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Animal Structure and Function: Biology : The Unity and Diversity of Life,9780534397487

Animal Structure and Function: Biology : The Unity and Diversity of Life

by
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780534397487

ISBN10:
0534397484
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/8/2003
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $43.00

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Table of Contents

PRINCIPLES OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
How Plants and Animals Work
On High-Flying Geese and Edelweiss
488(2)
Levels of Structural Organization
490(2)
From Cells to Multicelled Organisms
490(1)
Growth Versus Development
490(1)
Structural Organization Has a History
490(1)
The Body's Internal Environment
491(1)
How Do Parts Contribute to the Whole?
491(1)
Connections: The Nature of Adaptation
492(2)
Defining Adaptation
492(1)
Salt-Tolerant Tomatoes
492(1)
No Polar Bears in the Desert
492(1)
Adaptation to What?
493(1)
Mechanisms of Homeostasis in Animals
494(2)
Negative Feedback
494(1)
Positive Feedback
495(1)
Does the Concept of Homeostasis Apply to Plants?
496(2)
Walling Off Threats
496(1)
Sand, Wind, and the Yellow Bush Lupine
497(1)
About Rhythmic Leaf Folding
497(1)
Communication Among Cells, Tissues, and Organs
498(2)
Signal Reception, Transduction, and Response
498(1)
Communication in the Plant Body
498(1)
Communication in the Animal Body
499(1)
Connections: Recurring Challenges to Survival
500(68)
Constraints on Gas Exchange
500(1)
Requirements for Internal Transport
500(1)
Maintaining a Solute-Water Balance
501(1)
Requirements for Integration and Control
501(1)
On Variations in Resources and Threats
501(65)
VI ANIMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Animal Tissues and Organ Systems
Meerkats, Humans, It's All the Same
566(2)
Epithelial Tissue
568(2)
General Characteristics
568(1)
Cell-to-Cell Contacts
568(1)
Glandular Epithelium and Glands
569(1)
Connective Tissue
570(2)
Soft Connective Tissues
570(1)
Specialized Connective Tissues
570(2)
Muscle Tissue
572(1)
Nervous Tissue
573(1)
Focus on Science: Frontiers in Tissue Research
573(1)
Organ Systems
574(6)
Overview of Major Organ Systems
574(1)
Tissue and Organ Formation
575(3)
Integration and Control: Nervous Systems
Why Crack the System?
578(2)
Neurons---The Communication Specialists
580(2)
Functional Zones of a Neuron
580(1)
What Is a ``Resting'' Neuron?
580(1)
Gradients Required for Action Potentials
580(2)
How Are Action Potentials Triggered and Propagated?
582(2)
Approaching Threshold
582(1)
An All-or-Nothing Spike
582(1)
The Direction of Propagation
583(1)
Chemical Synapses
584(2)
A Smorgasbord of Signals
584(1)
Synaptic Integration
585(1)
How Is Neurotransmitter Removed From the Synaptic Cleft?
585(1)
Paths of Information Flow
586(2)
Blocks and Cables of Neurons
586(1)
Reflex Arcs
586(2)
Invertebrate Nervous Systems
588(2)
Regarding the Nerve Net
588(1)
On the Importance of Having a Head
588(2)
Vertebrate Nervous Systems---An Overview
590(2)
Evolution of the Spinal Cord and Brain
590(1)
The System's Functional Divisions
590(2)
What Are the Major Expressways?
592(2)
Peripheral Nervous System
592(1)
Somatic and Autonomic Subdivisions
592(1)
Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nerves
592(1)
Spinal Cord
593(1)
The Vertebrate Brain
594(2)
Hindbrain
594(1)
Midbrain
594(1)
Evolution of the Forebrain
594(1)
Reticular Formation
595(1)
Protection at the Blood-Brain Barrier
595(1)
The Human Cerebrum
596(2)
Functional Divisions of the Cerebral Cortex
596(1)
Connections With the Limbic System
597(1)
Focus on Science: Sperry's Split-Brain Experiments
598(1)
How Are Memories Tucked Away?
599(1)
Connections: Reflections on the Not-Quite-Complete Teen Brain
600(2)
Focus on Health: Drugging the Brain
602(6)
Sensory Reception
Different Strokes for Different Folks
606(2)
Overview of Sensory Pathways
608(2)
Somatic Sensations
610(2)
Receptors Near the Body Surface
610(1)
Muscle Sense
610(1)
What Is Pain?
610(1)
Referred Pain
611(1)
Chemical Senses
612(1)
Sense of Balance
613(1)
Sense of Hearing
614(2)
Properties of Sound
614(1)
Evolution of the Vertebrate Ear
614(2)
Sense of Vision
616(2)
What Are the Requirements for Vision?
616(1)
A Sampling of Invertebrate Eyes
616(2)
Structure and Function of Vertebrate Eyes
618(2)
The Eye's Structure
618(1)
Visual Accommodation
619(1)
Case Study---From Signaling to Visual Perception
620(2)
How Is the Retina Organized?
620(1)
Neuronal Responses to Light
620(2)
Focus on Health: Disorders of the Human Eye
622(6)
Integration and Control: Endocrine Systems
Hormone Jamboree
626(2)
The Endocrine System
628(2)
Hormones and Other Signaling Molecules
628(1)
Discovery of Hormones and Their Sources
628(2)
Signaling Mechanisms
630(2)
The Nature of Hormonal Action
630(1)
Characteristics of Steroid Hormones
630(1)
Characteristics of Peptide Hormones
631(1)
The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
632(2)
Posterior Lobe Secretions
632(1)
Anterior Lobe Secretions
632(2)
Focus on Health: Abnormal Pituitary Outputs
634(1)
Sources and Effects of Other Hormones
635(1)
Feedback Control of Hormonal Secretions
636(2)
Negative Feedback From the Adrenal Cortex
636(1)
Local Feedback in the Adrenal Medulla
636(1)
Cases of Skewed Feedback From the Thyroid
636(1)
Feedback Control of the Gonads
637(1)
Direct Responses to Chemical Changes
638(2)
Secretions from Parathyroid Glands
638(1)
Effects of Local Signaling Molecules
638(1)
Secretions from Pancreatic Islets
638(2)
Hormones and the External Environment
640(6)
Daylength and the Pineal Gland
640(1)
Thyroid Function and Frog Habitats
640(1)
Comparative Look at a Few Invertebrates
641(3)
Protection, Support, and Movement
Of Men, Women, and Polar Huskies
644(2)
Evolution of Vertebrate Skin
646(2)
Focus on Health: Sunlight and Skin
648(1)
The Vitamin Connection
648(1)
Suntans and Shoe-Leather Skin
648(1)
Sunlight and the Front Line of Defense
648(1)
Types of Skeletons
649(1)
Operating Principles for Skeletons
649(1)
Examples From the Invertebrates
649(1)
Connections: Evolution of the Vertebrate Skeleton
650(2)
A Closer Look at Bones and Joints
652(2)
Bone Formation and Remodeling
652(1)
Where Bones Meet---Skeletal Joints
652(1)
Bones and the Blood Level of Calcium
653(1)
Skeletal--Muscular Systems
654(2)
How Do Muscles and Bones Interact?
654(1)
Human Skeletal-Muscular System
655(1)
How Does Skeletal Muscle Contract?
656(2)
What Controls Contraction?
658(1)
Energy For Contraction
659(1)
Properties of Whole Muscles
660(1)
Muscle Tension
660(1)
What Is Muscle Fatigue?
660(1)
What Are Muscular Dystrophies?
660(1)
Muscles, Exercise, and Aging
661(1)
Focus on Health: A Bad Case of Tetanic Contraction
661(5)
Circulation
Heartworks
664(2)
Connections: Evolution of Circulatory Systems
666(2)
From Structure to Function
666(1)
Evolution of Vertebrate Circulation
667(1)
Links With the Lymphatic System
667(1)
Characteristics of Blood
668(2)
Functions of Blood
668(1)
Blood Volume and Composition
668(2)
Focus on Health: Blood Disorders
670(1)
Blood Transfusion and Typing
670(2)
Concerning Agglutination
670(1)
ABO Blood Typing
671(1)
Rh Blood Typing
671(1)
Human Cardiovascular System
672(2)
The Heart Is a Lonely Pumper
674(2)
Cardiac Cycle
674(1)
Cardiac Muscle Contraction
675(1)
Blood Pressure in the Cardiovascular System
676(2)
Arterial Blood Pressure
676(1)
How Can Arterioles Resist Flow?
677(1)
Controlling Mean Arterial Blood Pressure
677(1)
From Capillary Beds Back to the Heart
678(2)
Capillary Function
678(1)
Venous Pressure
679(1)
Focus on Health: Cardiovascular Disorders
680(2)
Hemostasis
682(1)
Lymphatic System
682(6)
Lymph Vascular System
682(1)
Lymphoid Organs and Tissues
682(4)
Immunity
Russian Roulette, Immunological Style
686(2)
Three Lines of Defense
688(1)
Surface Barriers to Invasion
688(1)
Nonspecific and Specific Responses
688(1)
Complement Proteins
689(1)
Inflammation
690(2)
The Roles of Phagocytes and Their Kin
690(1)
The Inflammatory Response
690(2)
Overview of the Immune System
692(2)
Defining Features
692(1)
The Key Defenders
692(1)
The Main Targets
692(1)
Control of Immune Responses
693(1)
How Lymphocytes Form and Do Battle
694(2)
B and T Cell Formation
694(1)
Lymphocyte Battlegrounds
695(1)
Antibody-Mediated Response
696(2)
The Roles of Antibodies
696(1)
Classes of Immunoglobulins
696(2)
Cell-Mediated Response
698(1)
Focus on Science: Cancer and Immunotherapy
699(1)
Monoclonal Antibodies
699(1)
Multiplying the Tumor Killers
699(1)
Therapeutic Vaccines
699(1)
Defenses Enhanced, Misdirected, or Compromised
700(2)
Immunization
700(1)
Allergies
700(1)
Autoimmune Disorders
701(1)
Deficient Immune Responses
701(1)
Focus on Health: AIDS---The Immune System Compromised
702(6)
Characteristics of AIDS
702(1)
How HIV Replicates
702(1)
A Titanic Struggle Begins
702(1)
How HIV Is Transmitted
702(1)
On Drug Treatments and Vaccines
703(3)
Respiration
Of Lungs and Leatherbacks
706(2)
The Nature of Respiration
708(1)
The Basis of Gas Exchange
708(1)
Which Factors Influence Gas Exchange?
708(1)
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
708(1)
Ventilation
708(1)
Transport Pigments
708(1)
Invertebrate Respiration
709(1)
Vertebrate Respiration
710(2)
Gills of Fishes and Amphibians
710(1)
Evolution of Paired Lungs
710(2)
Human Respiratory System
712(2)
What Are the System's Functions?
712(1)
From Airways Into the Lungs
713(1)
Cyclic Reversals in Air Pressure Gradients
714(2)
The Respiratory Cycle
714(1)
Lung Volumes
715(1)
Gas Exchange and Transport
716(2)
Exchanges at the Respiratory Membrane
716(1)
Oxygen Transport
716(1)
Carbon Dioxide Transport
716(1)
How To Match Air Flow With Blood Flow
717(1)
Focus on Health: When the Lungs Break Down
718(2)
Bronchitis
718(1)
Emphysema
718(1)
Effects of Smoking
718(2)
High Climbers and Deep Divers
720(6)
Respiration at High Altitudes
720(1)
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
720(1)
Respiration in Deep Water
720(4)
Digestion and Human Nutrition
Lose It---And It Finds Its Way Back
724(2)
The Nature of Digestive Systems
726(2)
Incomplete and Complete Systems
726(1)
Correlations With Feeding Behavior
726(2)
Visual Overview of the Human Digestive System
728(1)
Into the Mouth, Down the Tube
729(1)
Digestion in the Stomach and Small Intestine
730(2)
The Stomach
730(1)
The Small Intestine
730(1)
The Role of Bile in Fat Digestion
731(1)
Controls Over Digestion
731(1)
Absorption From the Small Intestine
732(2)
Structure Speaks Volumes About Function
732(1)
What Are the Absorption Mechanisms?
733(1)
Disposition of Absorbed Organic Compounds
734(1)
The Large Intestine
735(1)
Human Nutritional Requirements
736(2)
A Carbohydrate--Insulin Connection
737(1)
So What Do We Eat?
737(1)
Vitamins and Minerals
738(2)
Focus on Science: Weighty Questions, Tantalizing Answers
740(6)
The Internal Environment
Tale of the Desert Rat
744(2)
Urinary System of Mammals
746(2)
The Challenge---Shifts in Extracellular Fluid
746(1)
Water Gains and Losses
746(1)
Solute Gains and Losses
746(1)
Components of the Urinary System
747(1)
Nephrons--Functional Units of Kidneys
747(1)
Urine Formation
748(2)
Factors Influencing Filtration
748(1)
Reabsorption of Water and Sodium
749(1)
Reabsorption Mechanism
749(1)
Hormone-Induced Adjustments
749(1)
Thirst Behavior
749(1)
Focus on Health: When Kidneys Break Down
750(1)
The Body's Acid-Base Balance
750(1)
On Fish, Frogs, and Kangaroo Rats
751(1)
How Are Core Temperatures Maintained?
752(2)
Heat Gains and Heat Losses
752(1)
Ectotherms, Endotherms, and In-Betweens
752(2)
Temperature Regulation In Mammals
754(6)
Responses to Heat Stress
754(1)
Fever
754(1)
Responses to Cold Stress
755(3)
Principles of Reproduction and Development
From Frog to Frog and Other Mysteries
758(2)
The Beginning: Reproductive Modes
760(2)
Sexual Versus Asexual Reproduction
760(1)
Costs and Benefits of Sexual Reproduction
760(2)
Stages of Development---An Overview
762(2)
Early Marching Orders
764(2)
Information in the Egg Cytoplasm
764(1)
Cleavage---The Start of Multicellularity
764(1)
Cleavage Patterns
765(1)
How Do Specialized Tissues and Organs Form?
766(2)
Cell Differentiation
766(1)
Morphogenesis
767(1)
Pattern Formation
768(2)
Embryonic Signals in Pattern Formation
768(1)
A Theory of Pattern Formation
768(1)
Evolutionary Constraints on Development
769(1)
Focus on Science: To Know A Fly
770(2)
Why Do Animals Age?
772(1)
The Programmed Life Span Hypothesis
772(1)
The Cumulative Assaults Hypothesis
772(1)
Connections: Death in the Open
773(5)
Human Reproduction and Development
Sex and the Mammalian Heritage
776(2)
Reproductive System of Human Males
778(2)
Where Sperm Form
778(1)
Where Semen Forms
778(1)
Cancers of the Prostate and Testis
779(1)
Male Reproductive Function
780(2)
Sperm Formation
780(1)
Hormonal Controls
780(2)
Reproductive System of Human Females
782(2)
The Reproductive Organs
782(1)
Overview of the Menstrual Cycle
782(2)
Female Reproductive Function
784(2)
Cyclic Changes in the Ovary
784(1)
Cyclic Changes in the Uterus
785(1)
Visual Summary of the Menstrual Cycle
786(1)
Pregnancy Happens
787(1)
Sexual Intercourse
787(1)
Fertilization
787(1)
Formation of the Early Embryo
788(2)
Cleavage and Implantation
788(1)
Extraembryonic Membranes
789(1)
Emergence of the Vertebrate Body Plan
790(1)
Why Is The Placenta So Important?
791(1)
Emergence of Distinctly Human Features
792(2)
Focus on Health: Mother as Provider, Protector, Potential Threat
794(2)
From Birth Onward
796(2)
Giving Birth
796(1)
Nourishing the Newborn
796(1)
Regarding Breast Cancer
797(1)
Postnatal Development
797(1)
Focus on Bioethics: Control of Human Fertility
798(1)
Birth Control Options
798(2)
Focus on Health: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
800(2)
Focus on Bioethics: To Seek or End Pregnancy
802
Appendix I Classification System
Appendix II Units of Measure
Appendix III Answers to Self-Quizzes
Glossary
Credits and Acknowledgments
Subject Index
Index of Applications


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