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Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood : A Cultural Approach

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131950719

ISBN10:
0131950711
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

A rich and timely introduction to the field of adolescent development, this book incorporates culture throughout the world as a key element in understanding development in adolescence and emerging adulthood (ages 18-25). It uses a timely interdisciplinary perspective to present key theories, research and application. Many first person accounts from adolescents across cultures as well as critical thinking questions make this an engaging and interesting introduction to the field of adolescent development. Chapter topics include: biological foundations, cognitive foundations, cultural beliefs, gender, the self, family relationships, friends and peers, dating, love, sexuality, school, work, media, and adolescence and emerging adulthood in the 21st century. For individuals in a variety of fields relating to adolescents.

Table of Contents

preface xiii
Introduction
2(30)
Adolescence in Western Cultures: A Brief History
5(6)
Adolescence in Ancient Times
5(1)
Adolescence From Early Christian Times Through the Middle Ages
5(1)
Adolescence From 1500 to 1890
6(1)
The Age of Adolescence, 1890-1920
6(5)
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
11(6)
The Transition to Adulthood
17(1)
The Transition to Adulthood, American Style
17(1)
The Transition to Adulthood: Other Perspectives
17(1)
The Scientific Study of Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
18(8)
Methods Used in Research
20(4)
Analysis and Interpretation
24(1)
Theories and Research
25(1)
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory
25(1)
Themes of the Book
26(3)
Cultural Contrasts
26(1)
Historical Contrasts
27(1)
Interdisciplinary Approach
27(1)
Gender Issues
28(1)
Globalization
28(1)
Framework of the Book
29(3)
Biological Foundations
32(32)
The Biological Revolution of Puberty
34(11)
The Endocrine System
34(2)
Physical Growth During Puberty
36(5)
Primary Sex Characteristics
41(1)
Secondary Sex Characteristics
42(1)
The Order of Pubertal Events
43(2)
Cultural, Social, and Psychological Responses to Puberty
45(14)
Culture and the Timing of Puberty
45(4)
Cultural Responses to Puberty: Puberty Rituals
49(3)
Social and Personal Responses to Puberty
52(5)
Early and Late Pubertal Timing
57(2)
Biological Development and the Environment: The Theory of Genotype-Environment Interactions
59(5)
Genotype-Environment Interactions Over Time
60(4)
Cognitive Foundations
64(38)
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
66(6)
Stages of Cognitive Development in Childhood and Adolescence
67(1)
Formal Operations in Adolescence
68(1)
Abstract Thinking
69(1)
Complex Thinking
69(1)
Metacognition: Thinking About Thinking
70(1)
Limitations of Piaget's Theory
71(1)
Cognitive Development in Emerging Adulthood: Postformal Thinking
72(4)
Pragmatism
72(1)
Reflective Judgment
73(3)
The Information-Processing Approach
76(5)
Attention
77(1)
Storing and Retrieving Information: Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
77(3)
Processing Information: Speed and Automaticity
80(1)
Limitations of the Information-Processing Approach
81(1)
Practical Cognition: Critical Thinking and Decision Making
81(3)
The Development of Critical Thinking
82(1)
Can Adolescents Make Competent Decisions?
82(2)
Social Cognition
84(4)
Perspective Taking
84(2)
Adolescent Egocentrism
86(2)
The Psychometric Approach: Intelligence Testing
88(7)
The Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Intelligence Tests
89(1)
Intelligence Tests and Adolescent Development
90(2)
The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)
92(1)
Other Conceptions of Intelligence: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
93(2)
Brain Development in Adolescence Culture and Cognitive Development
95(5)
Cultural Beliefs
100(2)
What are Cultural Beliefs?
102(30)
Cultural Beliefs and Socialization
104(1)
Cultural Values: Individualism and Collectivism
104(6)
Broad and Narrow Socialization
106(1)
Sources of Socialization
107(1)
An Example of Socialization for Cultural Beliefs
108(1)
Socialization for Cultural Beliefs in the West
109(1)
Cultural Beliefs and the Custom Complex
110(1)
Cultural Beliefs in Multicultural Societies
111(4)
When East Meets West: Chinese Adolescents in Australia and the United States
113(2)
Religious Beliefs
115(4)
Religious Beliefs and Cognitive Development
118(1)
Cultural Beliefs and Moral Development
119(7)
Piaget's Theory
120(1)
Kohlberg's Theory
120(1)
Critiques of Kohlberg
121(5)
Political Beliefs
126(6)
Political Ideas as Cultural Beliefs
128(1)
Political Socialization in Communist Countries
128(4)
Gender
132(30)
Adolescents and Gender in Traditional Cultures
134(6)
From Girl to Woman
134(1)
From Boy to Man
135(5)
Adolescents and Gender in American History
140(3)
From Girl to Woman
140(1)
From Boy to Man
141(2)
Socialization and Gender in the West
143(12)
The Gender Intensification Hypothesis
143(1)
Cultural Beliefs About Gender
143(1)
Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School
143(2)
Media and Gender
145(2)
Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems
147(1)
Cognition and Gender
147(2)
Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny
149(2)
Gender Roles in American Minority Groups
151(4)
Gender Stereotypes in Emerging Adulthood
155(2)
The Persistence of Beliefs About Gender Differences
156(1)
Gender and Globalization
157(5)
The Self
162(30)
Culture and the Self
164(1)
Self-Conceptions
165(2)
More Abstract
165(1)
More Complex
166(1)
Self-Esteem
167(5)
Self-Esteem From Preadolescence Through Adolescence
167(1)
Different Aspects of Self-Esteem
168(1)
Self-Esteem and Physical Appearance
169(2)
Causes and Effects of Self-Esteem
171(1)
Self-Esteem in Emerging Adulthood
172(1)
The Emotional Self
172(3)
Gender and the Emotional Self: Do Adolescent Girls Lose Their ``Voice''?
174(1)
Identity
175(10)
Erikson's Theory
175(4)
Research on Identity
179(2)
Gender and Identity
181(1)
Culture and Identity
182(1)
Ethnic Identity
183(2)
Identity and Globalization
185(3)
The Self, Alone
188(4)
Family Relationships
192(44)
The Adolescent in the Family System
194(7)
Parents' Development During Midlife
194(4)
Sibling Relationships
198(2)
Extended Family Relationships
200(1)
Parenting Styles
201(9)
An American Parenting Style?
202(1)
The Effects of Parenting Styles on Adolescents
203(1)
A More Complex Picture of Parenting Effects
204(2)
Parenting in Other Cultures
206(4)
Attachments to Parents
210(2)
Parent-Adolescent Conflict
212(4)
Sources of Conflict With Parents
214(1)
Culture and Conflict With Parents
215(1)
Emerging Adults' Relationships with Parents
216(3)
Historical Change and the Family
219(5)
Patterns Over Two Centuries
219(1)
The Past 50 Years
220(4)
Effects of Divorce, Remarriage, Single Parenthood, and Dual-Earner Families
224(5)
Divorce
224(3)
Remarriage
227(1)
Single Parenthood
228(1)
Dual-Earner Families
228(1)
Physical and Sexual Abuse in the Family
229(2)
Physical Abuse
229(1)
Sexual Abuse
230(1)
Leaving Early: Runaways and ``Street Children''
231(5)
Running Away From Home
231(1)
``Street Children'' Around the World
232(4)
Friends and Peers
236(36)
Peers and Friends
238(1)
Family and Friends
238(4)
Emotional States With Friends: Higher Highs, Lower Lows
240(1)
Family and Friends in Traditional Cultures
241(1)
Developmental Changes in Friendships
242(3)
Intimacy in Adolescent Friendships
242(2)
Intimacy and Adolescent Development
244(1)
Choosing Friends
245(1)
Friends' Influence and Peer Pressure
246(4)
Friends' Influence: Risk Behavior
248(1)
Friends' Influence: Support and Nurturance
249(1)
Friends and Leisure Activities in Emerging Adulthood
250(1)
Cliques and Crowds
251(7)
Sarcasm and Ridicule in Cliques
252(1)
Relational Aggression
253(1)
Developmental Changes in Crowds
253(3)
Changes in Clique and Crowd Composition During Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
256(2)
Popularity and Unpopularity
258(4)
The Importance of Social Skills
259(1)
Social Skills and Social Cognition
260(1)
The Continuity of Popularity and Unpopularity
260(1)
Interventions for Unpopularity
261(1)
Youth Culture
262(10)
A New Youth Subculture: Raves
266(1)
Technological Change and the Power of Youth Culture
267(5)
Dating, Love and Sexuality
272(42)
Dating
274(4)
Defining a ``Date''
274(1)
Developmental Patterns in Adolescent Dating
275(3)
Love
278(9)
Sternberg's Theory of Love
278(3)
Adolescent Passion in Non-Western Cultures
281(1)
Falling in Love
281(2)
When Love Goes Bad: Breaking Up
283(1)
Choosing a Marriage Partner
284(1)
Arranged Marriages
285(2)
Cohabitation
287(1)
Sexuality
287(27)
Rates of Adolescent Sexual Activity
287(4)
Cultural Beliefs and Adolescent Sexuality
291(3)
Gender and the Meanings of Sex
294(1)
Characteristics of Sexually Active Adolescents
295(1)
Sexual Harassment and Date Rape
296(2)
Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents
298(1)
Contraceptive Use and Nonuse
299(3)
Pregnancy, Abortion, and Parenthood in Adolescence
302(3)
Sexuality in Emerging Adulthood
305(1)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
306(3)
Sex Education
309(5)
School
314(38)
The Rise of Schooling for Adolescents
316(10)
Changes in Schooling for Adolescents
317(2)
Secondary Education Around the World
319(4)
International Comparisons
323(3)
What Works? The Characteristics of Effective Schools
326(4)
The Size Issue: Schools and Classes
326(1)
Junior High, Middle School, or Neither?
326(1)
Improving the School Experience of Adolescents
327(1)
School Climate
328(2)
Engagement and Achievement in High School: Beyond the Classroom
330(6)
Family Environments and School
332(1)
Peers, Friends, and School
333(1)
Work, Leisure, and School
334(1)
Cultural Beliefs and School
335(1)
Academic Achievement in High School: Individual Differences
336(8)
Ethnic Differences
336(2)
Gender Differences
338(1)
Extremes of Achievement
339(5)
Education in Emerging Adulthood: College and University
344(8)
Characteristics of College Students
345(1)
Educational Success in College
346(1)
Students' College Learning Experiences
347(5)
Work
352(32)
Adolescent Work in Traditional Cultures
354(4)
Hunting, Fishing, and Gathering
354(1)
Farming and Care of Domestic Animals
355(1)
Child Care and Household Work
355(1)
Globalization and Adolescent Work in Traditional Cultures
356(2)
The History of Adolescent Work in the West
358(2)
Adolescent Work Before 1900
358(1)
Adolescent Work in the 20th Century
359(1)
The Adolescent Workplace
360(3)
Work and Adolescent Development
363(4)
Work and Psychological Functioning
363(1)
Work and Problem Behavior
364(1)
The Case in Favor of Adolescent Work
365(2)
From School and Part-Time Work to a ``Real Job''
367(4)
The Post-High-School Transition to Work
367(1)
School-to-Work Programs in the United States
368(1)
Apprenticeships in Western Europe
369(2)
Occupational Choice
371(5)
The Development of Occupational Goals
371(3)
Influences on Occupational Goals
374(2)
Work in Emerging Adulthood
376(1)
Unemployment
377(2)
Volunteer Work---Community Service
379(5)
Community Service and Adolescent Development
379(1)
Community Service in Emerging Adulthood
380(4)
Media
384(32)
Media and Young People's Development
386(1)
Theories of Media Influence
387(1)
Five Uses
388(4)
Entertainment
388(1)
Identity Formation
389(1)
High Sensation
389(2)
Coping
391(1)
Youth Culture Identification
392(1)
Media and Adolescent Socialization
392(3)
Media and Other Sources of Socialization
393(2)
Controversial Media
395(12)
Television and Aggressiveness
395(2)
Computer Games and Aggressiveness
397(1)
Television and Movies and Sex
398(3)
Sex and Violence on Music Television
401(1)
Controversial Music: Rap and Heavy Metal
402(3)
Controversial Advertising: Joe Camel and Friends
405(2)
New Media
407(2)
The Internet
407(2)
Mobile Phones and Text Messaging
409(1)
Media and Globalization
409(7)
Problems
416(38)
Two Types of Problems
418(1)
Externalizing Problems
418(22)
Problem Behavior Theory
418(1)
Risky Automobile Driving
419(3)
Substance Use
422(4)
Delinquency and Crime
426(6)
Factors Involved in Risk Behavior
432(8)
Internalizing Problems
440(14)
Depression
440(6)
Eating Disorders
446(8)
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood in the 21st Century
454(12)
Sub-Saharan Africa
456(1)
North Africa and the Middle East
457(1)
India
458(1)
Asia
459(1)
Latin America
460(1)
The West
461(2)
Common Issues
463(3)
The Future of Globalization
463(1)
Equality of Wealth and Opportunity
463(1)
The Urban-Rural Split
464(2)
Glossary 466(14)
References 480(50)
Credits 530(3)
Name Index 533(15)
Subject Index 548


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