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H. W. Brands
H. W. Brands is the Dickson Allen Anderson Centennial Professor of History at the University of Texas at Austin. He is the author of numerous works of history and international affairs, including The Devil We Knew: Americans and the Cold War (1993), Into the Labyrinth: The United States and the Middle East (1994), The Reckless Decade: America in the 1890s (1995), TR: The Last Romantic (a biography of Theodore Roosevelt) (1997), What America Owes the World: The Struggle for the Soul of Foreign Policy (1998), The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin (2000), The Strange Death of American Liberalism (2001), The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream (2002), Woodrow Wilson (2003), Andrew Jackson (2005), Traitor to His Class: The Privileged Life and Radical Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt (2008), and American Colossus: The Triumph of Capitalism, 1865-1900 (2010). His writing has received popular and critical acclaim; several of his books have been bestsellers, and The First American and Traitor to His Class were finalists for the Pulitzer Prize. He lectures frequently across North America and in Europe. His essays and reviews have appeared in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, Atlantic Monthly, and elsewhere. He is a regular guest on radio and television, and has participated in several historical documentary films
T. H. Breen
T. H. Breen is the Director of the Nicholas D. Chabraja Center for Historical Studies and William Smith Mason Professor of American History at Northwestern University. He received his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1968. He has taught at Northwestern since 1970. Breen’s major books include T he Character of the Good Ruler: A Study of Puritan Political Ideas in New England (1974); P uritans and Adventurers: Change and Persistence in Early America (1980); T obacco Culture: The Mentality of the Great Tidewater Planters on the Eve of Revolution (1985); and, with Stephen Innes of the University of Virginia, “Myne Owne Ground”: Race and Freedom on Virginia’s Eastern Shore (1980). His I magining the Past (1989) won the 1990 Historic Preservation Book Award. His most recent book is M arketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (2004). In addition to receiving several awards for outstanding teaching at Northwestern, Breen has been the recipient of research grants from the American Council of Learned Societies, the Guggenheim Foundation, the Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton), the National Humanities Center, and the Huntington Library. He has served as the Fowler Hamilton Fellow at Christ Church, Oxford University (1987–1988), the Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions, Cambridge University (1990–1991), the Harmsworth Professor of American History at Oxford University (2000–2001), and was a recipient of the Humboldt Prize (Germany). He has recently published American Insurgents, American Patriots: The Revolution of the People (2010). He is now working on a book to be entitled Journey to a Nation: George Washington’s Campaign to Bring the New Federal Government to the People 1789-1791.
R. Hal Williams
R. Hal Williams is professor of history at Southern Methodist University. He received his A.B. from Princeton University in 1963 and his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1968. His books include T he Democratic Party and California Politics, 1880—1896 (1973); Y ears of Decision: American Politics in the 1890s (1978); T he Manhattan Project: A Documentary Introduction to the Atomic Age (1990); and Realigning America: McKinley, Bryan, and the Remarkable Election of 1896 (2010). A specialist in American political history, he taught at Yale University from 1968 to 1975 and came to SMU in 1975 as chair of the Department of History. From 1980 to 1988, he served as dean of Dedman College, the school of humanities and sciences, at SMU, and from 2002 to 2006 as dean of Research and Graduate Studies. In 1980, he was a visiting professor at University College, Oxford University. Williams has received grants from the American Philosophical Society and the National Endowment for the Humanities, and he has served on the Texas Committee for the Humanities. He is currently working on a biography of James G. Blaine, the late-nineteenth-century speaker of the House, secretary of state, and Republican presidential candidate.
Ariela J. Gross
Ariela Gross is John B. and Alice R. Sharp Professor of Law and History, and Co-Director of the Center for Law, History and Culture, at the University of Southern California. She has been a visiting Professor at Tel Aviv University, the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, and Kyoto University. She is the author of D ouble Character: Slavery and Mastery in the Antebellum Southern Courtroom (2000) and W hat Blood Won’t Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America (2008), winner of the Willard Hurst Prize from the Law and Society Association; the Lillian Smith Award for the best book on the South, and the American Political Science Association Best Book on Race, Ethnicity, and Politics. Gross has received fellowships from the American Council of Learned Societies, the Guggenheim Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanities, and is now working on several comparative projects about law, race, and slavery in the Americas, and law, contemporary politics, and the memory of slavery in the U.S. and Europe.
Table of Contents
Maps, Figures, and Tables
A Note to My Fellow Teachers
A Personal Welcome to Students
About the Authors
CHAPTER 1: NEW WORLD ENCOUNTERS, PRECONQUEST-1608.
Diverse Cultures: De Vaca’s Journey Through Native America
Native Americans Before the Conquest.
Conditions of Conquest.
West Africa: Ancient and Complex Societies.
Europe on the Eve of Conquest.
Spain in the Americas.
The French Claim Canada.
The English Take Up the Challenge.
Conclusion: Campaign to Sell America.
CHAPTER 2: ENGLAND’S NEW WORLD EXPERIMENTS 1607-1732.
Profit and Piety: Competing Visions for English Settlement.
Breaking Away: Decisions to Move to America
A “New” England in America.
Diversity in the Middle Colonies.
Planting the Southern Colonies.
Conclusion: Living with Diversity.
CHAPTER 3: PUTTING DOWN ROOTS: OPPORTUNITY AND OPPRESSION IN COLONIAL SOCIETY, 1619-1692.
Families in an Atlantic Empire.
Social Stability: New England Colonies of the Seventeenth Century.
The Challenge of the Chesapeake Environment.
Race and Freedom in British America.
Blueprint for Empire.
Colonial Political Revolt.
Conclusion: Foundations of an Atlantic Empire.
CHAPTER 4: EXPERIENCE OF EMPIRE: EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA, 1680-1763.
Constructing an Anglo-American Identity: The Journal of William Byrd.
Tensions in the Backcountry.
Spanish Borderlands of the Eighteenth Century.
The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture.
Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies.
Clash of Political Cultures.
Century of Imperial War.
Conclusion: Rule Britannia?
CHAPTER 5: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: FROM ELITE PROTEST TO POPULAR REVOLT, 1763-1783.
Moment of Decision: Commitment and Sacrifice.
Structure of Colonial Society.
Eroding the Bonds of Empire.
Steps Toward Independence.
Fighting for Independence.
Conclusion: Preserving Independence.
CHAPTER 6: THE REPUBLICAN EXPERIMENT, 1783-1788.
A New Political Morality.
Defining Republican Culture.
Stumbling Toward a New National Government.
“Have We Fought for This?”
Whose Constitution? Struggle for Ratification.
Conclusion: Success Depends on the People.
CHAPTER 7: DEMOCRACY AND DISSENT: THE VIOLENCE OF PARTY POLITICS, 1788-1800.
Force of Public Opinion.
Principle and Pragmatism: Establishing a New Government.
Hamilton's Plan for Prosperity and Security.
Charges of Treason: The Battle over Foreign Affairs.
Popular Political Culture.
The Adams Presidency: Politics of Mistrust.
Conclusion: Danger of Political Extremism.
CHAPTER 8: REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION, 1800-1814.
Limits of Equality.
The Republic Expands.
Jefferson as President.
Race and Dissent Under Jefferson.
The Strange War of 1812.
Conclusion: The “Second War of Independence.”
CHAPTER 9: NATION BUILDING AND NATIONALISM, 1815-1825.
A Revolutionary War Hero Revisits America in 1824.
Expansion and Migration.
Transportation and the Market Economy.
The Politics of Nation Building after the War of 1812.
Conclusion: The End of the Era of Good Feeling.
CHAPTER 10: THE TRIUMPH OF WHITE MEN'S DEMOCRACY, 1824-1840.
Democratic Space: The New Hotels.
Democracy in Theory and Practice.
Jackson and the Politics of Democracy.
The Bank War and the Second Party System.
Heyday of the Second Party System.
Conclusion: Tocqueville's Wisdom.
CHAPTER 11: SLAVES AND MASTERS, 1793-1861.
Nat Turner's Rebellion: A Turning Point in the Slave South.
The World of Southern Blacks.
White Society in the Antebellum South.
Slavery and the Southern Economy.
Conclusion: Worlds in Conflict.
CHAPTER 12: THE PURSUIT OF PERFECTION, 1800-1861.
Redeeming the Middle Class.
The Rise of Evangelicalism.
Domesticity and Changes in the American Family.
Reform Turns Radical.
Conclusion: Counterpoint on Reform.
CHAPTER 13: AN AGE OF EXPANSIONISM, 1830-1861.
The Spirit of Young America.
Texas, Manifest Destiny, and the Mexican-American War.
Internal Expansionism and the Industrial Revolution.
Conclusion: The Costs of Expansion.
CHAPTER 14: THE SECTIONAL CRISIS, 1846-1861.
Brooks Assaults Sumner in Congress.
The Compromise of 1850.
Political Upheaval, 1852-1856.
The House Divided, 1857-1860.
Conclusion: Explaining the Crisis.
CHAPTER 15: SECESSION AND THE CIVIL WAR, 1860-1865.
The Emergence of Lincoln.
The Storm Gathers.
Adjusting to Total War.
Fight to the Finish.
Effects of the War.
Conclusion: An Organizational Revolution.
CHAPTER 16: THE AGONY OF RECONSTRUCTION, 1863-1877.
Robert Smalls and Black Politicians During Reconstruction.
The President versus Congress.
Reconstructing Southern Society.
Retreat from Reconstruction.
Reunion and the New South.
Conclusion: Henry McNeal Turner and the “Unfinished Revolution.”
CHAPTER 17: THE WEST: EXPLOITING AN EMPIRE, 1849-1902.
Lean Bear's Changing West.
Beyond the Frontier.
Crushing the Native Americans.
Settlement of the West.
The Bonanza West.
Conclusion: The Meaning of the West.
CHAPTER 18: THE INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY, 1850-1901.
A Machine Culture.
An Empire on Rails.
An Industrial Empire.
The Wage Earners.
Culture of Work.
Conclusion: Industrialization's Benefits and Costs.
CHAPTER 19: TOWARD AN URBAN SOCIETY, 1877-1900.
The Overcrowded City.
The Lure of the City.
Social and Cultural Change, 1877-1900.
The Spread of Jim Crow
The Stirrings of Reform.
Conclusion: The Pluralistic Society.
CHAPTER 20: POLITICAL REALIGNMENTS, 1876-1901.
Hardship and Heartache.
Politics of Stalemate.
Republicans in Power: The Billion-Dollar Congress.
The Rise of the Populist Movement.
The Crisis of the Depression.
The Presidential Election of 1896.
The McKinley Administration.
Conclusion: A Decade's Dramatic Changes.
CHAPTER 21: TOWARD EMPIRE, 1865-1902.
Roosevelt and the Rough Riders.
America Looks Outward.
War with Spain.
Acquisition of Empire.
Conclusion: Outcome of the War with Spain.
CHAPTER 22: THE PROGRESSIVE ERA, 1895-1917.
Muckrakers Call for Reform.
The Changing Face of Industrialism.
Conflict in the Workplace.
A New Urban Culture.
Conclusion: A Ferment of Discovery and Reform.
CHAPTER 23: FROM ROOSEVELT TO WILSON IN THE AGE OF PROGRESSIVISM, 1900-1920.
The Republicans Split.
The Spirit of Progressivism.
Reform in the Cities and States.
The Republican Roosevelt.
Roosevelt Progressivism at Its Height.
The Ordeal of William Howard Taft.
Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom.
Conclusion: The Fruits of Progressivism.
CHAPTER 24: THE NATION AT WAR, 1901-1920.
The Sinking of the Lusitania .
A New World Power.
Foreign Policy Under Wilson.
The Treaty of Versailles.
Conclusion: Post-War Disillusionment.
CHAPTER 25: TRANSITION TO MODERN AMERICA, 1919-1928.
Wheels for the Millions.
The Second Industrial Revolution.
City Life in the Roaring Twenties.
The Conservative Counterattack.
Conclusion: The Old and the New.
CHAPTER 26: FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE NEW DEAL, 1929-1939.
The Struggle Against Despair.
The Great Depression.
Fighting the Depression.
Reforming American Life.
The Impact of the New Deal.
The New Deal's End.
Conclusion: The New Deal and American Life.
CHAPTER 27: AMERICA AND THE WORLD, 1921-1945.
A Pact Without Power.
The Road to War.
Turning the Tide Against the Axis.
The Home Front.
Conclusion: The Transforming Power of War.
CHAPTER 28: THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR, 1945-1960.
The Potsdam Summit.
The Cold War Begins.
The Cold War Expands.
The Cold War at Home.
Conclusion: The Continuing Cold War.
CHAPTER 29: AFFLUENCE AND ANXIETY, 1945-1960.
Levittown: The Flight to the Suburbs.
The Postwar Boom.
The Good Life?
The Struggle over Civil Rights.
Conclusion: Restoring National Confidence.
CHAPTER 30: THE TURBULENT SIXTIES, 1960-1968.
Kennedy v. Nixon: The First Televised Presidential Candidate Debate.
Kennedy Intensifies the Cold War.
The New Frontier at Home.
LBJ’s Great Society.
Johnson Escalates the Vietnam War.
Years of Turmoil.
The Return of Richard Nixon.
Conclusion: The End of an Era.
CHAPTER 31: TO A NEW CONSERVATISM, 1969-1988.
Reagan and America’s Shift to the Right.
The Tempting of Richard Nixon.
Oil and Inflation.
Private Lives, Public Issues.
Politics and Diplomacy after Watergate.
The Reagan Revolution.
Reagan and the World.
Conclusion: Challenging the New Deal.
CHAPTER 32: INTO THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY, 1989-2010
"This Will Not Stand”: Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era.
The First President Bush.
The Changing Faces of America.
The New Democrats
Barack Obama’s Triumph and Trials
Conclusion: The End of the American Future—or Not?