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Assessment in Early Childhood Education,9780130193421

Assessment in Early Childhood Education

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130193421

ISBN10:
0130193429
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $46.00
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Summary

For Early Childhood Assessment and Early Childhood Tests and Measurement courses. This user-friendly core text discusses assessment in terms that are understandable for pre-service and in-service teachers. Its strong coverage of traditional assessment vehicles is apparent in its comprehensive treatment of standardized tests. Non-traditional vehicles are also thoroughly examined in several chapters on informal evaluation methods. The approach of this edition supports the development of an assessment system that includes both traditional and authentic assessment strategies in a comprehensive plan.

Table of Contents

Part I Introduction to Assessment in Early Childhood 1(260)
An Overview of Assessment in Early Childhood
2(18)
Understanding Assessment in Infancy and Early Childhood
3(2)
The Evolution of Assessment of Young Children
5(6)
The Child Study Movement
6(1)
Standardized Tests
7(1)
Head Start and the War on Poverty
8(1)
Legislation for Young Children with Disabilities
8(3)
Current Issues and Trends in Assessment in Early Childhood Education
11(3)
Concerns About Testing Young Children in Public School Settings
11(1)
Concerns About Testing Young Children with Cultural and Language Differences
12(1)
Concerns About Testing Young Children with Disabilities
13(1)
Authentic and Performance Assessment
13(1)
An Overview of Topics Covered in This Book
14(2)
Summary
16(1)
Review Questions
16(1)
Suggested Activity
17(1)
Key Terms
17(1)
References
17(3)
How Infants and Young Children Should Be Assessed
20(20)
Entering a New Century: What Assessment Should Do
21(3)
Principles for Assessment
22(1)
Principles for Early Childhood Assessments
23(1)
How Infants and Young Children Are Assessed
24(6)
Developing a Comprehensive System of Assessment
30(2)
Components of an Assessment System
30(2)
Using Assessment Results
32(2)
Using Assessment Results to Plan for Instruction
33(1)
Using Assessment Results to Report Progress
33(1)
Using Assessment Results to Evaluate the Instructional Program
33(1)
Assessment of Young Children: The Process
34(1)
Assessment at the Beginning of the School Year
34(1)
Ongoing Assessment
34(1)
Assessment at the End of Reporting Periods
34(1)
Assessment at the End of the School Year
35(1)
Working with Young Children in an Assessment Setting
35(1)
Summary
36(1)
Review Questions
37(1)
Suggested Activities
37(1)
Key Terms
37(1)
References
38(2)
Part II Standardized Tests
Standardized Tests: How They Are Used, Designed, and Selected
40(28)
How Standardized Tests Are Used with Infants and Young Children
41(7)
Types of Standardized Tests
41(7)
Steps in Standardized Test Design
48(8)
Specifying the Purpose of the Test
51(1)
Determining Test Format
51(1)
Developing Experimental Forms
52(1)
Assembling the Test
53(1)
Standardizing the Test
53(1)
Developing the Test Manual
54(1)
Validity and Reliability
54(2)
Standard Error of Measurement
56(1)
Interpreting Test Scores
56(3)
The Normal Curve
56(1)
Standard Deviations
57(1)
Percentile Ranks and Stanines
58(1)
Z Scores and T Scores
59(1)
Considerations in Choosing and Evaluating Tests
59(3)
Summary
62(1)
Review Questions
63(1)
Suggested Activities
63(1)
Key Terms
63(1)
References
64(4)
Standardized Tests: Using and Reporting Standardized Test Results
68(32)
Uses of Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
70(7)
Distinctions Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests
70(2)
Uses of Norm-Referenced Tests with Preschool Children
72(1)
Uses of Norm-Referenced Tests with School-Aged Children
72(1)
Uses of Criterion-Referenced Tests with Preschool Children
73(1)
Uses of Criterion-Referenced Tests with School-Aged Children
73(4)
Reporting Standardized Test Results
77(3)
Individual Test Record
77(1)
Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Scores
77(3)
Class Reports
80(1)
School and District Reports
80(1)
Reporting Test Results to Parents
80(5)
Grade Equivalents
81(1)
Percentile Ranks
81(1)
Stanines
82(3)
Reporting Achievement on Criterion-Referenced Objectives
85(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Standardized Tests
85(5)
Advantages of Standardized Tests
85(1)
Disadvantages of Standardized Tests
86(4)
Limitations in Using Standardized Test Results with Young Children
90(5)
Concerns About Validity and Reliability
91(1)
Difficulties in Administering Tests to Young Children
92(1)
Misapplication of Test Results
93(1)
The Need for Improvements in Standardized Tests
94(1)
Summary
95(1)
Review Questions
95(1)
Suggested Activities
96(1)
Key Terms
96(1)
References
96(4)
Part III Informal Assessments
Informal Assessments: Observation
100(30)
Uses of Teacher Assessment Strategies
101(2)
Placement Evaluation
102(1)
Diagnostic Evaluation and Instructional Planning
102(1)
Formative and Summative Evaluation
102(1)
Advantages of Using Informal Assessments
103(2)
Disadvantages of Using Informal Assessments
105(2)
Purposes of Observation
107(3)
Understanding Children's Behavior
107(1)
Evaluating Children's Development
108(1)
Assessing Progress in Learning
109(1)
Types of Observation
110(6)
Anecdotal Record
110(1)
Running Record
110(1)
Specimen Record
111(3)
Time Sampling
114(1)
Event Sampling
114(1)
Checklists and Rating Scales
115(1)
Audiotapes and Videotapes
116(1)
Observing Development
116(6)
Physical Development
118(1)
Social and Emotional Development
119(1)
Cognitive Development
120(1)
Language Development
121(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Observation for Evaluation
122(1)
Observation Guidelines
123(3)
Determining the Observation Site
123(1)
Observer Behaviors During the Observation Visit
124(1)
Ethics During the Observation Visit
124(1)
Avoiding Personal Bias
125(1)
Summary
126(1)
Review Questions
126(1)
Suggested Activity
127(1)
Key Terms
127(1)
References
127(3)
Informal Assessments: Checklists, Rating Scales, and Rubrics
130(36)
Checklists
131(2)
Purposes of Checklists
131(1)
Using Checklists with Preschool Children
132(1)
Using Checklists with School-Aged Children
132(1)
Using Checklists to Assess Children with Delays in Development
133(1)
How Checklists Are Designed and Used
133(6)
Checklists as a Guide to Understand Development
135(1)
Checklists as a Guide to Develop Curriculum
135(4)
Checklists as a Guide to Assess Learning and Development
139(1)
Evaluating and Assessing with Checklists
139(1)
Evaluating Checklist Objectives by Observation
139(1)
Evaluating Checklist Objectives with Learning Activities
140(1)
Evaluating Checklist Objectives with Specific Tasks
140(1)
Steps in Checklist Design
140(3)
Identification of the Skills to Be Included
141(1)
Separate Listing of Target Behaviors
142(1)
Sequential Organization of the Checklist
142(1)
Recordkeeping
142(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Checklists
143(2)
Advantages of Using Checklists
143(1)
Disadvantages of Using Checklists
143(2)
Rating Scales
145(5)
Types of Rating Scales
145(1)
Uses of Rating Scales
146(4)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Rating Scales
150(3)
Advantages of Using Rating Scales
150(3)
Disadvantages of Using Rating Scales
153(1)
Rubrics
153(7)
Types of Rubrics
153(2)
How Rubrics Are Designed and Used
155(5)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Rubrics
160(1)
Advantages of Using Rubrics
160(1)
Disadvantages of Using Rubrics
161(1)
Developing Quality Checklists, Rating Scales, and Rubrics
161(2)
Checklists
161(1)
Rating Scales
161(1)
Rubrics
162(1)
Consistency in Conducting and Scoring Assessments
162(1)
Summary
163(1)
Review Questions
163(1)
Suggested Activities
164(1)
Key Terms
164(1)
References
164(2)
Informal Assessments: Teacher-Designed Strategies
166(30)
Purposes of Teacher-Designed Assessments and Tests
167(2)
Types of Tests Used with Preschool and Primary Grade Children
169(5)
How Tests Are Designed and Used
174(14)
Steps in Test Design
176(10)
Designing Learning Experiences
186(1)
Designing Correctives and Enrichment Activities
186(2)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Teacher-Designed Evaluations
188(3)
Developing Quality Teacher-Designed Assessments
191(1)
Concrete Tasks for Preschool
191(1)
Tests for Primary Grade Children
192(1)
Summary
192(1)
Review Questions
193(1)
Suggested Activities
193(1)
Key Terms
193(1)
References
194(2)
Informal Assessments: Performance-Based Strategies
196(22)
Authentic Learning and Authentic Assessment
198(1)
Purposes for Performance-Based Assessment
199(1)
Types of Performance-Based Assessment
199(6)
Interviews
199(1)
Contracts
200(2)
Directed Assignments
202(1)
Games
202(1)
Work Samples
203(1)
Projects
204(1)
Portfolios
204(1)
Understanding the Interrelated Nature of Performance Assessments
205(4)
The Role of the Teacher
205(1)
Classification and Organization of Performance Assessments
206(1)
The Role of Observation
206(2)
The Role of Rubrics
208(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Performance-Based Assessment
209(3)
Advantages of Using Performance-Based Assessment
209(1)
Disadvantages of Using Performance-Based Assessments
210(2)
Developing Quality Performance Assessments
212(1)
Summary
213(1)
Review Questions
214(1)
Suggested Activities
214(1)
Key Terms
214(1)
References
214(4)
Part IV Using Assessment Systems
Assessment Systems: Portfolio Assessment
218(26)
Understanding the Need for Alternative Assessment and Reporting Systems
219(4)
Using Alternative Assessments Appropriately
220(1)
Limitations of Letter Grades and Report Cards
220(3)
Portfolio Assessment
223(1)
Purposes for Portfolio Assessment
223(1)
Organizing Portfolios
224(5)
Types of Portfolios
224(1)
Organizing Portfolios Using a Developmental Approach
225(2)
Organizing Portfolios Using a Subject Area Approach
227(2)
Setting Up Portfolios
229(7)
Steps in Getting Started
229(3)
Collecting and Organizing Work
232(1)
Selecting Portfolio Assessments
232(3)
Strategies for Developing Successful Portfolios
235(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Portfolios to Report Student Progress
236(4)
Developing Quality Portfolio Assessments
240(1)
Summary
241(1)
Review Questions
241(1)
Suggested Activity
242(1)
References
242(2)
Assessment Systems: Communicating with Parents
244(17)
Developing Parent-School Partnerships
246(1)
Roles for Parents in the Child's Development and Learning
246(1)
Assessment Roles of Parents of Children with Disabilities
246(1)
Involving Parents in the Assessment Process
247(1)
Strategies to Report Student Progress
247(4)
Using Portfolios to Report Student Progress
247(1)
Using Narrative Reports to Report Student Progress
248(3)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Narrative Reports to Report Student Progress
251(1)
Model Assessment and Reporting Systems
251(3)
Project Spectrum
251(1)
The Work Sampling System
252(2)
The Child Observation Record
254(1)
Communicating with Parents About Children's Progress
254(3)
Planning for Parent Conferences
254(1)
Parent Conferences
255(2)
Summary: Looking to the Future
257(1)
Review Questions
258(1)
Suggested Activity
258(1)
References
259(2)
Glossary 261(4)
A Selected Annotated Bibliography of Evaluation Instruments for Infancy and Early Childhood 265(6)
Index 271


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