, or That 628   
    j. Subject after Verb 629   
    k. Linking Verbs 629   
    PRONO UN ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT   
    l. Indefinite and Generic Words 631   
    m. Collective Nouns 634   
    n. Compound Antecedents 634   
   

    37    Verbs 636   
    VERB FORMS   
    a. Basic Forms 636   
    b. Regular and Irregular Verbs 638   
    c. Complete Verbs 639   
    d. -s or -es, -d or -ed Endings 642   
    e. Rise/Raise, Sit/Set, Lie/Lay 643   
    TENSE   
    f. Verb Tenses 644   
    g. Uses of the Present Tense 647   
    h. Tense Sequence 648   
    MOOD   
    i. Verb Mood 650   
    j. Subjunctive Mood 650   
    VOICE   
    k. Verb Voice 652   
    l. Active vs. Passive 653   
   

    38 Pronoun Case, Reference 656   
    PRONOUN CASE   
    a. Subject Complements 658   
    b. Case in Compounds:She and I vs. Her and Me 658   
    c. Appositives 660   
    d. We and Us before Nouns 660   
    e. Infinitives 661   
    f. Case with -ing Words 661   
    g. Comparisons with Than or As 662   
    h. Who/Whom, Whoever/Whomever 663   
    PRONOUN REFERENCE   
    i. Ambiguous Reference 665   
    j. Broad Reference 665   
    k. Implied Reference 666   
    l. You for Direct Address 666   
    m. Indefinite They, It 666   
    n. Who, Whom vs. That, Which 667   
   

    39 Adjectives and Adverbs 669   
    a. Adjectives vs. Adverbs 669   
    b. Subject Complements 670   
    c. Bad vs. Badly, Good vs. Well 671   
    d. Double Negatives 673   
    e. Nouns as Adjectives 673   
    f. Comparatives and Superlatives 674   
   

    40 Confusing Shifts 678   
    a. Tense 678   
    b. Mood and Voice 679   
    c. Person and Number 681   
    d. Direct and Indirect Quotations 683   
   

    41 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 686   
    MISPLACED MODIFIERS   
    a. Confusing Placement 687   
    b. Disruptive Placement 689   
    DANGLING MODIFIERS   
    c. Identifying 692   
    d. Correcting 693   
    42 Mixed and IncompleteConstructions 695   
    MIXED CONSTRUCTIONS   
    a. Mixed Constructions 695   
    b. Subjects and Predicates 697   
    INCOMPLETE CONSTRUCTIONS   
    c. Essential Words 700   
    d. Comparisons 701

    Part Nine: Language Matters 703

   
    43    English Sentence Structure 704   
    a. Normal Word Order 704   
    b. Stated Subject 704   
    c. There and It Sentences 705   
    d. Redundant Pronouns 706   
    e. Objects 707   
    f. Questions 709   
    g. Inversions 710   
   

    44    Nouns 713   
    a. Noun Types 713   
    b. Articles, Other Determiners 714

    45    Verb Issues 722   
    a. Phrasal Verbs 722   
    b. Gerunds and Infinitives 725   
    c. Participles as Adjectives 727   
    d. Helping Verbs 728

    46    Adjectives and Adverbs 732   
    a. Adjective Order 732   
    b. Prepositions with Adjectives 733   
    c. Adverb Placement 734   
    d. Confusing Adverbs 736

    47    Prepositions 739   
    a. Recognizing Prepositions 739   
    b. Functions of Prepositions 740   
    c. Using Prepositions 744   
    d. Necessary, Unnecessary Prepositions 745

    Part Ten: Detail Matters 747   
   
   

    48    Commas 748   
    a. Compound Sentences 750   
    b. Introductory Elements 751   
    c. Conjunctive Adverbs, Transitional Phrases 753   
    d. Interjections, Contrasting Information, 753   
    e. Items in a Series 754   
    f. Coordinate Adjectives 755   
    g. Nonessential Elements 757   
    h. Quotations 759   
    i. Numbers, Names, Titles, Dates, etc. 760   
    j. Avoiding Ambiguity 762   
    k. Avoiding use Between Subjects/Verbs, Verbs/Objects 763

    49    Semicolons 766   
    a. Linking Independent Clauses 767   
    b. Conjunctive Adverbs, Transitional Phrases 768   
    c. Series with Commas 769   
    d. Comma Splices, Fused Sentences 769   
    e. Misuse 770

    50    Apostrophes 773   
    a. Possession 773   
    b. Contractions, Abbreviated Years 777   
    c. Avoiding Use with Plurals of Dates, Abbreviations, Numbers, etc. 777

    51    Quotation Marks 780   
    a. Direct Quotations 780   
    b. Titles of Short Works 783   
    c. Words Used in a Special Sense 784   
    d. Misuse 784   
    e. Punctuating Quotations 785   
    f. Altering Quotations: Ellipses, Square Brackets 786   
    g. Introducing, Identifying Quotations 787   
   

    52    End Punctuation 792   
    a. Periods 792   
    b. Question Marks 793   
    c. Exclamation Points 794

    53    Dashes, Parentheses, Colons, Ellipses, and Other Marks 796   
    a. Dashes 796   
    b. Parentheses 798   
    c. Brackets 800   
    d. Colons 800   
    e. Ellipses 803   
    f. Slashes 805

    54    Capitalizing 807   
    a. First Word of a Sentence 807   
    b. Proper Nouns, Proper Adjectives 809   
    c. Titles and Subtitles 810   
    d. Pronoun I and InterjectionO 811   
    e. Abbreviations and Acronyms 812

    55    Italics and Underlining 814   
    a. Titles of Longer Works 814   
    b. Emphasis 816   
    c. Names of Vehicles 816   
    d. Words, Letters, Numbers as Words 816   
    e. Non-English Words; Latin Genus, Species 817   
    f. Hyperlinks 817

    56    Abbreviations 820   
    a. Titles 822   
    b. Acronyms and Initialisms 822   
    c. Years, Hours, Numbers, Dollars 823   
    d. Misuse with Names, Words, States, etc. 823   
    e. Latin Abbreviations 824

    57    Numbers 826   
    a. When to Spell Out 827   
    b. With Dates, Times, Addresses, Money, etc. 827

    58    Using Hyphens 830   
    a. Compounds 830   
    b. Breaking Words 833

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