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Approaches to Social Research,9780195147940
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Approaches to Social Research

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780195147940

ISBN10:
0195147944
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/12/2004
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $95.94
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    Approaches to Social Research




Summary

Never HIGHLIGHT a Book Again! Virtually all testable terms, concepts, persons, places, and events are included.look no further for study resources or reference material. Cram101 Textbook Outlines gives all of the outlines, highlights, notes, and practice-tests for your textbook. Only Cram101 is Textbook Specific. Cram101 is NOT the Textbook.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
Introduction
1(13)
Why Study Research Methods?
2(3)
Consuming Research Evidence
2(2)
Producing Research Evidence
4(1)
Methodological Approaches to the Social World
5(6)
Some Preliminary Research Questions
6(1)
An Experimental Answer
7(1)
An Answer from Survey Research
8(1)
An Answer from Field Research
9(1)
An Answer from Available Data
10(1)
Conclusions
11(3)
An Overview of the Book
12(2)
The Nature of Science
14(27)
The Aim of Science
15(1)
Science as Product
15(7)
Scientific versus Nonscientific Questions
16(1)
Knowledge as Description
17(1)
Knowledge as Explanation and Prediction
18(2)
Knowledge as Understanding
20(1)
Tentative Knowledge
21(1)
Science as Process
22(13)
Durkheim's Study of Suicide
23(4)
Logical Reasoning
27(2)
Empiricism
29(1)
Objectivity
30(2)
Control
32(3)
Science: Ideal versus Reality
35(3)
Summary
38(3)
I / RESEARCH DESIGN
41(112)
Elements of Research Design
43(33)
Origins of Research Topics
43(2)
Units of Analysis
45(3)
Aggregate Data
46(1)
Ecological Fallacy
47(1)
Variables
48(3)
Types of Variables
48(3)
Relationships
51(13)
Relationships among Qualitative Variables
52(1)
Relationships among Quantitative Variables
52(3)
Relationships between a Qualitative and a Quantitative Variable
55(1)
Statistically Significant Relationships
56(1)
The Nature of Causal Relationships
57(7)
Stating Problems and Hypotheses
64(4)
Research Purposes and Research Design
68(1)
Stages of Social Research
69(3)
Stage 1: Formulation of the Research Problem
69(1)
Stage 2: Preparation of the Research Design
70(1)
Stage 3: Measurement
71(1)
Stage 4: Sampling
71(1)
Stage 5: Data Collection
71(1)
Stage 6: Data Processing
71(1)
Stage 7: Data Analysis and Interpretation
71(1)
Summary
72(4)
Measurement
76(35)
The Measurement Process
76(10)
Conceptualization
76(2)
Operationalization
78(3)
Operational Definitions in Social Research
81(1)
Verbal Reports
82(2)
Observation
84(1)
Archival Records
84(1)
Selection of Operational Definitions
85(1)
Levels of Measurement
86(4)
Nominal Measurement
86(2)
Ordinal Measurement
88(1)
Interval Measurement
89(1)
Ratio Measurement
89(1)
Discussion
90(1)
Reliability and Validity
90(4)
Sources of Error
91(3)
Reliability Assessment
94(4)
Test--Retest Reliability
94(1)
Split-Half and Internal Consistency Reliability
95(1)
Intercoder Reliability
96(1)
Improving Reliability
97(1)
Validity Assessment
98(7)
Subjective Validation
99(1)
Criterion-Related Validation
100(5)
Construct Validation
A Final Note on Reliability and Validity
105(1)
Summary
105(6)
Sampling
111(42)
Why Sample?
112(1)
Population Definition
113(5)
Sampling Designs
118(1)
Probability Sampling
119(13)
Random Selection
119(1)
Simple Random Sampling
119(5)
Stratified Random Sampling
124(3)
Cluster Sampling
127(4)
Systematic Sampling
131(1)
Nonprobability Sampling
132(3)
Convenience Sampling
133(1)
Purposive Sampling
133(1)
Quota Sampling
134(1)
Other Sampling Designs
135(3)
Combined Probability and Nonprobability Sampling
136(1)
Referral Sampling
137(1)
Factors Affecting Choice of Sampling Design
138(2)
Stage of Research and Data Use
138(1)
Available Resources
139(1)
Method of Data Collection
140(1)
Factors Determining Sample Size
140(4)
Population Heterogeneity
140(1)
Desired Precision
141(2)
Sampling Design
143(1)
Available Resources
144(1)
Number of Breakdowns Planned
144(1)
Final Notes on Sampling Errors and Generalizability
144(2)
Summary
146(7)
II / METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
153(290)
Experimentation
155(32)
The Logic of Experimentation
155(7)
Testing Causal Relations
156(2)
Matching and Random Assignment
158(1)
Internal and External Validity
159(1)
Sampling in Experiments
160(2)
Staging Experiments
162(9)
An Example: Who Will Intervene?
162(4)
Subject Recruitment and Acquisition of Informed Consent
166(1)
Introduction to the Experiment
166(1)
The Experimental Manipulation
167(1)
Manipulation Checks
168(1)
Measurement of the Dependent Variable
168(1)
Debriefing
169(1)
Pretesting
170(1)
Experimental and Mundane Realism
170(1)
The Experiment as a Social Occasion
171(7)
Demand Characteristics
172(1)
Evaluation Apprehension
173(1)
Other Motives of Experimental Subjects
174(1)
Experimenter Effects
175(1)
Minimizing Bias Due to the Social Nature of Experimentation
176(2)
Experimentation Outside the Laboratory
178(5)
Field Experiments
178(3)
Experimental Designs in Survey Research
181(1)
Units of Analysis Other than Individuals
182(1)
Summary
183(4)
Experimental Designs
187(32)
Threats to Internal Validity
187(5)
Pre-experimental Designs
192(2)
Design 1: The One-Shot Case Study
192(1)
Design 2: The One-Group Pretest--Posttest Design
193(1)
Design 3: The Static-Group Comparison
194(1)
True Experimental Designs
194(6)
Design 4: The Pretest--Posttest Control Group Design
195(1)
Design 5: The Posttest-Only Control Group Design
196(1)
Design 6: The Solomon Four-Group Design
197(1)
Within-Subjects Designs
197(2)
Overview of True Experimental Designs
199(1)
Factorial Experimental Designs
200(6)
Interaction Effects
202(4)
Quasi-experimental Designs
206(8)
Example 1: Interracial Attitudes and Behavior at a Summer Camp
209(2)
Example 2: The Connecticut Crackdown on Speeding
211(3)
Summary
214(5)
Survey Research
219(44)
General Features of Survey Research
219(6)
Large-Scale Probability Sampling
219(2)
Systematic Procedures: Interviews and Questionnaires
221(2)
Quantitative Data Analysis
223(1)
Secondary Analysis of Surveys
224(1)
The Uses and Limitations of Surveys
225(2)
Survey Research Designs
227(5)
Cross-Sectional Designs
228(1)
Longitudinal Designs
229(3)
Steps in Survey Research: Planning
232(1)
Face-to-Face and Telephone Interviewing
233(9)
Face-to-Face Interviewing
237(1)
Telephone Interviewing
238(4)
Self-Administered Mailed Questionnaires
242(1)
Self-Administered Electronic Surveys
243(2)
Mixed Mode Surveys
245(1)
Field Administration
246(12)
Interviewer Selection
246(1)
Interviewer Training
247(1)
Pretesting
248(1)
Gaining Access
248(3)
Interviewing
251(5)
Supervision and Quality Control
256(1)
Follow-Up Efforts
257(1)
Summary
258(5)
Survey Instrumentation
263(43)
The Survey as a Social Occasion
264(2)
Materials Available to the Survey Designer
266(11)
Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questions
266(4)
Direct and Indirect Questions
270(3)
Response Formats
273(3)
Visual Aids
276(1)
Existing Questions
277(1)
``Sketches'' or Preliminaries
277(5)
The Opening
278(1)
The Placement of Sensitive and Routine Questions
279(1)
Order, Flow, and Transition
279(3)
Filling in the Sketch: Writing the Items
282(13)
Using Language Effectively
282(5)
The ``Frame of Reference'' Problem
287(1)
Reason Analysis
288(3)
Memory Problems
291(2)
Response Bias Problems
293(1)
Format Considerations
294(1)
Pretesting
295(5)
Cognitive Laboratory Interviews
297(1)
Field Pretesting
298(2)
Summary
300(6)
Field Research
306(39)
The Potentials and Limitations of Field Research
308(4)
Research Design and Sampling
312(2)
Sampling in Field Research
312(2)
Field Observation
314(5)
Nonparticipant Observation
314(2)
Participant Observation
316(3)
Field Interviewing
319(2)
Stages of Field Research
321(19)
A Field Study of the Homeless
322(2)
Selecting a Research Setting
324(1)
Gaining Access
325(3)
Presenting Oneself
328(4)
Gathering Information
332(5)
Analyzing the Data
337(3)
Summary
340(5)
Research Using Available Data
345(36)
Sources of Available Data
345(9)
Public Documents and Official Records
346(5)
Private Documents
351(1)
Mass Media
352(1)
Physical, Nonverbal Evidence
353(1)
Social Science Data Archives
353(1)
Advantages of Research Using Available Data
354(3)
Nonreactive Measurement
354(1)
Analyzing Social Structure
355(1)
Studying and Understanding the Past
355(1)
Understanding Social Change
356(1)
Studying Problems Cross-Culturally
356(1)
Improving Knowledge through Replication and Increased Sample Size
356(1)
Savings on Research Costs
357(1)
General Methodological Issues in Available-Data Research
357(7)
Searching for and Procuring Available Data
358(1)
Measurement of Key Concepts
359(1)
Evaluation of Data Quality
360(2)
Assessment of Data Completeness
362(2)
Historical Analysis
364(7)
Descriptive and Analytical History
364(2)
Handling Documentary Evidence
366(3)
Historical Interpretation
369(2)
Content Analysis
371(5)
Selecting and Defining Content Categories
372(1)
Defining the Unit of Analysis
373(1)
Deciding on a System of Enumeration
373(3)
Carrying Out the Analysis
376(1)
Summary
376(5)
Multiple Methods
381(28)
Triangulation
381(3)
Multiple Measures of Concepts within the Same Study
384(8)
Composite Measures: Indexes and Scales
384(5)
Structural Equation Modeling
389(3)
Multiple Tests of Hypotheses across Different Studies
392(5)
Replications Using the Same Research Strategy: Compliance without Pressure
393(2)
Replications Using Different Research Strategies: Deterrent Effects of Arrest
395(2)
A Comparison of the Four Basic Approaches to Social Research
397(4)
Meta-Analysis
401(5)
Problem Formulation
402(1)
Data Collection
403(1)
Data Evaluation
404(1)
Analysis and Interpretation
404(1)
Public Presentation
405(1)
Summary
406(3)
Evaluation Research
409(34)
Framework and Sample Studies
409(6)
Example 1: Feeding the Homeless
411(2)
Example 2: Aid to Released Prisoners
413(1)
Example 3: Curbing Drunk Driving
414(1)
Types of Evaluation Research
415(8)
Problem Identification: Conceptualization and Diagnosis
416(2)
Policy Planning: Needs and Social Impact Assessments
418(1)
Program Development: Formative Evaluation
419(1)
Program Implementation: Program Monitoring
420(2)
Program Evaluation: Effect and Efficiency Assessment
422(1)
Methodological Issues in Evaluation Research
423(12)
Theory as a Guide to Research
423(2)
Research Design and Internal Validity
425(8)
Measurement Validity
433(1)
External Validity
434(1)
The Social and Political Context of Evaluation Research
435(2)
Summary
437(6)
III / DATA PROCESSING, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION
443(114)
Data Processing and Elementary Data Analysis
445(38)
Preview of Analysis Steps
445(2)
Data Processing
447(6)
Editing
447(1)
Coding
448(3)
Entering the Data
451(1)
Cleaning
451(2)
Data Matrices and Documentation
453(3)
The Functions of Statistics in Social Research
456(1)
Inspecting and Modifying the Data
457(10)
Nominal- and Ordinal-Scale Variables
458(3)
Interval- and Ratio-Scale Variables
461(6)
Preliminary Hypothesis Testing
467(11)
Nominal- and Ordinal-Scale Variables
467(7)
Interval- and Ratio-Scale Variables
474(4)
Summary
478(5)
Multivariate Analysis
483(32)
Modeling Relationships
484(5)
Arrow Diagrams
484(3)
Stochastic and Systematic Components
487(1)
The Process of Modeling
488(1)
Elaboration: Tables and Beyond
489(7)
Multiple-Regression Analysis
496(13)
Example 1: The Moral Integration of American Cities
496(3)
Example 2: Interscholastic Sports and Academic Achievement
499(6)
Example 3: Textile Workers and Union Sentiment
505(4)
Other Modeling Techniques
509(1)
Summary
510(5)
Research Ethics
515(25)
Data Collection and Analysis
516(2)
Treatment of Human Subjects
518(14)
Harm
518(3)
Informed Consent
521(2)
Deception
523(3)
Privacy
526(2)
Making Ethical Decisions
528(4)
The Uses of Research: Science and Society
532(5)
The Issue of Value Neutrality
532(3)
The Application of Research Findings
535(2)
Summary
537(3)
Writing Research Reports
540(17)
The Internet
540(3)
Using the Library for Research
543(5)
Indexes and Abstracts
544(4)
Outlining and Preparing to Write
548(1)
Major Headings
549(4)
The Abstract
550(1)
Introduction
550(1)
Literature Review
550(1)
Methods
551(1)
Findings
552(1)
Discussion
553(1)
References
553(1)
Other Considerations
553(2)
The Writing--Reading Interface
553(1)
Revisions
554(1)
Length
554(1)
Summary
555(2)
Glossary 557(18)
References 575(27)
Name Index 602(7)
Subject Index 609


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