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Alexander's Care of the Patient in Surgery,9780323001342
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Alexander's Care of the Patient in Surgery

by ;
Edition:
11th
ISBN13:

9780323001342

ISBN10:
0323001343
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
12/1/1998
Publisher(s):
Elsevier Science Health Science div

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Summary

ALEXANDER'S CARE OF THE PATIENT IN SURGERY, considered the standard in perioperative care for over 50 years, is a comprehensive reference for students and practitioners alike. Unit I covers basic principles and patient care requisites. Unit II details step-by-step procedures for over 400 general and specialty surgical interventions. The unique needs of ambulatory, pediatric, geriatric, and trauma surgery patients are discussed in Unit III. New features include highlighted patient education and discharge planning, sample critical pathways, expanded coverage of endoscopic/minimally invasive procedures, and internet resources. A new chapter, Surgical Modalities, addresses today's technologically advanced perioperative environment. * Offers completely updated chapters to furnish students and practitioners with the latest advancements in perioperative care: * The updated Chapter 7, Anesthesia, covers new agents, local anesthesia, and conscious sedation/analgesia used in minimally invasive procedures. * The completely revised and updated Chapter 4, Infection Prevention and Control, addresses emerging and antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and the newest sterilization and disinfection techniques to combat them. * Uses the six-step nursing process and Sample Care Plans to link interventions to clearly identified outcomes to ensure quality patient care. * Highlights technological advancements in the perioperative field with research boxes in each chapter.

Table of Contents

UNIT ONE FOUNDATIONS FOR PRACTICE 3(310)
ONE Concepts Basic to Perioperative Nursing
3(18)
Overview of Perioperative Nursing Practice
4(2)
Standards of Clinical Nursing Practice
6(10)
Nursing Process
6(7)
Perioperative Nursing Practice Standards
13(1)
Standards of Professional Performance
13(1)
Institutional Standards of Care
14(2)
Performance Assessment and Improvement
16(1)
Perioperative Nursing Roles of the Future
16(2)
Registered Nurse First Assistant
17(1)
Nursing Informatics Specialist
17(1)
Case Manager
18(1)
Advanced Practice
18(1)
Conclusion
18(3)
TWO Patient and Environmental Safety
21(28)
Safe Environment
22(1)
Safety Design Features
22(1)
Physical Plant Design Elements
22(1)
Traffic Flow
23(1)
Ventilation
23(1)
Emergency Signals
23(1)
Staff and Patient Safety
23(14)
Staff Safety
24(1)
Staff and Patient Safety: Environmental Issues
24(5)
Patient Safety
29(8)
Perioperative Patient Care Activities
37(12)
Maintaining Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
37(3)
Estimating Blood Loss
40(1)
Handling Blood and Blood Products
40(1)
Maintaining Normothermia in the Surgical Patient
41(1)
Care and Handling of Specimens
42(1)
Sponge, Sharp, and Instrument Counts
43(2)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
45(4)
THREE Surgical Modalities
49(48)
Endoscopy
49(15)
Evolution of Endoscopy
49(1)
Endoscopes
50(1)
Light Sources and Fiberoptic Cables
51(3)
Endoscopic Instrumentation
54(9)
Complications and Anesthetic Considerations
63(1)
Video Technology
64(10)
Evolution of Video Technology
64(1)
Visualization Systems
65(6)
Robotics
71(1)
Videoconferencing
72(2)
Insufflation
74(1)
Energies Used During Surgery
75(22)
Laser
75(15)
Electrosurgery
90(3)
Ultrasonic Device Surgery
93(1)
Hydrodissection and Irrigation
94(1)
Cryosurgery
95(2)
FOUR Infection Control
97(56)
Causes of Infection
98(7)
Asepsis
98(1)
Microorganisms that Cause Infection
98(4)
Drug-Resistant Bacteria: Emerging and Resurging Organisms
102(3)
Controlling Infection in the Perioperative Arena
105(23)
Universal, Standard, and Transmission-Based Precautions
105(4)
Engineering Practices to Control Infection
109(1)
Work Practices to Control Infection
110(18)
Aseptic Practices to Control Infection
128(22)
Surgical Aseptic Principles
128(2)
Traffic Control
130(1)
Surgical Attire
131(2)
Surgical Hand Scrub
133(4)
Gowning
137(3)
Gloving
140(3)
Patient Skin Disinfection and Preparation
143(2)
Creating the Sterile Field with Surgical Draping
145(4)
Operating Room Environmental Cleaning
149(1)
Summary
150(3)
FIVE Positioning the Patient for Surgery
153(20)
Surgical Anatomy
153(5)
Integumentary System
153(3)
Musculoskeletal System
156(1)
Nervous System
156(2)
Vascular System
158(1)
Respiratory System
158(1)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations
158(3)
Assessment
159(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
159(1)
Outcome Identification
159(1)
Planning
159(1)
Implementation
159(2)
Evaluation
161(1)
Operating Room Beds
161(2)
Standard Surgical Positions
163(9)
Supine
163(3)
Lithotomy
166(2)
Semi-Fowler's Position
168(1)
Fowler's Position
168(1)
Prone
169(1)
Lateral
170(2)
Summary
172(1)
SIX Sutures, Needles, and Instruments
173(30)
History and Evolution of Surgical Sutures (2000 B.C. to Present)
173(1)
Suture Materials
174(5)
Characteristics of Suture Materials
174(1)
Types of Suture Material
175(4)
Packaging, Storage, and Selection of Sutures
179(1)
Types of Packaging
179(1)
Selection of Suture
180(1)
Hemostasis
180(1)
Methods of Ligating Vessels
180(1)
Ligating Clips
181(1)
Skin Staples
181(1)
Skin Tapes
181(1)
Surgical Needles
181(2)
Eye
182(1)
Body
182(1)
Point
182(1)
Suturing Methods
183(4)
Closure of Wounds
183(4)
Endoscopic Suturing
187(1)
Holding a Drain in Place
187(1)
Knot-Tying Technique
187(1)
Endoscopic Knot Tying
187(1)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations
187(2)
General Considerations
187(1)
Opening Primary Packets
187(1)
Handling Suture Materials
187(1)
Threading Surgical Needles
188(1)
Counting Needles
188(1)
Sharps No-touch Technique
189(1)
Instruments
189(14)
Historical Perspective
189(1)
Composition of Surgical Instruments
190(1)
Instrument Categories
190(6)
Endoscopic Instrumentation
196(2)
Stapling Instruments
198(1)
Selecting and Preparing Instruments for Patient Use
199(1)
Basic Table Setups
200(1)
Care and Handling of Instruments
200(1)
Instrument Counts
201(1)
Storing Instruments
202(1)
SEVEN Anesthesia
203(36)
History of Anesthesia
203(1)
Anesthesia Providers
204(1)
Patient Safety
205(1)
Awareness During Anesthesia
205(1)
Preoperative Preparation
206(3)
Patient Evaluation
206(1)
Choice of Anesthesia
207(1)
Premedications
208(1)
Types of Anesthesia Care
208(1)
Perioperative Monitoring
209(3)
Pulse Oximetry
211(1)
Capnograpny
211(1)
General Anesthesia
212(14)
Mechanism of Action
212(1)
Levels of General Anesthesia
212(1)
Phases of General Anesthesia
213(4)
Types of General Anesthesia
217(1)
Muscle Relaxants
217(1)
Typical Sequence of General Anesthesia
218(5)
Anesthesia Machines
223(3)
Regional Anesthesia
226(4)
Spinal Anesthesia
227(1)
Epidural and Caudal Anesthesia
228(2)
Peripheral Nerve Blocks
230(1)
Intravenous Regional Anesthesia
230(1)
Monitored Anesthesia Care
230(1)
Conscious Sedation/Analgesia
230(1)
Local Anesthesia
231(2)
Pain Management
233(1)
Temperature Control
233(1)
Malignant Hyperthermia
233(1)
Safety of Healthcare Workers
234(1)
Cost Containment in Anesthesia
235(1)
Operating Room Pollution
235(2)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations Related to Anesthesia
237(2)
EIGHT Postoperative Pain Care and Complications
239(24)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations
239(16)
Assessment
239(2)
Nursing Diagnosis
241(5)
Outcome Identification
246(1)
Planning
246(1)
Implementation
246(8)
Evaluation
254(1)
Discharge from the PACU
255(2)
Admission to the Surgical or Short Procedure Unit
257(1)
Postoperative Nursing Considerations
257(6)
Assessment
257(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
258(1)
Outcome Identification
258(1)
Planning
258(1)
Implementation
258(2)
Evaluation
260(1)
Family and Patient Education and Discharge Planning
260(3)
NINE Wound Healing, Dressings, and Drains
263(12)
Etiology of Wounds
263(1)
Types of Wound Closure
263(2)
Primary Intention
263(1)
Secondary Intention (Granulation)
264(1)
Delayed Primary Closure, or Tertiary Intention
264(1)
Phases of Healing
265(1)
Inflammatory Phase
265(1)
Fibroplastic Phase
265(1)
Remodeling Phase
266(1)
Factors Affecting Wound Healing
266(1)
Wound Classification
266(2)
Clean Wounds
267(1)
Clean Contaminated Wounds
267(1)
Contaminated Wounds
267(1)
Dirty or Infected Wounds
267(1)
Nursing Diagnoses
268(1)
Dressings
268(4)
Drains
272(1)
Summary
273(2)
TEN Patient Education and Discharge Planning
275(38)
Importance of Patient Education
275(5)
Historical Development
275(5)
Trends in Patient Education
280(1)
Assessment
280(9)
Assessment of Individual Patient Education Needs
280(1)
Assessment of Individual Readiness to Learn
281(6)
Discharge Planning
287(2)
Planning
289(5)
Models for Planning Patient Education
289(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
290(2)
Outcome Identification
292(1)
Care Plans Specific to Each Diagnosis
292(2)
Implementation
294(12)
Nursing Activities: Case Studies
294(4)
Selecting Content in Preoperative and Postoperative Teaching
298(1)
Facilitating Learning
298(7)
Documentation
305(1)
Evaluation
306(1)
Summary
307(6)
UNIT TWO SURGICAL INTERVENTIONS 313(876)
ELEVEN Gastrointestinal Surgery
313(58)
Abdominal Incisions
313(5)
Vertical Midline Incision
313(1)
Oblique Incisions
314(1)
Transverse Incisions
315(3)
Surgical Anatomy
318(5)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations
323(48)
Assessment
323(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
324(2)
Outcome Identification
326(1)
Planning
327(1)
Implementation
327(4)
Evaluation
331(1)
Patient and Family Education and Discharge Planning
332(1)
Surgical Interventions
333(1)
Endoscopic Procedures
333(2)
Surgery of the Esophagus
335(4)
Esophageal Dilatation
339(1)
Surgery of the Stomach
339(10)
Surgery of the Small Bowel
349(3)
Surgery of the Colon
352(16)
Surgery of the Rectum
368(3)
TWELVE Surgery of the Liver, Biliary Tract, Pancreas, and Spleen
371(46)
Surgical Anatomy
371(4)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations
375(7)
Assessment
375(2)
Nursing Diagnosis
377(1)
Outcome Identification
377(1)
Planning
377(1)
Implementation
377(4)
Evaluation
381(1)
Patient and Family Education and Discharge Planning
381(1)
Surgical Interventions
382(35)
Surgery of the Biliary Tract
382(11)
Surgery of the Pancreas
393(7)
Surgery of the Liver
400(15)
Surgery of the Spleen
415(2)
THIRTEEN Repair of Hernias
417(22)
Surgical Anatomy
417(5)
Inguinal Hernias
418(1)
Femoral Hernias
419(1)
Abdominal Hernias
419(2)
Direct and Indirect Inguinal Hernias
421(1)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations
422(2)
Assessment
422(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
422(1)
Outcome Identification
422(1)
Planning
422(1)
Implementation
422(1)
Evaluation
423(1)
Patient and Family Education and Discharge Planning
424(1)
Surgical Interventions
424(15)
Surgery for Repair of Groin Hernias
424(9)
Surgery for Repair of Hernias of the Anterior Abdominal Wall
433(6)
FOURTEEN Gynecologic Surgery and Cesarean Birth
439(62)
Surgical Anatomy
439(5)
Bony Pelvis
439(3)
Pelvic Cavity
442(1)
Female External Genital Organs (Vulva)
443(1)
Vascular, Nerve, and Lymphatic Supply of the Reproductive System
444(1)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations
444(7)
Assessment
444(2)
Nursing Diagnosis
446(1)
Outcome Identification
446(1)
Planning
446(1)
Implementation
446(3)
Evaluation
449(2)
Patient and Family Education and Discharge Planning
451(1)
Lasers in Gynecologic Surgery
451(1)
Surgical Interventions
451(50)
Vulvar Surgery
451(3)
Vaginal Surgery
454(19)
Abdominal Gynecologic Surgery
473(16)
Surgery for Conditions that Affect Fertility
489(12)
FIFTEEN Genitourinary Surgery
501(98)
Surgical Anatomy
501(6)
Kidneys
501(1)
Adrenal Glands
502(1)
Ureters
502(2)
Urinary Bladder
504(2)
Urethra
506(1)
Prostate Gland
506(1)
Male Reproductive Organs
507(1)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations
507(92)
Assessment
507(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
508(1)
Outcome Identification
509(1)
Planning
509(1)
Implementation
509(7)
Evaluation
516(1)
Patient and Family Education and Discharge Planning
517(1)
Surgical Interventions
518(1)
Diagnostic and Endoscopic Procedures
518(7)
Surgery of the Penis and the Urethra
525(11)
Surgery of the Scrotum and Testicles
536(5)
Surgery of the Prostate Gland
541(22)
Surgery of the Bladder
563(18)
Surgery of the Ureters and Kidneys
581(18)
SIXTEEN Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery
599(18)
Surgical Anatomy
600(1)
Thyroid Gland
600(1)
Parathyroid Gland
600(1)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations
600(10)
Assessment
600(5)
Nursing Diagnosis
605(1)
Outcome Identification
605(1)
Planning
606(1)
Implementation
607(2)
Evaluation
609(1)
Patient and Family Education and Discharge Planning
610(1)
Surgical Interventions
610(7)
Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy, Subtotal Lobectomy, Bilateral Subtotal Lobectomy, Near-Total Thyroidectomy, and Total Thyroidectomy
610(2)
Substernal or Intrathoracic Thyroidectomy
612(1)
Thyroglossal Duct Cystectomy
612(3)
Parathyroidectomy
615(2)
SEVENTEEN Breast Surgery
617(16)
Surgical Anatomy
617(2)
Benign Lesions of the Breast
619(1)
Breast Cancer
619(1)
Screening Technologies
619(2)
Diagnostic Techniques
621(1)
Surgical Treatment Options
621(1)
Perioperative Nursing Considerations
622(3)
Assessment
622(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
622(1)
Outcome Identification
623(1)
Planning
623(1)
Implementation
624(1)
Evaluation
625(1)


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