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Assessment Is Essential,9780073378725
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Assessment Is Essential

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780073378725

ISBN10:
0073378720
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/27/2009
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

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Summary

Assessment is Essentialoffers a novel approach for educational assessment courses. Stressing a practical approach that encourages students to think critically about designing the appropriate assessment for a wide range of situations, Green provides students with tools they can use in their future classrooms.

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1: Why is Assessment Essential?

Introduction

A Broad View: Assessment and Democratic Values

The Key Question: Will This Help My Students Learn?

Equal Access to Educational Opportunity

Self-Governing Skills for Participation in a Democracy

Traditional Functions of Schools: Sorting and Performance

Transforming Functions of Schools: Helping All Children with Mastery Goals

Assessment Tasks that Enhance Mastery Goals

Promoting Mastery Goals through Assessment: Examples

The Importance of Critical Thinking

An Overview of Assessment

Purposes of Assessment

Action Research and the Inquiry Stance

Inquiry Stance

Ethics and Assessment

Do No Harm

Avoid Score Pollution

Examples from Classrooms and Headlines

Judgment Calls

Harder Judgment Calls

Your Turn

Final Thoughts on Ethics and Assessment

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

References

Chapter 2: Learning Goals: The First Step

Introduction

Defining and Using Learning Goals

Backward Design

Benefits of Specifying Learning Goals

Where Do Learning Goals Come From?

State and National Content Standards

District Curriculum Guides

Teacher Editions

Too Many Learning Goals, Too Little Time: Selecting Learning Goals

How Do I Write Good Learning Goals?

Selecting the Verb

Writing the Noun Phrase

Specificity of Learning Goals

Simplifying Learning Goals

Student Input to Learning Goals

Learning Goals, Critical Thinking Skills, and Taxonomies

Cognitive Taxonomies

Affective and Psychomotor Taxonomies

Tables of Specifications

Benefits of a Table of Specifications

Using a Modified Table of Specifications for Test Design

Challenges in Using a Table of Specifications

Case Study Applications

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

References

Chapter 3: Diagnostic Assessment: Ensuring Student Success from the Beginning

Introduction

Before You Begin: High Expectations and Behaviors That Convey Them

Choose Your Sources of Information Wisely

Before Classes Start

After You Meet Your Students

As You Begin a New Unit of Instruction

Key Steps in Designing Pre-Unit Diagnostic Assessments

1. Prioritize Content from Your Learning Goals

2. Design and Administer Brief Measures of Top Priority Content

3. Gather Other Useful Information

Making the Most of Your Diagnostic Assessments

Accommodations for Diverse Learners in Diagnostic Assessment

Students with Fine Motor Difficulties

Students Learning English

Students Who Have Already Mastered the Learning Goals

Students Who Have Difficulty Focusing Attention

Students with Literacy Skills below Typical Peers

Students Who Lack Familiarity with U.S. School Culture

Final Thoughts on Accommodation for Diagnostic Assessment

Case Study Application

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

References

Chapter 4: Formative Assessment: Ongoing Assessment to Promote Student Success

Introduction

Formative Assessment: The Essential Link between Teaching and Learning

Element 1: Make Students Aware of the Learning Goals and Evaluation Standards

Element 2: Provide Formative Tasks that Involve Understanding and Application

Element 3: Provide Students with Feedback to Close Any Gaps

Element 4: Avoid Grading Formative Tasks

Element 5: Offer Students an Opportunity to Close Any Gaps

Element 6: Use Formative Assessment for Enhancing Instruction

Accommodations for Diverse Learners for Formative Assessment

Case Study Application

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

References

Chapter 5: Progress Monitoring: Assessment as a Motivational Tool

Introduction

Goal Setting as the First Key Step

Commitment

Specific, Shorter-Term Goals

Formative Tasks as the Foundation for Monitoring Growth

Two Approaches to Progress Monitoring

Mastery Monitoring

General Outcome Measurement

Issues to Consider: Progress Monitoring

Summarizing Data for Groups

Frequency Distributions

Measures of Central Tendency

Building a Useful Table: An Analysis and Communication Tool

Disaggregation Uncovers Hidden Trends

Case Study Application

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

References

Chapter 6: Essential Characteristics of Assessment

Introduction

Reliability: Are We Getting Consistent Information?

Sources of Error

Sufficiency of Information

Improving Reliability in Classroom Assessments

Validity: Will Scores Support Us In Making Good Decisions?

Importance of Purpose in Considering Validity

Evidence for Validity

Improving Validity in Classroom Assessments

Relationship between Reliability and Validity

Avoiding Bias in Assessments

Unfair Penalization

Opportunity to Learn

Teacher Bias

Representing the Diversity of the Classroom

Stereotypical Representation

Contextual Invisibility

Historical Distortions

Keeping the Three Democratic Values in Mind

Equal Access to Educational Opportunity

Skills for Democratic Participation

Development of Critical Thinking Skills

Case Study Application

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

References

Chapter 7: Teacher Made Assessments: Multiple Choice and Other Selected-Response Items

Introduction

Aligning Items with Learning Goals and Thinking Skills

Selected-Response Formats

Multiple-Choice Formats

True-False Formats

Matching Formats

Interpretive Exercises and Assessing Higher-Level Cognitive Levels

Guidelines for Item Development

General Guidelines for All Selected-Response Formats

Guidelines for Specific Test Formats

Pitfalls to Avoid: Top Challenges in Designing

Selected-Response Items

Constructing the Assessment

The Value of Student-Generated Items and Critical Thinking

Accommodations for Diverse Learners: Selected Response Items

Students with Fine Motor Difficulties

Students with Sensory Challenges

Students Learning English

Students Who Have Already Mastered the Learning Goals

Students Who Have Difficulty Focusing Attention

Students with Literacy Skills below Typical Peers

Students Who Lack Familiarity with School Culture

Case Study Application

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

References

Chapter 8: Teacher Made Assessments: Short Answer and Essay

Introduction

Aligning Items with Learning Goals and Thinking Skills

Constructed Response Formats

Short-Answer Formats

Essay Formats

Guidelines for Item Development

General Guidelines for All Constructed-Response Formats

Guidelines for Specific Item Formats

Constructing the Assessment

Scoring the Assessment

Scoring Short-Answers

Scoring Essays

Developing a Scoring Guide

Factors Contributing Error to Essay Scores

Pitfalls to Avoid: Top Common Challenges in Constructed-Response Items and Scoring Guides

Essay Pitfalls

Scoring Guide Pitfalls

The Value of Student-Generated Items and Critical ThinkingA

ccommodations for Diverse Learners: Constructed-

Response Items

Case Study Application

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

Chapter 9: Teacher-Made Assessments: Performance Assessments

Introduction

Aligning Items with Learning Goals and Thinking Skills

When To Use Performance Assessments

Guidelines for Task Development

Specify the Understanding and Skills to be Addressed

Build Meaningfulness into the Task

Determine the Response Format

Consider the Materials and the Resources Required

Address the Degree of Structure for a Task

Monitor the Reading Demands

Address Logistics in Task Directions

Scoring the Assessment

Weighting Performance Criteria

Attaching a Grade Scale

Pitfalls to Avoid: Top Challenges in Performance Assessments

Keep the Task Related to Learning Goals

Provide Practice before Assigning the Task

Limit the Number of Performance Criteria in the Rubric

The Value of Student-Generated Items and Critical Thinking

Accommodations for Diverse Learners: Performance Tasks

Students with Fine Motor Difficulties

Student with Sensory Challenges

Students Learning English

Students Who Have Already Mastered Learning Goals

Students Who Have Difficulty Focusing Attention

Students with Literacy Skills below Typical Peers

Case Study Application

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

References

Chapter 10: Grading and Communicating About Student Achievement

Introduction

Why Does Grading Cause So Many Problems?

Advocate versus Evaluator

Symbolic Value of Grades

Lack of Agreement on the Judgment Process

Ambiguous Meaning of Grades

The Grading Decision Process

Follow School District Grading Policy

Base Grading on Summative Assessments

Ensure Quality of Assessment

Involve Students

Weigh Recent and Consistent Performance Most Heavily

Avoid Unduly Weighting Factors Unrelated to Mastery of the Learning Goals

Avoid Using Grades and Rewards and Punishments

Review Borderline Cases Carefully

A Special Case: Students with Disabilities

Grading as Skill

Types of Grading Approaches

Basis for Comparison

Types of Summarizing Systems

Portfolios and Communicating About Achievement

Portfolio Purposes

Implementation Issues

Portfolio Advantages and Limitations

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

References

Chapter 11: Large Scale Standardized Tests and the Classroom

Introduction

Definitions Related to Large Scale Standardized Testing

Criterion-Referenced Scoring and Norm-Referenced Scoring

Achievement Tests and Aptitude Tests

Misconceptions Related to Large-Scale Testing

Misconception 1. Obtained Score Represents the True Score

Misconception 2. Only Commercically Published Multiple-Choice Test Can Be Standardized

Misconception 3. Norm-Referenced Tests Compare People Who Took the Test at the Same Time

Misconception 4. Standardized Tests with Multiple-Choice Formats Address Basic Facts Only

Misconception 5: Using Large-Scale Tests to Address Individual Student Needs

Benefits and Pitfalls of Large-Scale Assessments

Comparisons

Curriculum Concerns

Addressing Improvement

Preparation For and Administration of Large-Scale Tests

Preparation for Tests

Administration of Large-Scale Tests

Large-Scale Test Accommodations for Diverse Learners

Reliability and Validity in Large-Scale Tests

Reliability

Validity

Interpreting Norm-Referenced Tests

Foundational Issues in Interpretation of Test Scores

Importance of the Norm Group

Comparing the Individual to the Norm Group

Interpreting Criterion-Referenced Tests

Interpreting Large-Scale Tests for Students and Parents

Explain Purpose and Content

Explain the Basis for Comparison

Explain the Influence of Error on Scores

Choose One Type of Score to Explain All Parts of the Test

Put the Scores in Larger Context

Work as Partners to Determine the Next Steps

Using Large-Scale Test Results in the Classroom

Key Chapter Points

Helpful Websites

Chapter Review Questions

References

Chapter 12: Tying It All Together

Introduction

Six Essential Guidelines

Guideline 1: Begin with the End in Mind

Guideline 2: Find out What Students Know

Guideline 3: Check As You Go

Guideline 4: Teach Students to Check as You Go

Guideline 5: Use Rubrics to Reinforce Attainment of the Learning Goals

Guideline 6: Assess Yourself

Assessment Effectiveness and Efficiency

Choose Assessment Opportunities Selectively

Selectively Analyze Student Work

Carefully Target the Feedback You Provide

Build in Time for Self- and Peer Review

Structure Record-Keeping to Encourage Student Self-Monitoring

Develop an “Assessment Bank”

Enlist Students in Assessment Design

Assessment in the Context of a Democratic Society: Classroom Examples

Center for Inquiry

Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP)

Key to Assessment in the Context of Democratic Participation

Formative Assessment and Equal Access

Formative Assessment and Self-Governing Skills

Formative Assessment and Critical Thinking

Now It’s Your Turn: Setting Personal Goals for Classroom Assessment

Personal Goal Setting Steps

Key Chapter Points

Chapter Review Questions

Helpful Websites

References

Glossary

Index



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