9780415924498

An American Health Dilemma: A Medical History of African Americans and the Problem of Race: Beginnings to 1900

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780415924498

  • ISBN10:

    0415924499

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-08-21
  • Publisher: Routledge
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Summary

At times mirroring and at times shockingly disparate to the rise of traditional White American medicine, the history of African American health care is a story of traditional healers; root doctors; granny midwives; underappreciated and overworked African American physicians; scrupulous and unscrupulous White doctors and scientists; governmental support and neglect; epidemics; and poverty. Virtually every part of this story revolves around race. More than 50 years after the publication ofAn American Dilemma,Gunnar Myrdal's 1944 classic about race relations in the USA,An American Health Dilemmapresents a comprehensive and groundbreaking history and social analysis of race, race relations and the African American medical and public health experience. Beginning with the origins of Western medicine and science in Egypt, Greece and Rome the authors explore the relationship between race, medicine, and health care from the precursors of American science and medicine through the days of the slavetrade with the harrowing Middle Passage and equally deadly Breaking-In period through the Civil War and the gains of Reconstruction and the reversals caused by Jim Crow laws. It offers an extensive examination of the history of intellectual and scientific racism that evolved to give sanction to the mistreatment, medical abuse, and neglect of African Americans and other non-White people. Also included are biographical portraits of Black medical pioneers like James McCune Smith, the first African American to earn a degree from a European university, and anecdotal vignettes,like the tragic story of "the Hottentot Venus", which illustrate larger themes. An AmericanHealth Dilemmapromises to become an irreplaceable and essential look at African American and medical history and will provide an invaluable baseline for future exploration of race and racism in the American health system.

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables
xi
Foreword xv
Acknowledgments xix
Preface xxiii
Introduction 1(1)
On the Origins of a Race- and Class-Based System
1(7)
Goals and Objectives
8(4)
Methodology
12(2)
Background for Reassessing Race, Class, and Health Care in the United States
14(11)
PART I The Background 25(160)
Race, Biology, and Health Care in the United States: Reassessing a Relationship
27(124)
On Race: Examining an Enigma
34(11)
The Evolution of a Racially Unequal Health System
43(2)
Race Explored: A Life Sciences/Health Care Perspective
45(7)
Race: An Intellectual History
52(10)
Race: A History of Science Perspective
62(51)
Race, Medicine, and Science: Ancient Relationships
65(9)
Race, Medicine, and Science: The Middle Ages
74(8)
Race, Medicine, and Science during the Renaissance and Reformation
82(11)
Race, Medicine, and Science in the Age of Reason and Enlightenment
93(5)
Nineteenth-Century Race, Science, and Medicine
98(10)
The Social Sciences and Twentieth-Century Race, Science, and Medicine
108(5)
Race, Class, Ethnic Politics, and Health Care
113(31)
Evaluative Benchmarks of Black Progress
126(18)
Strategies to Overcome a Dream Deferred: Race, Justice, and Equity in Health Care As We Enter the Twenty-first Century
144(7)
Race, Medicine, and Society: From Prehistoric to English Colonial Times
151(34)
Ancient Western Medicine and Health Care: Race and Class Considerations in Predecessor Health Systems
152(6)
Ancient Greece: Establishing Western Science and Hierarchies
158(5)
Roman Medicine: Legions, Slaves, and Public Health
163(5)
The Middle Ages
168(5)
The Arabic Legacy of Race and Slavery
173(3)
The Scientific and Medical Renaissance: Inauspicious Racial and Medical-Social Roots
176(3)
Black Health before and during the Slave Trade: Beginnings of a Health Deficit Legacy
179(6)
PART II Race, Medicine, and Health in the North American Colonies and the Early U.S. Republic 185(66)
Black Health in the North American English Colonies, 1619-1730
187(18)
A Background with Iberian Roots
187(2)
The North American English Colonies
189(5)
Black Slave Health: Effects of the Diaspora
194(4)
Origin of a Race- and Class-Based Health System
198(3)
An Embryonic Healing Profession
201(1)
A Black Healing Tradition
202(3)
Black Health in the Republican Era, 1731-1812
205(46)
Seeds of a Multitiered, Unequal Health System
209(3)
Race, Medicine, and Health Care: Reassessing the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries
212(9)
The ``Hottentot Venus'' and Nineteenth-Century Racial Science
218(3)
A ``Slave Health Deficit'' Institutionalized: 1731-1812
221(10)
An Emerging Dual Health System in Black and White
231(4)
Race Medicine: Real or Imagined Differences?
235(5)
The Black Medical Profession: 1731-1812
240(3)
The White Medical Profession, 1731-1812
243(8)
PART III Race, Medicine, and Health in the United States from 1812 to 1900 251(164)
Black Health and the Jacksonian and Antebellum Periods, 1812-1861
253(69)
Growth, Change, and Manifest Destiny
253(8)
Beginnings of a Health System: Black Subjugation, Dependency, and Separate Development
261(18)
A Unique Health System Culture's Modus Operandi: Sensationalism, Pragmatism, and Race and Class Exploitation for Scientific Advance
270(2)
A New Perspective on a Medical Icon
272(7)
Entrenchment of a Black Health Deficit
279(10)
Stewardship Denied: White Medicine in Jacksonian and Antebellum America
289(13)
The Health Professions' Color and Gender Lines
302(20)
A Slave Hospital on a ``Good'' Plantation
317(5)
The Civil War, Reconstruction, Post-Reconstruction, and Black Health, 1861-1900
322(93)
Black Health 1861-1900: A Roller-Coaster Ride to Nowhere
328(29)
The Civil War and Black Health
332(15)
Black Health and the Reconstruction Era
347(4)
Black Health in the Gilded Age
351(4)
Black Health Enters the Progressive Era
355(2)
Health System Heal Thyself
357(18)
The White Medical Profession Comes of Age
375(9)
The Black Medical Profession: Practicing behind the ``Veil''
384(23)
Health Policy Born of Pragmatism
387(20)
A Mixed Legacy
407(8)
Conclusion: Laying the Foundations of a Dual and Unequal Health System 415(2)
Notes 417(98)
Select Bibliography 515(30)
A Note on Sources 545(6)
Index 551

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