Foreword | p. xxvii |

Preface | p. xxix |

About the Author | p. xxxvii |

Introduction And Early Phases Of Marketing Research | p. 1 |

Introduction to Marketing Research | p. 3 |

Objectives | p. 3 |

Overview | p. 3 |

What Does Marketing Research Encompass? | p. 4 |

The Nature of Marketing Research | p. 9 |

Definition of Marketing Research | p. 11 |

A Classification of Marketing Research | p. 12 |

The Role of Marketing Research in MIS and DSS | p. 14 |

Marketing Research Suppliers and Services | p. 16 |

Selecting a Research Supplier | p. 20 |

Careers in Marketing Research | p. 21 |

Marketing Research Process | p. 24 |

The Department Store Patronage Project | p. 26 |

International Marketing Research | p. 27 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 28 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 28 |

Defining the Marketing Research Problem and Developing an Approach | p. 33 |

Objectives | p. 33 |

Overview | p. 33 |

Importance of Defining the Problem | p. 35 |

The Process of Defining the Problem and Developing an Approach | p. 36 |

Tasks Involved | p. 37 |

Environmental Context of the Problem | p. 42 |

Management Decision Problem and Marketing Research Problem | p. 45 |

Defining the Marketing Research Problem | p. 46 |

Components of the Approach | p. 49 |

International Marketing Research | p. 57 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 59 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 59 |

Professional Perspectives for Part I | p. 65 |

The Industry Perspective | p. 65 |

The Profession of Marketing Research: A Strategic Assessment | p. 67 |

The Marketing Research Problem: From the DM's Desk to Study Execution | p. 70 |

Cases for Part I | p. 73 |

Life in the Fast Lane: Fast Food Chains Race to Be Number One | p. 73 |

Nike Sprints Ahead of the Competition, Yet Has a Long Way to Run | p. 75 |

Lexus: Imparting Value to Luxury or Luxury to Value? | p. 76 |

Marketing Research Lights the Way for Electric Utilities | p. 77 |

Research Design Formulation | p. 79 |

Research Design | p. 81 |

Objectives | p. 81 |

Overview | p. 81 |

Research Design: Definition | p. 83 |

Research Design: Classification | p. 83 |

Exploratory Research | p. 85 |

Descriptive Research | p. 87 |

Causal Research | p. 94 |

Relationships Among Exploratory, Descriptive, and Causal Research | p. 96 |

Potential Sources of Error | p. 97 |

Budgeting and Scheduling the Project | p. 102 |

Marketing Research Proposal | p. 102 |

International Marketing Research | p. 103 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 104 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 105 |

Exploratory Research Design: Secondary Data | p. 109 |

Objectives | p. 109 |

Overview | p. 109 |

Primary versus Secondary Data | p. 112 |

Advantages and Uses of Secondary Data | p. 112 |

Disadvantages of Secondary Data | p. 113 |

Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data | p. 113 |

Classification of Secondary Data | p. 117 |

Internal Secondary Data | p. 117 |

Published External Secondary Sources | p. 120 |

Computerized Databases | p. 122 |

Syndicated Sources of Secondary Data | p. 124 |

Syndicated Data from Households | p. 125 |

Syndicated Data from Institutions | p. 132 |

Combining Information from Different Sources: Single-Source Data | p. 134 |

Computer Mapping | p. 136 |

International Marketing Research | p. 137 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 138 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 139 |

Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research | p. 145 |

Objectives | p. 145 |

Overview | p. 145 |

Primary Data: Qualitative versus Quantitative Research | p. 147 |

Rationale for Using Qualitative Research | p. 148 |

A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures | p. 149 |

Focus Group Interviews | p. 149 |

Depth Interviews | p. 157 |

Projective Techniques | p. 161 |

International Marketing Research | p. 167 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 169 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 170 |

Descriptive Research Design: Survey and Observation | p. 176 |

Objectives | p. 176 |

Overview | p. 176 |

Survey Methods | p. 178 |

Survey Methods Classified by Mode of Administration | p. 179 |

A Comparative Evaluation of Survey Methods | p. 187 |

Selection of Survey Method(s) | p. 194 |

Observation Methods | p. 196 |

Observation Methods Classified by Mode of Administration | p. 197 |

A Comparative Evaluation of Observation Methods | p. 202 |

A Comparison of Survey and Observation Methods | p. 203 |

International Marketing Research | p. 204 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 206 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 207 |

Causal Research Design: Experimentation | p. 212 |

Objectives | p. 212 |

Overview | p. 212 |

Concept of Causality | p. 214 |

Conditions for Causality | p. 214 |

Definitions and Concepts | p. 217 |

Definition of Symbols | p. 218 |

Validity in Experimentation | p. 219 |

Extraneous Variables | p. 219 |

Controlling Extraneous Variables | p. 222 |

A Classification of Experimental Designs | p. 223 |

Preexperimental Designs | p. 224 |

True Experimental Designs | p. 226 |

Quasi-Experimental Designs | p. 228 |

Statistical Designs | p. 230 |

Laboratory versus Field Experiments | p. 233 |

Experimental versus Nonexperimental Designs | p. 234 |

Limitations of Experimentation | p. 234 |

Application: Test Marketing | p. 235 |

Determining a Test Marketing Strategy | p. 238 |

International Marketing Research | p. 238 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 239 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 240 |

Measurement and Scaling: Fundamentals and Comparative Scaling | p. 246 |

Objectives | p. 246 |

Overview | p. 246 |

Measurement and Scaling | p. 248 |

Primary Scales of Measurement | p. 248 |

A Comparison of Scaling Techniques | p. 254 |

Comparative Scaling Techniques | p. 255 |

Verbal Protocols | p. 259 |

International Marketing Research | p. 260 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 260 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 261 |

Measurement and Scaling: Noncomparative Scaling Techniques | p. 266 |

Objectives | p. 266 |

Overview | p. 266 |

Noncomparative Scaling Techniques | p. 268 |

Continuous Rating Scale | p. 268 |

Itemized Rating Scales | p. 270 |

Noncomparative Itemized Rating Scale Decisions | p. 275 |

Multiitem Scales | p. 278 |

Choosing a Scaling Technique | p. 285 |

Mathematically Derived Scales | p. 285 |

International Marketing Research | p. 285 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 286 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 287 |

Questionnaire and Form Design | p. 292 |

Objectives | p. 292 |

Overview | p. 292 |

Questionnaires and Observation Forms | p. 293 |

Questionnaire Design Process | p. 295 |

Specify the Information Needed | p. 295 |

Type of Interviewing Method | p. 296 |

Individual Question Content | p. 298 |

Overcoming Inability to Answer | p. 299 |

Overcoming Unwillingness to Answer | p. 301 |

Choosing Question Structure | p. 302 |

Choosing Question Wording | p. 305 |

Determining the Order of Questions | p. 309 |

Form and Layout | p. 312 |

Reproduction of the Questionnaire | p. 313 |

Pretesting | p. 315 |

Observational Forms | p. 318 |

International Marketing Research | p. 318 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 319 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 320 |

Sampling: Design and Procedures | p. 326 |

Objectives | p. 326 |

Overview | p. 326 |

Sample or Census | p. 328 |

The Sampling Design Process | p. 329 |

A Classification of Sampling Techniques | p. 334 |

Nonprobability Sampling Techniques | p. 335 |

Probability Sampling Techniques | p. 338 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 349 |

Sampling: Final and Initial Sample Size Determination | p. 354 |

Objectives | p. 354 |

Overview | p. 354 |

Definitions and Symbols | p. 356 |

The Sampling Distribution | p. 356 |

Statistical Approaches to Determining Sample Size | p. 358 |

The Confidence Interval Approach | p. 359 |

Multiple Characteristics and Parameters | p. 365 |

Other Probability Sampling Techniques | p. 366 |

Adjusting the Statistically Determined Sample Size | p. 366 |

Nonresponse Issues in Sampling | p. 368 |

International Marketing Research | p. 373 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 374 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 375 |

The Normal Distribution | p. 381 |

Professional Perspectives for Part II | p. 383 |

Secondary Data | p. 383 |

Syndicated Data Collection and Applications | p. 385 |

Qualitative Research: Is Our Creativity Going Too Far? | p. 388 |

Cases for Part II | p. 391 |

The Forecast Is Sunny for the Weather Channel! | p. 391 |

Who Is the Host with the Most? | p. 392 |

Candy Is Dandy for Hershey | p. 394 |

Fragrances Are Sweet, but Competition Is Bitter | p. 397 |

Is Super Bowl Advertising Super Effective? | p. 400 |

Data Collection, Preparation, And Analysis | p. 401 |

Field Work | p. 403 |

Objectives | p. 403 |

Overview | p. 403 |

The Nature of Field Work | p. 405 |

Field Work/Data Collection Process | p. 405 |

Selection of Field Workers | p. 405 |

Training of Field Workers | p. 407 |

Supervision of Field Workers | p. 410 |

Validation of Field Work | p. 412 |

Evaluation of Field Workers | p. 412 |

International Marketing Research | p. 412 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 414 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 416 |

Data Preparation | p. 418 |

Objectives | p. 418 |

Overview | p. 418 |

The Data Preparation Process | p. 420 |

Questionnaire Checking | p. 421 |

Editing | p. 421 |

Coding | p. 422 |

Transcribing | p. 425 |

Data Cleaning | p. 427 |

Statistically Adjusting the Data | p. 429 |

Selecting a Data Analysis Strategy | p. 433 |

A Classification of Statistical Techniques | p. 434 |

International Marketing Research | p. 437 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 438 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 439 |

Frequency Distribution, Cross-Tabulation, and Hypothesis Testing | p. 444 |

Objectives | p. 444 |

Overview | p. 444 |

Frequency Distribution | p. 448 |

Statistics Associated with Frequency Distribution | p. 450 |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | p. 454 |

A General Procedure for Hypothesis Testing | p. 454 |

Cross-Tabulations | p. 459 |

Statistics Associated with Cross-Tabulation | p. 465 |

Cross-Tabulation in Practice | p. 469 |

Hypotheses Testing Related to Differences | p. 469 |

Parametric Tests | p. 470 |

Nonparametric Tests | p. 477 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 481 |

Analysis of Variance and Covariance | p. 488 |

Objectives | p. 488 |

Overview | p. 488 |

Relationship among Techniques | p. 490 |

One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 492 |

Statistics Associated with One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 492 |

Conducting One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 492 |

Illustrative Applications of One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 497 |

Assumptions in Analysis of Variance | p. 499 |

N-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 501 |

Analysis of Covariance | p. 506 |

Issues in Interpretation | p. 507 |

Relative Importance of Factors | p. 508 |

Repeated Measures ANOVA | p. 510 |

Nonmetric Analysis of Variance | p. 511 |

Multivariate Analysis of Variance | p. 511 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 512 |

Correlation and Regression | p. 519 |

Objectives | p. 519 |

Overview | p. 519 |

Product Moment Correlation | p. 521 |

Partial Correlation | p. 525 |

Nonmetric Correlation | p. 527 |

Regression Analysis | p. 527 |

Bivariate Regression | p. 528 |

Statistics Associated with Bivariate Regression Analysis | p. 528 |

Conducting Bivariate Regression Analysis | p. 529 |

Multiple Regression | p. 538 |

Statistics Associated with Multiple Regression | p. 539 |

Conducting Multiple Regression Analysis | p. 539 |

Stepwise Regression | p. 546 |

Multicollinearity | p. 548 |

Relative Importance of Predictors | p. 549 |

Cross-Validation | p. 549 |

Regression with Dummy Variables | p. 550 |

Analysis of Variance and Covariance with Regression | p. 550 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 552 |

Discriminant Analysis | p. 559 |

Objectives | p. 559 |

Overview | p. 559 |

Basic Concept | p. 561 |

Relationship to Regression and Anova | p. 561 |

Discriminant Analysis Model | p. 562 |

Statistics Associated with Discriminant Analysis | p. 563 |

Conducting Discriminant Analysis | p. 563 |

Multiple Discriminant Analysis | p. 572 |

Stepwise Discriminant Analysis | p. 579 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 581 |

Estimation of Discriminant Function Coefficients | p. 584 |

Factor Analysis | p. 585 |

Objectives | p. 585 |

Overview | p. 585 |

Basic Concept | p. 586 |

Factor Analysis Model | p. 587 |

Statistics Associated with Factor Analysis | p. 588 |

Conducting Factor Analysis | p. 588 |

Applications of Common Factor Analysis | p. 601 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 604 |

Fundamental Equations of Factor Analysis | p. 608 |

Cluster Analysis | p. 610 |

Objectives | p. 610 |

Overview | p. 610 |

Basic Concept | p. 612 |

Statistics Associated with Cluster Analysis | p. 614 |

Conducting Cluster Analysis | p. 614 |

Applications of Nonhierarchical Clustering | p. 624 |

Clustering Variables | p. 627 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 629 |

Multidimensional Scaling and Conjoint Analysis | p. 633 |

Objectives | p. 633 |

Overview | p. 633 |

Basic Concepts in Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) | p. 636 |

Statistics and Terms Associated with MDS | p. 636 |

Conducting Multidimensional Scaling | p. 637 |

Assumptions and Limitations of MDS | p. 644 |

Scaling Preference Data | p. 644 |

Correspondence Analysis | p. 646 |

Relationship among MDS, Factor Analysis, and Discriminant Analysis | p. 647 |

Basic Concepts in Conjoint Analysis | p. 647 |

Statistics and Terms Associated with Conjoint Analysis | p. 648 |

Conducting Conjoint Analysis | p. 648 |

Assumptions and Limitations of Conjoint Analysis | p. 659 |

Hybrid Conjoint Analysis | p. 659 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 660 |

Professional Perspectives for Part III | p. 667 |

Cross-Tabulation | p. 667 |

Data Analysis: Multivariate Techniques | p. 670 |

Cases for Part III | p. 675 |

Danger! Celebrity in Use | p. 675 |

The Demographic Discovery of the Decade | p. 677 |

The Magic Wand of PepsiCo | p. 680 |

Matsushita Retargets the United States | p. 682 |

Pampers Develops a Rash--A Rash of Market Share | p. 684 |

Daimler/Chrysler Seeks a New Image | p. 687 |

Communication, International And Ethical Dimensions With Applications | p. 691 |

Report Preparation and Presentation | p. 693 |

Objectives | p. 693 |

Overview | p. 693 |

Importance of the Report and Presentation | p. 695 |

The Report Preparation and Presentation Process | p. 695 |

Report Preparation | p. 696 |

Oral Presentation | p. 705 |

Reading the Research Report | p. 706 |

Research Follow-Up | p. 707 |

International Marketing Research | p. 708 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 709 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 710 |

International Marketing Research | p. 714 |

Objectives | p. 714 |

Overview | p. 714 |

Marketing Research Goes International | p. 716 |

A Framework for International Marketing Research | p. 718 |

Survey Methods | p. 722 |

Measurement and Scaling | p. 726 |

Questionnaire Translation | p. 727 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 729 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 729 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 732 |

Objectives | p. 732 |

Overview | p. 732 |

Importance of Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 734 |

Stakeholders in Marketing Research | p. 735 |

Guidelines for Ethical Decision Making | p. 740 |

An Ethical Framework | p. 743 |

Ethics and the Marketing Research Process | p. 746 |

International Marketing Research | p. 747 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 749 |

Professional Perspectives for Part IV | p. 753 |

Preparing and Presenting the Marketing Research Report | p. 753 |

International Research | p. 756 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 758 |

Cases for Part IV | p. 761 |

Will KFC Fry the Competition in China? | p. 761 |

Can Whirlpool Whirl Itself in Europe? | p. 762 |

Appendix | p. A1 |

Notes | p. N1 |

Indexes | p. I1 |

Subject Index | p. I1 |

Company Index | p. 18 |

Name Index | p. 110 |

Credits | p. C1 |

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