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American Corrections With Infotrac,9780534646523

American Corrections With Infotrac

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Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780534646523

ISBN10:
0534646522
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/8/2005
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $148.95

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Summary

Part I: THE CORRECTIONAL CONTEXT. 1. The Corrections System. 2. The Early History of Correctional Thought and Practice. 3. The History of Corrections in America. 4. The Punishment of Offenders. 5. The Law of Corrections. 6. The Correctional Client. Part II: CORRECTIONAL PRACTICES. 7. Jails: Detention and Short-Term Incarceration. 8. Probation. 9. Intermediate Sanctions and Community Corrections. 10. Incarceration. 11. The Prison Experience. 12. Incarceration of Women. 13. Institutional Management. 14. Institutional Programs. 15. Release from Incarceration. 16. Making It: Supervision in the Community. 17. Corrections for Juvenile Offenders. Part III: CORRECTIONAL ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES. 18. Incarceration Trends. 19. Race, Ethnicity, and Corrections. 20. The Death Penalty. 21. Surveillance and Control in the Community. 22. Community Justice. Epilogue: American Corrections Today and Tomorrow. Glossary. Index.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
PART 1: THE CORRECTIONAL CONTEXT
The Corrections System
2(22)
Focus: The Great Experiment in Social Control
5(1)
The Purpose of Corrections
6(1)
A Systems Framework for Studying Corrections
7(3)
Goals
7(1)
Interconnectedness
8(1)
Environment
8(1)
Feedback
8(1)
Complexity
9(1)
The Corrections System Today
10(2)
Focus: The Big Four in Corrections
12(2)
Key Issues in Corrections
14(5)
Managing the Correctional Organization
14(4)
Working with Offenders
18(1)
Focus: Correctional Interconnectedness in Alabama
19(2)
Connecting Corrections and Social Relations
21(1)
Summary
21(3)
The Early History of Correctional Thought and Practice
24(12)
From the Middle Ages to the American Revolution
26(3)
Galley Slavery
27(1)
Imprisonment
27(1)
Transportation
28(1)
Focus: Teens Banished to Islands after Robbery
29(2)
Corporal Punishment and Death
30(1)
On the Eve of Reform
31(1)
The Age of Reason and Correctional Reform
31(4)
Cesare Beccaria and the Classical School
32(1)
Jeremy Bentham and the ``Hedonic Calculus''
33(1)
John Howard and the Birth of the Penitentiary
34(1)
What Really Motivated Correctional Reform?
35(1)
Summary
35(1)
The History of Corrections in America
36(26)
The Colonial Period
40(1)
The Arrival of the Penitentiary
41(5)
The Pennsylvania System
42(1)
The New York (Auburn) System
43(1)
Debating the Systems
44(2)
Development of Prisons in the South and West
46(1)
Southern Penology
46(1)
Western Penology
47(1)
Do the Right Thing
47(1)
Focus: The Lease System in Post--Civil War Alabama
48(1)
The Reformatory Movement
48(3)
Cincinnati, 1870
49(1)
Elmira Reformatory
50(1)
Lasting Reforms
51(1)
The Rise of the Progressives
51(3)
Individualized Treatment and the Positivist School
52(1)
Progressive Reforms
52(2)
The Rise of the Medical Model
54(2)
From Medical Model to Community Model
56(1)
The Crime Control Model: The Pendulum Swings Again
57(2)
The Decline of Rehabilitation
57(1)
The Emergence of Crime Control
57(2)
Where Are We Today?
59(1)
Summary
59(3)
The Punishment of Offenders
62(34)
The Purpose of Corrections
64(6)
Retribution (Deserved Punishment)
65(1)
Deterrence
65(1)
Incapacitation
66(1)
Rehabilitation
67(1)
New Approaches to Punishment
68(1)
Criminal Sanctions: A Mixed Bag?
69(1)
Forms of the Criminal Sanction
70(9)
Incarceration
71(6)
Intermediate Sanctions
77(1)
Probation
77(1)
Death
78(1)
Forms and Goals of Sanctions
78(1)
The Sentencing Process
79(3)
The Administrative Context
81(1)
Focus: A Trial Judge at Work: Judge Robert Satter
82(4)
Attitudes and Values of Judges
84(1)
The Presentence Report
85(1)
Sentencing Guidelines
85(1)
Do the Right Thing
86(3)
The Future of Sentencing Guidelines
88(1)
Unjust Punishment
89(2)
Sentencing Disparities
89(1)
Wrongful Convictions
90(1)
Focus: Politics and Sentencing: The Case of Crack Cocaine
91(1)
Summary
91(5)
The Law of Corrections
96(30)
The Foundations of Correctional Law
99(2)
Constitutions
99(1)
Statutes
100(1)
Case Law
100(1)
Regulations
101(1)
Correctional Law and the U.S. Supreme Court
101(3)
The End of the Hands-off Policy
102(1)
Access to the Courts
102(1)
The Prisoners' Rights Movement
103(1)
Focus: From a Lonely Prison Cell, an Inmate Wins an Important Victory
104(1)
Constitutional Rights of Prisoners
105(5)
The First Amendment
105(3)
The Fourth Amendment
108(1)
The Eighth Amendment
109(1)
Focus: The Impact of Ruiz v. Estelle
110(6)
The Fourteenth Amendment
112(1)
A Change of Judicial Direction
113(3)
Impact of the Prisoners' Rights Movement
116(1)
Alternatives to Litigation
116(2)
Inmate Grievance Procedures
117(1)
The Ombudsman
118(1)
Mediation
118(1)
Legal Assistance
118(1)
Law and Community Corrections
118(2)
Constitutional Rights of Probationers and Parolees
119(1)
Revocation of Probation and Parole
119(1)
Law and Correctional Personnel
120(2)
Civil Service Laws
120(1)
Liability of Correctional Personnel
121(1)
Summary
122(4)
The Correctional Client
126(34)
Selection for the Corrections System
128(3)
Types of Offenders and Their Problems
131(1)
The Situational Offender
131(1)
Focus: Susan's Story
132(2)
The Career Criminal
133(1)
Focus: Archie's Story
134(2)
The Sex Offender
134(2)
Focus: Nevin's Story
136(2)
The Substance Abuser
137(1)
Focus: Mary Lou's Story
138(3)
Focus: Bill's Story
141(2)
The Mentally Ill Offender
142(1)
Focus: Johnnie's Story
143(3)
The Mentally Handicapped Offender
145(1)
Focus: Donald's Story
146(2)
The Offender with HIV/AIDS
147(1)
Focus: Mike's Story
148(3)
The Elderly Offender
150(1)
Focus: Grant's Story
151(1)
The Long-Term Offender
151(1)
Focus: Michael's Story
152(1)
Classifying Offenders: Key Issues
153(2)
Overlap and Ambiguity in Offender Classifications
153(1)
Offense Classifications and Correctional Programming
153(1)
Behavioral Probabilities
154(1)
Sociopolitical Pressures
154(1)
Distinctions in Classification Criteria
155(1)
Summary
155(5)
PART 2: CORRECTIONAL PRACTICES
Jails: Detention and Short-Term Incarceration
160(26)
The Contemporary Jail: Entrance to the System
162(1)
Origins and Evolution
162(4)
Population Characteristics
163(1)
Administration
163(2)
The Influence of Local Politics
165(1)
Careers in Corrections: Correctional Officer---Local Jails
166(1)
Regional Jails
166(1)
Pretrial Detention
167(1)
Do the Right Thing
168(2)
Special Problems of Detainees
168(2)
Focus: Rite of Passage
170(4)
Release from Detention
174(1)
The Bail Problem and Alternatives
174(2)
Release on Recognizance
175(1)
Preventive Detention
175(1)
Pretrial Diversion
176(1)
The Sentenced Jail Inmate
176(1)
Issues in Jail Management
177(5)
Legal Liability
178(1)
Jail Standards
178(1)
Personnel Matters
178(1)
Jail Crowding
179(1)
The Jail Facility
180(2)
The Future of the Jail
182(1)
Summary
183(3)
Probation
186(30)
The History and Development of Probation
189(3)
Benefit of Clergy
189(1)
Judicial Reprieve
189(1)
Recognizance
189(1)
The Modernization of Probation
190(2)
The Organization of Probation Today
192(2)
Should Probation Be Centralized or Decentralized?
192(1)
Who Should Administer Probation?
193(1)
Careers in Corrections: Probation Officer---Federal
194(1)
Should Probation Be Combined with Parole?
194(1)
The Dual Functions of Probation: Investigation and Supervision
195(1)
The Investigative Function
196(2)
Purpose
196(1)
Contents
197(1)
Focus: Sample Presentence Report
198(2)
Recommendations
199(1)
Disclosure
199
Private PSIs
190(10)
The Supervision Function
200(2)
The Officer
200(2)
Careers in Corrections: Probation Officer---State, County
202(2)
The Offender
202(1)
The Bureaucracy
203(1)
The Effectiveness of Supervision
204(3)
Case Management Systems
205(1)
Specialized Supervision Programs
206(1)
Focus: Dealing with the Drug Offender
207(1)
Performance-Based Supervision
207(1)
Focus: The Broken Windows Model
208(1)
Is Probation Effective Regardless?
208(1)
Revocation and Termination of Probation
209(1)
Do the Right Thing
210(2)
Probation in the Coming Decade
212(1)
Summary
213(3)
Intermediate Sanctions and Community Corrections
216(24)
The Case for Intermediate Sanctions
218(1)
Unnecessary Imprisonment
218(1)
Limitations of Probation
219(1)
Improvements in Justice
219(1)
Continuum of Sanctions
219(1)
Problems with Intermediate Sanctions
220(3)
Selecting Agencies
222(1)
Selecting Offenders
222(1)
Widening the Net
222(1)
Varieties of Intermediate Sanctions
223(5)
Sanctions Administered Primarily by the Judiciary
223(2)
Sanctions Administered in the Community
225(3)
Focus: Jail Moves into Probationer's Home
228(2)
Sanctions Administered in Institutions and the Community
229(1)
Making Intermediate Sanctions Work
230(2)
Sentencing Issues
230(1)
Selection of Offenders
231(1)
Surveillance and Control
232(1)
The New Correctional Professional
232(1)
Focus: Center for Alternative Sentencing and Employment Services
233(1)
Community Corrections Legislation
233(1)
Careers in Corrections: Addiction Treatment Specialist
234(3)
Reducing Reliance on Prison
234(2)
Evaluation of Community Corrections Legislation
236(1)
The Future of Intermediate Sanctions and Community Corrections
237(1)
Summary
237(3)
Incarceration
240(26)
Focus: Realization
242(1)
Links to the Past
242(2)
The Goals of Incarceration
244(1)
Focus: The New Chain Gangs
245(1)
Organization for Incarceration
246(4)
Federal Bureau of Prisons
246(3)
State Prison Systems
249(1)
The Design and Classification of Prisons
250(4)
Today's Designs
250(2)
The Location of Prisons
252(1)
The Classification of Prisons
253(1)
Focus: Maximum Takes on a New Meaning at This Prison
254(4)
Private Prisons
255(3)
Who Is in Prison?
258(3)
Elderly Prisoners
258(2)
Prisoners with HIV/AIDS
260(1)
Do the Right Thing
261(2)
Mentally Ill Prisoners
262(1)
Long-Term Prisoners
262(1)
Summary
263(3)
The Prison Experience
266(24)
Focus: Going In: The Chain
268(1)
Prison Society
268(3)
Norms and Values
270(1)
Focus: Survival Tips for Beginners
271(3)
Prison Subculture: Derivation or Importation?
272(1)
Adaptive Roles
273(1)
Focus: How Ya Gonna Do Your Time?
274(2)
The Prison Economy
276(2)
Focus: Carnalito, the Hustler
278(1)
Violence in Prison
279(1)
Violence and Inmate Characteristics
279(1)
Focus: On Prison Rape
280(6)
Prisoner--Prisoner Violence
281(2)
Prisoner--Officer Violence
283(1)
Officer--Prisoner Violence
283(2)
Decreasing Prison Violence
285(1)
Summary
286(4)
Incarceration of Women
290(24)
Women: Forgotten Offenders
292(2)
Historical Perspective
294(3)
The Incarceration of Women in the United States
294(2)
The Reformatory Movement
296(1)
The Post--World War II Years
297(1)
Women in Prison
297(1)
Focus: Excerpts from a Prison Journal
298(6)
Characteristics of Women in Prison
299(2)
The Subculture of Women's Prisons
301(2)
Male versus Female Subcultures
303(1)
Issues in the Incarceration of Women
304(4)
Sexual Misconduct
305(1)
Educational and Vocational Programs
306(1)
Medical Services
306(1)
Mothers and Their Children
307(1)
Focus: Maria's Story
308(2)
Release to the Community
310(1)
Summary
310(4)
Institutional Management
314(30)
Formal Organization
316(3)
The Organizational Structure
317(2)
Careers in Corrections: Correctional Officer---State
319(2)
The Impact of the Structure
321(1)
Governing Prisons
321(1)
Focus: Rules of General Conduct, Michigan Department of Corrections
322(6)
The Defects of Total Power
323(1)
Rewards and Punishments
324(1)
Gaining Cooperation: Exchange Relationships
325(1)
Inmate Leadership
326(1)
Disciplining Prisoners
326(2)
Focus: A Model Prison
328(2)
Leadership: The Crucial Element of Governance
328(2)
Correctional Officers: The Linchpin of Management
330(2)
Who Becomes a Correctional Officer?
330(2)
Focus: A Day on the Job---in Prison
332(3)
Role Characteristics
334(1)
Careers in Corrections: Correctional Officer---Federal Bureau of Prisons
335(4)
Job Assignments
336(1)
Problems with the Officer's Role
337(1)
Job Stress and Burnout
337(1)
Boundary Violations
338(1)
Do the Right Thing
339(2)
Use of Force
340(1)
Collective Bargaining
340(1)
Summary
341(3)
Institutional Programs
344(32)
Managing Time
346(2)
Constraints of Security
346(1)
The Principle of Least Eligibility
347(1)
Classification
348(2)
The Classification Process
348(2)
Careers in Corrections: Correctional Treatment Specialist
350(1)
Objective Classification Systems
350(1)
Do the Right Thing
351(1)
Rehabilitative Programs
352(4)
Psychological Programs
352(2)
Behavior Therapy
354(1)
Social Therapy
354(1)
Educational and Vocational Programs
355(1)
Focus: Educational Programs in Federal Prisons
356(5)
Substance Abuse Programs
357(1)
Sex Offender Programs
358(1)
Religious Programs
359(1)
The Rediscovery of Correctional Rehabilitation
360(1)
Prison Medical Services
361(2)
Prison Industry
363(4)
The Contract Labor, Piece Price, and Lease Systems
364(1)
The Public Account System
364(1)
The State-Use System
364(1)
The Public Works and Ways System
365(1)
Prison Industry Today
365(2)
Focus: Prison Blues
367(2)
Focus: Telemarketing from Prison
369(1)
Prison Maintenance Programs
370(1)
Prison Recreational Programs
371(1)
Prison Programming Reconsidered
371(1)
Summary
372(4)
Release from Incarceration
376(22)
Release from One Part of the System to Another
378(1)
Origins of Parole
379(1)
Focus: Kansas v. Hendricks
380(1)
Release Mechanisms
381(2)
Discretionary Release
382(1)
Mandatory Release
382(1)
Other Conditional Release
382(1)
Expiration Release
382(1)
Focus: A Roomful of Strangers
383(1)
The Organization of Releasing Authorities
384(1)
Consolidated versus Autonomous
384(1)
Field Services
384(1)
Full Time versus Part Time
384(1)
Appointment
385(1)
The Decision to Release
385(3)
Discretionary Release
385(3)
Do the Right Thing
388(4)
Structuring Parole Decisions
389(1)
The Impact of Release Mechanisms
390(2)
Release to the Community
392(3)
Summary
395(3)
Making It: Supervision in the Community
398(30)
Overview of the Postrelease Function
400(5)
Community Supervision
401(1)
Revocation
401(4)
Focus: California: Leading the Nation in the Revocation of Ex-prisoners
405(1)
The Structure of Community Supervision
405(3)
Agents of Community Supervision
406(2)
Careers in Corrections: Parole Officer
408(3)
The Community Supervision Bureaucracy
408(3)
Residential Programs
411(2)
The Offender's Experience of Postrelease Life
413(1)
The Strangeness of Reentry
413(1)
Supervision and Surveillance
413(1)
Focus: It's Time I Shed My Ex-convict Status
414(5)
The Problem of Unmet Personal Needs
415(1)
Barriers to Success
415(4)
The Parolee as ``Dangerous''
419(2)
Do the Right Thing
421(1)
The Elements of Successful Reentry
422(1)
Focus: No ``Perverts'' Allowed
423(1)
Postrelease Supervision
423(2)
How Effective Is It?
424(1)
What Are Its Prospects?
424(1)
Summary
425(3)
Corrections for Juveniles
428(30)
The Problem of Youth Crime
430(1)
History of Juvenile Corrections
430(5)
Juvenile Corrections: English Antecedents
430(1)
Juvenile Corrections in the United States
431(4)
Why Treat Juveniles and Adults Differently?
435(1)
Differences between Adults and Juveniles in Perspective
436(1)
The Problem of Serious Delinquency
436(1)
Sanctioning Juvenile Offenders
437(8)
Overview of the Juvenile Justice System
438(2)
Disposition of Juvenile Offenders
440(5)
Careers in Corrections: Probation Officer---Juveniles
445(4)
Do the Right Thing
449(1)
The Special Problem of Gangs
450(1)
Focus: Operation Ceasefire and Operation Nite Lite
451(1)
The Future of Juvenile Justice
452(1)
Summary
452(6)
PART 3: CORRECTIONAL ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES
Incarceration Trends
458(20)
Explaining Prison Population Trends
460(7)
Increased Arrests and More Likely Incarceration
462(1)
Tougher Sentencing
463(1)
Prison Construction
463(1)
The War on Drugs
464(1)
State Politics
465(1)
Public Policy Trends
466(1)
Dealing with Overcrowded Prisons
467(2)
The Null Strategy
468(1)
The Construction Strategy
468(1)
Intermediate Sanctions
468(1)
Prison Population Reduction
469(1)
The Impact of Prison Crowding
469(1)
Focus: Connecticut: Trying to Build Its Way Out
470(2)
Does Incarceration Pay?
472(2)
Summary
474(4)
Race, Ethnicity, and Corrections
478(16)
The Concepts of Race and Ethnicity
480(1)
Visions of Race and Punishment
481(4)
The View of Differential Criminality
481(3)
The View of a Racist Criminal Justice System
484(1)
Focus: Mumia Abu-Jamal Faces Execution: Did He Receive a Fair Trial?
485(3)
The View of a Racist Society
487(1)
Focus: Police, Minorities, and the War on Drugs
488(1)
Which Is It: Race or Racism?
489(1)
The Significance of Race and Punishment
490(1)
Summary
491(3)
The Death Penalty
494(22)
The Debate over Capital Punishment
496(1)
The Death Penalty in America
497(3)
Death Row Population
498(1)
Public Opinion
499(1)
The Death Penalty and the Constitution
500(6)
Key U.S. Supreme Court Decisions
500(2)
Continuing Legal Issues
502(4)
Who Is on Death Row?
506(4)
Who Are They?
506(1)
Where Was the Crime Committed?
507(1)
Who Was the Prosecutor?
507(1)
Was Race a Factor?
508(2)
Focus: Death-Watch Logs
510(1)
A Continuing Debate?
511(1)
Summary
512(4)
Surveillance and Control in the Community
516(12)
The Goals of Surveillance
518(1)
The Techniques of Surveillance and Control
519(2)
Drug Controls
519(1)
Electronic Controls
520(1)
Focus: Update on Electronic Monitoring: ``The Bag'' Beats ``The Tag''
521(2)
Human Surveillance
522(1)
Programmatic Controls
522(1)
Control: A Double-Edged Sword
523(1)
Social Control and Personal Liberty
523(1)
The Politics of Surveillance and Community Protection
524(1)
The Limits of Control
524(2)
Technology
525(1)
Human Responses
525(1)
Moral and Ethical Limits
525(1)
Toward Acceptable Community Control
526(1)
Summary
526(2)
Community Justice
528(17)
Definition of Community Justice
530(3)
A Philosophy of Justice
530(1)
A Strategy of Justice
531(1)
Programs
532(1)
How Community Justice Differs from Criminal Justice
533(2)
Neighborhoods
533(1)
Problem Solving
533(1)
Restoration
533(1)
Justice Reinvestment
534(1)
Overview of Differences
534(1)
Focus: Restorative Justice in Vermont
535(1)
Arguments for Community Justice
536(3)
Crime and Crime Problems Are Local
536(1)
Crime Fighting Improves the Quality of Life
537(1)
Proactive Rather Than Reactive Strategies Are Needed
538(1)
Problems of Community Justice
539(2)
Impingement on Individual Rights
539(1)
Social Inequality
540(1)
Increasing Criminal Justice Costs
541(1)
The Future of Community Justice
541(1)
Summary
542(3)
EPILOGUE American Corrections Today and Tomorrow
545(7)
Five Correctional Dilemmas
546(4)
Mission
546(1)
Methods
547(1)
Structure
548(1)
Personnel
549(1)
Costs
550(1)
Changing Corrections: A Final View
550(2)
Glossary 552(5)
Index 557(14)
Photo Credits 571


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