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Writing Research Papers A Complete Guide

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  • Edition: 14th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-06-20
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


This market-leading text provides#xA0;readers with step-by-step guidance through the research writing process, from selecting and narrowing a topic to formatting the finished document. Writing Research Papersbacks up its instruction with the most complete array of samples of any writing guide of this nature. The text continues its extremely thorough and accurate coverage of citation styles for a wide variety of disciplines. The#xA0;fourteenth edition maintains Lester's successful approach while bringing new writing and documentation updates to assist the student researcher in keeping pace with electronic sources. #xA0; Available in two formats#x13;perfect-bound and spiral-bound with tabs, a handier format at a slightly higher price)#x13;Lester's text is one that#xA0;readers will keep throughout their college careers.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1   Writing from Research

            1a Why Do Research?

            1b Learning The Conventions of Academic Writing

            1c Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism

            1d Understanding a Research Assignment

                        Understanding the Terminology

            1e Establishing a Schedule


Chapter 2   Finding a Topic

            2a Relating Your Personal Ideas to a Scholarly Problem

                        Connecting Personal Experience to Scholarly Topics

                        Speculating about Your Subject to Discover Ideas and to Focus on the Issues

2b Talking with Others to Find and Refine the Topic

            Personal Interviews

            Online Discussion Groups

2c   Using Online Searches to Refine Your Topic

            Using an Online Subject Directory

            Using an Internet Keyword Search

2d   Using the Library’s Electronic Databases to Find and Narrow a Subject

2e   Using the Library’s Electronic Book Catalog to Find a Topic

2f   Developing a Thesis Statement, Enthymeme, or Hypothesis

2g   Drafting a Research Proposal

            The Short Proposal

            The Long Proposal

Your Research Project


Chapter 3   Organizing Ideas and Setting Goals

3a Using a Basic Order to Chart the Course of Your Work

3b Using Your Research Proposal to Direct Your Notetaking

3c Listing Key Terms and Phrases to Set Directions for Notetaking

3d Writing a Rough Outline

3e Using Questions to Identify Issues

3f Setting Goals by Using Organizational Patterns

3g Using Approaches across the Curriculum to Chart Your Ideas

3h Using Your Thesis to Chart the Direction of Your Research

Your Research Project


Chapter 4 Gathering Sources Online

4a Beginning an Online Search

            CHECKLIST: Evaluating Internet Sources

4b Reading an Online Address

4c Using a Search Engine

            Subject Directory Search Engines

            Robot-Driven Search Engines

            Metasearch Engines

            Specialized Search Engines

            Educational Search Engines

            Educational Search Engines Maintained by Libraries

4d Searching for Articles in Journals and Magazines

            Online Journals

            Online Magazines

4e Searching for Articles in Newspapers and Media Sources

4f Searching for Photographs and Other Visual Sources

4g Accessing E-Books

4h Using Listserv, Usenet, and Chat Groups

4i Examining Library Holdings via Online Access

4j Finding an Internet Bibliography

4k Conducting Archival Research on the Internet

Your Research Project


Chapter 5   Gathering Data in the Library

5a   Launching the Search

5b   Developing a Working Bibliography

5c Finding Books on Your Topic

            Using Your Library’s Electronic Book Catalog

            Using the Library’s Printed Bibliographies

5d   Finding Articles in Magazines and Journals

            Searching the General Indexes to Periodicals

            Finding Indexes by Topic in Appendix B

            Using the H. W. Wilson Indexes

            Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature

Social Sciences Index

Humanities Index

Searching for an Index to Abstracts

            Searching for Abstracts of Dissertations

5e Searching for a Biography

5f Searching for Articles in the Newspaper Indexes

5g Searching the Indexes to Pamphlet Files

5h Searching for Government Documents

5i Searching for Essays within Books

5j Using the Microforms

Your Research Project


Chapter 6   Conducting Field Research

6a Investigating Local Sources

            Interviewing Knowledgeable People

            Writing Letters and Corresponding by E-mail

            Reading Personal Papers

            Attending Lectures and Public Addresses

6b Investigating Government Documents

6c Examining Audiovisual Materials, Television, and Radio

6d Conducting a Survey with a Questionnaire

6e Conducting Experiments, Tests, and Observation

Your Research Project


Chapter 7   Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism

7a Using Sources to Enhance your Credibility

7b Placing Your Work in Its Proper Context

7c Understanding Copyright

7d Avoiding Plagiarism

            Common Knowledge

            Correctly Borrowing from a Source

7e Sharing Credit in Collaborative Projects

7f Honoring and Crediting Sources in Online Classrooms

7g Seeking Permission to Publish Material on Your Web Site

Your Research Project


Chapter 8   Reading and Evaluating Sources

8a Finding Reliable Sources

8b Selecting a Mix of both Primary and Secondary Sources

8c Evaluating Sources

            Evaluating the Key Parts of an Article   

            Evaluating the Key Parts of a Book

            Evaluating the Key Parts of an Internet Article

8d Outlining a Source

8e Summarizing a Source

8f Preparing an Annotated Bibliography

8g Preparing a Review of the Literature on a Topic

Your Research Project


Chapter 9   Writing Effective Notes and Creating Outlines

            Gathering Printouts, Photocopies, Scanned Images, and Downloaded Data

            Writing Notes of High Quality

9a Creating Effective Notes

            Honoring the Conventions of Research Style

            Using a Computer for Notetaking

9b Writing Personal Notes

9c Writing Direct Quotation Notes

            Quoting Primary Sources

            Quoting Secondary Sources

9d Writing Paraphrased Notes

9e Writing Summary Notes

9f Writing Précis Notes

9g   Writing Notes from Field Research

9h Creating Outlines Using Academic Models

            A General All-Purpose Model

            Model for Advancing Your Ideas and Theories

            Model for the Analysis of Creative Works

            Model for Argument and Persuasion Papers

            Model for Analysis of History

            Model for a Comparative Study

9i   Writing a Formal Outline

            Using Standard Outline Symbols

            Writing a Formal Topic Outline

            Writing a Formal Sentence Outline

Your Research Project


Chapter 10   Drafting the Paper in an Academic Style

10a Focusing Your Argument

            Maintaining a Focus on Objective Facts and Subjective Ideas

10b Refining the Thesis Statement

Using Questions to Focus the Thesis

Adjust or Change Your Thesis during Research if Necessary

10c Writing an Academic Title

10d Drafting the Paper from Your Research Journal, Notes, and Computer Files

Writing from Your Notes

Writing with Unity and Coherence

Writing in the Proper Tense

Using the Language of the Discipline

Using Source Material to Enhance Your Writing

Writing in the Third Person

Writing with the Passive Voice in an Appropriate Manner

10e Placing Graphics Effectively in a Research Essay

10f Avoiding Sexist and Biased Language

Your Research Project


Chapter 11   Blending Reference Material into Your Writing by Using MLA Style

11a Blending Reference Citations into Your Text

Making a General Reference without a Page Number

Beginning with the Author and Ending with a Page Number

Putting the Page Number Immediately after the Name

Putting the Name and Page Number at the End of Borrowed Material

11b Citing a Source When No Author Is Listed

Citing the Title of a Magazine Article

Citing the Title of a Report

Citing the Name of a Publisher or a Corporate Body

11c Citing Nonprint Sources That Have No Page Number

11d Citing Internet Sources

Identify the Source with Name or Title

Identify the Nature of the Information and Its Credibility

Omitting Page and Paragraph Numbers to Internet Citations

11e Citing Indirect Sources

11f Citing Frequent Page References to the Same Work

11g Citing Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies

11h Adding Extra Information to In text Citations

One of Several Volumes

Two or More Works by the Same Writer

Several Authors in One Citation

Additional Information with the Page Number

11i Punctuating Citations Properly and With Consistency

Commas and Periods

Semicolons and Colons

Question Marks and Exclamation Marks

Single Quotation Marks

11j Indenting Long Quotations

11k Citing Poetry

Quoting Two Lines of Poetry or Less

Quoting Three Lines of Poetry or More

Indenting Turnovers for Long Lines of Poetry

Retaining Internal Quotations within a Block

Providing Translations

11l Handling Quotations from a Play

11m Altering Initial Capitals in Some Quoted Matter

11n Omitting Quoted Matter with Ellipsis Points

11o   Altering Quotations with Parentheses and Brackets

Your Research Project


Chapter 12   Writing the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion

12a Writing the Introduction of the Paper

Provide the Thesis Statement

Provide the Enthymeme

Provide a Hypothesis

Relate to the Well Known

Provide Background Information

Review the Literature

Review the History and Background of the Subject

Take Exception to Critical Views

Challenge an Assumption

Provide a Brief Summary

Define Key Terms

Supply Data, Statistics, and Special Evidence

12b Writing the Body of the Research Paper

Organize by Chronology

Compare or Contrast Issues, Critical Views, and Literary Characters

Develop Cause and Effect

Define Your Key Terminology

Explain a Process

Ask Questions and Provide Answers

Cite Evidence from the Source Materials

Use a Variety of Other Methods

12c Writing the Conclusion of the Research Paper

Restate the Thesis and Reach beyond It

Close With an Effective Quotation

Return the Focus of a Literary Study to the Author

Compare the Past to the Present

Offer a Directive or Solution

Discuss Test Results

Your Research Project


Chapter 13   Revising, Proofreading, and Formatting the Rough Draft

13a Conducting a Global Revision

Revising the Introduction

Revising the Body

Revising the Conclusion

Participating in Peer Review

13b Formatting the Paper to MLA Style

Title Page or Opening Page



The Text of the Paper

Content Endnotes Page


Works Cited

13c Editing Before Typing or Printing the Final Manuscript

Using the Computer to Edit Your Text

13d   Proofreading on the Screen and on the Printed Manuscript

Your Research Project

13e Sample Research Papers in MLA Style

Short Literary Research Paper

Sample Research Paper


Chapter 14   Works Cited: MLA Style

14a Formatting the Works Cited Page

14b   Bibliography Form – Internet Sources

14c   Bibliography Form – Citing CD ROM and Database Sources

14d Bibliography Form – Books

14e Bibliography Form – Periodicals

14f   Bibliography Form – Newspapers

14g   Bibliography Form – Government Documents

14h   Bibliography Form – Other Sources


Chapter 15   Writing in APA Style

15a Writing Theory, Reporting Test Results, or Reviewing Literature

Theoretical Article

Report of an Empirical Study

Review Article

15b Writing in the Proper Tense for an APA Research Paper

15c Using In text Citations in APA Style

15d Preparing the List of References






Nonprint Material

Internet Sources

Web Sites

Article from a Library Database


15e Formatting an APA Paper

Theoretical Article

Report of Empirical Research

Review Article

15f Writing the Abstract

15g Sample Paper in APA Style


Chapter 16   The Footnote System: CMS Style

16a Inserting a Superscript Numeral in Your Text 

16b Formatting and Writing the Footnotes 

16c Writing Footnotes for Electronic Sources

16d Writing Subsequent Footnote References

16e Writing Endnotes rather than Footnotes

16f Writing Content Footnotes or Content Endnotes

16g Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Humanities

16h Writing a Bibliography Page for a Paper That Uses Footnotes

16i Sample Research Paper in the CMS Style


Chapter 17   CSE Style for the Natural and Applied Sciences

17a Writing In-Text Citations Using the CSE Citation-Sequence System

17b Writing a Reference Page

17c Writing In-Text Citations with Name and Year

17d Using Name-Year with Bibliography Entries

17e Sample Paper Using the CSE Citation-Sequence System


  Chapter 18   Creating Electronic Research Projects

18a Beginning the Electronic Project

18b Building Electronic Presentations

18c Research Paper Web Pages and Sites

Creating a Single Web Page

Creating a Web site with Multiple Pages

Using an Editor to Create Web Pages

Importing, Entering, and Modifying Text

Citing Your Sources in a Web Research Paper

18d Planning Electronic Research Papers

Creating a Plan for Your Research Paper

Designing Your Electronic Research Paper

18e Using Graphics in Your Electronic Research Paper

Graphic File Formats

Creating Your Own Digital Graphics

18f Using Sound and Video in Your Electronic Research Paper

18g Delivering Your Electronic Research Paper to Readers

18h Preparing a Writing Portfolio

 18i Presenting Research in Alternative Formats

Your Research Project


Appendix A   Glossary: Rules and Techniques for Preparing the Manuscript in MLA Style

Appendix B   Finding Reference Works for Your General Topic





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