Concepts and Examples of Research | |

Concepts | |

Examples | |

Concluding Remarks | |

References | |

Classification of Variables and the Choice of Analysis | |

Classification of Variables | |

Overlapping of Classification Schemes | |

Choice of Analysis | |

References | |

Basic Statistics: A Review | |

Preview | |

Descriptive Statistics | |

Random Variables and Distributions | |

Sampling Distributions of t, ?+2, and F | |

Statistical Inference: Estimation | |

Statistical Inference: Hypothesis Testing | |

Error Rate, Power, and Sample Size | |

Problems | |

References | |

Introduction to Regression Analysis | |

Preview | |

Association versus Causality | |

Statistical versus Deterministic Models | |

Concluding Remarks | |

References | |

Straight-Line Regression Analysis | |

Preview | |

Regression with a Single Independent Variable | |

Mathematical Properties of a Straight Line | |

Statistical Assumptions for a Straight-line Model | |

Determining the Best-fitting Straight Line | |

Measure of the Quality of the Straight-line Fit and Estimate? | |

Inferences About the Slope and Intercept | |

Interpretations of Tests for Slope and Intercept | |

Inferences About the Regression Line ?&Y X = ?-0 + ?-1X | |

Prediction of a New Value of Y at X | |

Problems | |

References | |

The Correlation Coefficient and Straight-Line Regression Analysis | |

Definition of r | |

r as a Measure of Association | |

The Bivariate Normal Distribution | |

r and the Strength of the Straight-line Relationship | |

What r Does Not Measure | |

Tests of Hypotheses and Confidence Intervals for the Correlation Coefficient | |

Testing for the Equality of Two Correlations | |

Problems | |

References | |

The Analysis-of-Variance Table | |

Preview | |

The ANOVA Table for Straight-line Regression | |

Problems | |

Multiple Regression Analysis: General Considerations | |

Preview | |

Multiple Regression Models | |

Graphical Look at the Problem | |

Assumptions of Multiple Regression | |

Determining the Best Estimate of the Multiple Regression Equation | |

The ANOVA Table for Multiple Regression | |

Numerical Examples | |

Problems | |

References | |

Testing Hypotheses in Multiple Regression | |

Preview | |

Test for Significant Overall Regression | |

Partial F Test | |

Multiple Partial F Test | |

Strategies for Using Partial F Tests | |

Tests Involving the Intercept | |

Problems | |

References | |

Correlations: Multiple, Partial, and Multiple Partial | |

Preview | |

Correlation Matrix | |

Multiple Correlation Coefficient | |

Relationship of RY X1, X2, mKXk to the Multivariate Normal Distribution | |

Partial Correlation Coefficient | |

Alternative Representation of the Regression Model | |

Multiple Partial Correlation | |

Concluding Remarks | |

Problems | |

References | |

Confounding and Interaction in Regression | |

Preview | |

Overview | |

Interaction in Regression | |

Confounding in Regression | |

Summary and Conclusions | |

Problems | |

References | |

Dummy Variables in Regression | |

Preview | |

Definitions | |

Rule for Defining Dummy Variables | |

Comparing Two Straight-line Regression Equations: An Example | |

Questions for Comparing Two Straight Lines | |

Methods of Comparing Two Straight Lines | |

Method I: Using Separate Regression Fits to Compare Two Straight Lines | |

Method II: Using a Single Regression Equation to Compare Two Straight Lines | |

Comparison of Methods I and II | |

Testing Strategies and Interpretation: Comparing Two Straight Lines | |

Other Dummy Variable Models | |

Comparing Four Regression Equations | |

Comparing Several Regression Equations Involving Two Nominal Variables | |

Problems | |

References | |

Analysis of Covariance and Other Methods for Adjusting Continuous Data | |

Preview | |

Adjustment Problem | |

Analysis of Covariance | |

Assumption of Parallelism: A Potential Drawback | |

Analysis of Covariance: Several Groups and Several Covariates | |

Comments and Cautions | |

Summary Problems | |

Reference | |

Regression Diagnostics | |

Preview | |

Simple Approaches to Diagnosing Problems in Data | |

Residual Analysis: Detecting Outliers and Violations of Model Assumptions | |

Strategies of Analysis | |

Collinearity | |

Scaling Problems | |

Diagnostics Example | |

An Important Caution | |

Problems | |

References | |

Polynomial Regression | |

Preview | |

Polynomial | |

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