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Art of Thinking : A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought,9780321411280

Art of Thinking : A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780321411280

ISBN10:
0321411285
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $54.67
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Summary

Accessible and engaging, this unique text offers strategies for critical and creative thinking and includes many opportunities for practicing these fundamental skills. It will help readers think "outside the box" and to become more effective writers, speakers, and communicators. Helps readers think "outside the box" and to become more effective writers, speakers, and communicators. "Be Aware," "Be Creative," "Be Critical," and "Communicate Your Ideas."Anyone interested in learning new ways to think.

Table of Contents

To the Instructor xv
PART I Be Aware
1(84)
Developing Your Thinking: An Overview
3(22)
What Is Thinking?
4(1)
The Importance of Thinking
5(1)
Brain and Mind at Work
6(2)
The Production Phase
7(1)
The Judgment Phase
7(1)
Good Thinking Is a Habit
8(1)
The Structure of This Book
8(1)
Getting the Most from Your Efforts
9(1)
Using Feelings to Advantage
10(1)
Learning to Concentrate
11(1)
Coping with Frustration
12(1)
Making Discussion Meaningful
12(3)
Whenever Possible Prepare in Advance
13(1)
Set Reasonable Expectations
13(1)
Leave Egotism and Personal Agendas at the Door
13(1)
Contribute But Don't Dominate
13(1)
Avoid Distracting Speech Mannerisms
14(1)
Listen Actively
14(1)
Judge Ideas Responsibly
14(1)
Resist the Urge to Shout or Interrupt
14(1)
Preliminary Thinking Strategies
15(2)
Sample Exercises and Responses
17(8)
Warm-Up Exercises
18(1)
Applications
19(2)
Issue for Extended Analysis
21(4)
Establish a Foundation
25(20)
Free Will versus Determinism
26(1)
What Is Truth?
27(1)
What Is Knowing?
28(2)
Ways of Knowing
30(2)
Experience
30(1)
Observation
31(1)
Report
31(1)
The Problem of Remembering
32(1)
What Are Opinions
33(2)
Expressions of Taste
34(1)
Expressions of Judgement
34(1)
Debating Moral Questions
35(1)
The Basic of Moral Judgment
36(3)
Dealing with Dilemmas
39(6)
Warm-Up Exercises
39(1)
Applications
40(2)
Issue for Extended Analysis
42(3)
Broaden Your Perspective
45(17)
Becoming an Individual
47(2)
Habits That Hinder Thinking
49(7)
The Mine-Is-Better Habit
49(1)
Face Saving
50(1)
Resistance to Change
51(2)
Conformity
53(1)
Stereotyping
54(1)
Self-Deception
55(1)
Overcoming Bad Habits
56(6)
Warm-Up Exercises
57(1)
Applications
57(2)
Issue for Extended Analysis
59(3)
Be a Critical Reader
62(23)
Critical Reading Defined
63(1)
Making Important Distinctions
64(4)
The Distinction Between the Person and the Idea
64(1)
The Distinction Between Matters of Taste and Matters of Judgments
64(1)
The Distinction Between Fact and Interpretation
65(1)
The Distinction Between Literal and Ironic Statements
66(1)
The Distinction Between an Idea's Validity and the Quality of Its Expression
66(1)
The Distinction Between Language and Reality
67(1)
A Strategy for Critical Reading
68(3)
Step 1: Skim
68(1)
Step 2: Reflect
69(1)
Step 3: Read
69(1)
Step 4: Evaluate
70(1)
Expressing Your Judgment
71(1)
A Sample Evaluation
72(13)
Warm-Up Exercises
74(1)
Applications
74(8)
Issue for Extended Analysis
82(3)
PART II Be Creative
85(86)
The Creative Process
87(15)
Key Facts About Creativity
88(2)
Characteristics of Creative People
90(2)
Applying Creativity to Problems and Issues
92(3)
Taking a Novel Approach
92(1)
Devising or Modifying a Process or System
93(1)
Inventing a New Product or Service
93(1)
Finding New Uses for Existing Things
94(1)
Improving Things
94(1)
Inventing or Redefining a Concept
94(1)
Stages in the Creative Process
95(7)
The First Stage: Searching for Challenges
95(1)
The Second Stage: Expressing the Problem or Issue
96(1)
The Third Stage: Investigating the Problem or Issue
96(1)
The Fourth Stage: Producing Ideas
96(1)
Warm-Up Exercises
97(1)
Applications
97(1)
Issue for Extended Analysis
98(4)
Search for Challenges
102(15)
The Importance of Curiosity
103(2)
How Curiosity Is Lost
105(1)
Regaining Your Curiosity
105(1)
Six Helpful Techniques
106(11)
Be Observant
106(2)
Look for Imperfections
108(1)
Note Your Own and Others' Dissatisfactions
108(1)
Search for Causes
109(1)
Be Sensitive to Implications
110(1)
Recognize the Opportunity in Controversy
111(1)
Warm-Up Exercises
111(1)
Applications
112(1)
Issue for Extended Analysis
113(4)
Express the Problem or Issue
117(13)
Distinguishing Problems from Issue
118(1)
Expressing Problems
118(1)
Expressing Issues
119(1)
When Problems Become Issues
120(1)
Guidelines for Expressing Problems and Issues
121(1)
Benefits of Careful Expression
121(2)
It Helps You Move Beyond the Familiar and Habitual
121(1)
It Keeps Your Thinking Flexible
121(1)
It Opens Many Lines of Thought
122(1)
A Sample Problem
123(1)
A Sample Issue
124(6)
Warm-Up Exercises
125(1)
Applications
126(1)
Issue for Extended Analysis
127(3)
Investigate the Problem or Issue
130(22)
What to Look For
131(6)
Eyewitness Testimony
131(1)
Unpublished Report
132(1)
Published Report
132(1)
Expert Opinion
132(1)
Experiment
133(1)
Statistics
134(1)
Survey
134(1)
Observational Study
134(1)
Research Review
135(1)
Your Personal Experience
135(1)
The Experiences of People You Know
136(1)
Using the Library
137(2)
Using the Internet
139(3)
Maintaining a Questioning Perspective
142(1)
Managing an Interview
142(1)
Avoiding Plagiarism
143(2)
Conducting Your Own Research
145(1)
Consider Doing a Survey
145(1)
Consider Doing an Observational Study
146(1)
Keeping Creativity Alive
146(6)
Warm-Up Exercises
146(1)
Applications
147(2)
Issue for Extended Analysis
149(3)
Produce Ideas
152(19)
Stimulating Your Imagination
153(4)
Force Uncommon Responses
154(1)
Use Free Association
154(1)
Use Analogy
154(1)
Look for Unusual Combinations
155(1)
Visualize the Solution
155(1)
Construct Pro and Con Arguments
155(1)
Construct Relevant Scenarios
156(1)
Aiming for Originality
157(1)
Withholding Judgment
158(1)
Overcoming Obstacles
158(2)
Thinker's Block
158(1)
Vagueness and Confusion
159(1)
Inflexibility
160(1)
How Insight Occurs
160(1)
A Sample Problem
161(2)
A Sample Issue
163(8)
Warm-Up Exercises
165(1)
Applications
166(1)
Issue for Extended Analysis
167(4)
PART III Be Critical
171(56)
The Role of Criticism
173(13)
Why Criticism Is Necessary
173(1)
Focus on Your Ideas
174(1)
Overcoming Obstacles to Critical Thinking
175(1)
Applying Curiosity
175(1)
Avoiding Assumptions
176(1)
Refining Your Solutions to Problems
177(1)
A Sample Problem
177(1)
Refining Your Positions on Issues
178(1)
A Sample Issue
179(7)
Taking Action on the Issue
180(1)
Warm-Up Exercises
181(1)
Applications
181(1)
Issue for Extended Analysis
182(4)
Refine Your Solution to the Problem
186(13)
Three Steps in Refining
187(4)
Step 1: Working Out the Details
187(1)
Step 2: Finding Imperfections and Complications
188(1)
Step 3: Making Improvements
189(2)
Two Sample Problems
191(8)
The First Problem
191(1)
The Second Problem
192(2)
Warm-Up Exercises
194(1)
Applications
194(1)
Issue for Extended Analysis
195(4)
Evaluate Your Argument on the Issue
199(18)
Errors Affecting Truth
199(4)
Either/Or Thinking
200(1)
Avoiding the Issue
200(1)
Overgeneralizing
201(1)
Oversimplifying
202(1)
Double Standard
202(1)
Shifting the Burden of Proof
202(1)
Irrational Appeal
203(1)
Errors Affecting Validity
203(2)
A Special Problem: The Hidden Premise
205(2)
Recognizing Complex Arguments
207(1)
Steps in Evaluating an Argument
208(1)
The Case of Parents Protesting TV Programs
209(1)
The Case of the Mentally Impaired Girls
210(7)
Warm-Up Exercises
211(1)
Applications
211(3)
Issue for Extended Analysis
214(3)
Refine Your Resolution of the Issue
217(10)
Step 1: Deciding What Action Should Be Taken
218(1)
Step 2: Recognizing and Overcoming Difficulties
218(1)
Should Children Pledge Allegiance?
219(1)
Should the Miranda Rule Be Abolished?
220(7)
Warm-Up Exercises
221(1)
Applications
222(1)
Issue for Extended Analysis
223(4)
PART IV Communicate Your Ideas
227(35)
Persuading Others
229(13)
Understanding Why People Reject Ideas
230(1)
Knowing Your Audience
231(2)
Anticipating Your Audience's Objections
233(2)
The Brainstorming Technique
233(1)
The Imaginary-Dialogue Technique
233(2)
Presenting Your Ideas to Advantage
235(2)
Respect Your Audience
235(1)
Begin with the Familiar
236(1)
Select the Most Appropriate Tone
236(1)
Emphasize the Evidence for Your View
237(1)
Answer All Significant Objections
237(1)
The Importance of Timing
237(5)
Warm-Up Exercises
238(1)
Applications
239(1)
Issue for Extended Analysis
239(3)
Writing and Speaking Effectively
242(20)
Characteristics of Effective Writing
243(1)
A Step-by-Step Approach to Composition
244(3)
Planning
244(2)
Drafting
246(1)
Revising
246(1)
Editing
246(1)
Developing a Readable Style
247(1)
A Sample Composition
248(2)
The Challenge of Effective Speaking
250(1)
Types of Speeches
251(1)
Organizing Your Material
251(2)
Sample Outline and Speech
253(2)
Practicing the Delivery
255(7)
Warm-Up Exercises
256(1)
Applications
256(2)
Issue for Extended Analysis
258(4)
Solutions to Sample Problems
262(2)
The Three Glasses Problem
262(1)
The Young Girl/Old Woman Problem
262(1)
The Vase and Faces Problem
263(1)
Notes 264(7)
Index 271


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